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^^VOtE."^ TO '^IVAMENTA^^ 

•»> Bhuadway, for tl PER Year. 1 tL /\ V^ V\ \L. IV O V_J \J i U tl 


Vol. VIII.— No. 1 

Lessons in Practical Writing. 

Bv A. H. HlNsn 

iC'py'igtiled by A. H. Hi 

Our iniiveinents fli 
iiiiud. Skill in tiuy i 
pi'operly directed effoi 

correct rules, and a con 
them dxirir^ pmctico. We Imve full faith 
that if all who desirn improved penman- 
ship will study and carry out the instruc- 
tions in this and future lessons they will be 
well rewarded. Faii 
Lady," will not be 
nor indifference. Thf 
suggested in those lei 
(■e?s. Position gives power, and as an aid 
to writing the feet should always be Hat 
npon the tl.ior. The body should lean 
slightly fni-ward and to the left about five 
degrees from perpendicular, with the breast 
about one inch from the desk. The seat 
and desk should be adapted to the needs of 
the student. The top of the deck should 
be even with the elbow of the writer, as 
his arm hangs at his side. The positiou 
for copy-books upon narrow desks ia the 
right side at the desk. 

directed by the 
: is the result of 
.- The secret of 
a cilreful study of 

K'riting, liki 

pon by faint heart 

iiany little attentions 

For writing upnu hirge books, the left 
idc is best. 

Posihon fcr Dnok Keepers. 

Wliile writing, tlie eyes should be from 


nches from the pti 

, of 

the ])pu. the distance depend! 
size of the persnn. The light falling upon 
the paper sliouhl cotno from the left side of 
the writer, and in the evening should be 
lampliglit instead of gas. Tlio positinn of 
(he rtght-srm should lie i»«n oat from the 
body, while the bauds should cumo together 
on the paper at a right angle well away 
fom the breast. The left sh.iuld hold ibe 
paper, and the other the pen. 

In holding tin- pen, the back of the 
thumb should be bent nearly to a right 
angle, and the second finger bent so as to 
bring it nearly opposite the thumb. 

The forefingers should reach beyond all 
other fiugerii, the end being about one inch 
from the point of the pen. The forefinger 
nail, the lower part of the thumb and 
wrist, should be upon a straight line, and 
with adults one inch above the paper. 
The second aud third Sogers should ahvays 
be separated, while the third and fourth 
fingers should bend beneath tlie hand never 
to rest, but always to slide wltli a lightness 
of touch etpial to that of the pen. The pen- 
holder should cross opposite the knuckles, 
the upjier eod pointiog at or a little below 
the right shoulder. The penholder will 
l>atance better in the ha;d by being short- 
ened one inch bark of the knuckles. The 
penholder ehould be held lightly between 
ibe thumb and fingerd, gripping it only at 
the int-tant of making a shade B th ribi 
of the penholder should rest evenly upon 
the paper, while the more ereit the pen is 
held the finer will be the line. The pen- 
holder should be of light wood, with the 
pen clasp always firm npon it. 

As the abyve instructions are presented 
as reliable aids tn good wriiintr, it may bo 
uf value to some roaderj to learn the re- 
sults of their violation. When the feet a'e 
crossed or placed in an awkward position, 
they do not give that firm and natural sup- 
port to the body which is essential to good 
writing. When sitting too far from the 
desk and leaning forward too much, the 
weight of the budy is apt to be supported 
in part by the right-arm, wliich interftrea 
with ease and freedom of movement. Too 
much leaning may result frotn a desk too 
low, or seat too high ; or, an uneasy and 
unnatural positi.m of the hands and arms 
may result from a desk too high, or scat 
too low, cramped writing being the result. 
Throwing the head well over to the left, 
often deceives one into being ple-ised with 
his writing during its execution, but dis- 
appointed when viewing the writing square- 
ly before the eyes. TJie head should, there- 
fore, be upon a lino with the spice. Where 
the bands do not come near togetlier an easy 
support of the body is not obtained; and 
when the hands are brought too near the 
breast the movements of the arm and bands 
are impeded. When the thumb and second 
fingers are planed upon the penholder 
nearly straight t r without being wdl bent, 
their movements are weak and feeble, and 
easy finger movement is absolutely impos- 
sible; while with the thumb and second 
fingers well bent, they are in tlie beat posi- 
tion for straight and easy a 'tion. The 
thumb well bent, resting against the sides 

of the handle, gives the power to make 
strong upward strokes io long letters witli 
easp, simply by straightening the thumb. 
The slidiug upon the nail of the little fin- 
ger is practiced as successfully by skillful 
penmen as where two nails touch the paper. 
All experience -proves the faot that, how- 
ever difficult to at'tjuire, correct peuholding 
is absolutely necessary for success in pro- 
ducing easy and correct writing. 

The dropping of the wrist near to or 
upon the desk prevents the benefit of the 
muscular moveinent. This movement is 
m-st effective when the wrist is raised so 
as to bring tlie rest near the elbow. When 
the penholdei- does uot point at or near the 
right shoulder, the hand is turned over too 
frtr to the right, bringing the pen's point 
npon the paper, so as to cause them to 
move sideways. This produces imperfect 
Hoes and shades— besides, forces the fingers 
to do the writing without the aid of the 
muscular movement. The gripping of the 
pen prevents the limber action of the fin- 
gj-rs required to produce the light touch 
necessary fur the clean, cut, smooth, hair 
lines BO effective in fine penmanship. Bo- 
^ide^, gripping tlio pen sonn causes tlic 
head to Hclie, and is the main cause of 
writers' cramp. An eiisy cure for gripping 
the pen consists iu wrapping t»ine around 
the peuh(dder where the fingers r.'St till its 
thickness equals that of a blackboard cray- 
on. Turning the hand over to the right, 
while writing, is ca.aily c-rrecled by lyiut; 
a six-inch pencil or stick across the palm 
of the blind, nlhnving it to pn.ject to the 
right one inch. 

Movements in writing nro of fnur kinds: 
Finger, Mufculnr,- Combined, Wholearm. 

The finger movemrnt consists io extend- 
inir and cmtr.ietiug the thumb, sec<md aud 
third fingers, This movement is used to 
advantage iu very small writing, such as 
, is u.-ed upon carefully writteu ladies' cards. 
TJio long, straight Hues in loop letters, and 
letters p, ( and d, are made with move pre- 
cision by contracting the fingers than with 
any other movement. 

The muscular movement is produced by 
the action of the muscle near the elbow, as 
seen iu the engraving of the arm aud hand. 


lovement is used to advantage in 
very rapid business-writing. 

The coinbined movement is the result of 
a combined or simultaneous action of the 
finger and 'nuscular movement, and is the 
chief movement used by the most skillful 

The wholearm movement is produced by 
lifting the f:irearm, and swinging the hand 
and pen from the shoulder. This move- 
ment is used in forming large, bold capitals, 
and is aided in its development by practice 
with crayon upon the blackboard, as black- 
board writing is of nocositity prodmSrd by 
the wholearm movoinout. 

According to Roman letters, from which 

original script or writing was derivoi^, the 
general proportions of a letter are, :{ by -1 
— three measures in width by four in letifitli. 
This proportion should, in our opinu)U. he 
recognized as the standard length and width 
of one space in writing. As written letters 
slant to the right, tlu; crirrect slant mny bo 
ascertained by drawing the left aud tf»p 
sides of a square; theu, tlividing tlie tup 
line into three, equal parts, and draiv a 
slanting line, as in example No. I behiw. 



Ex. No. 2 represents one space, or the 
opening between two slanting straieht 
lines placed three -fourths of their length 
apart. Ex. No. 3 shows the letter n oc- 
cupying throe spaces. The general direc- 
tion of curved lines is seen, in n, to be di- 
a.f^i)nally across a space; the spacing 
between letters may be seen in the words 
that follow. 

In Ex. No. 4 the letters are one space 
apart. In No. 5 th^ve is one and one- 
tbird spaces between letters. In No. (» 
there are two spaces between the letters. 
The spacing between letters should always 
be uniform, ^vX accoi4.ling to the taste of 
the writer. Practice upon long words 
widely spaced between letters tends greatly 
to develope a free lateral muvement. But 
care must be taken to make the letters cor- 
,ertly. . 

In another lesson will he proseulcd an 
alphabet with the general proportions uf 
letters, one space, or three by four, as 

Send Specimens and Questions. 

It may be of future interest aud advan- 
tage to all of our readers who jmrposo to 
make a special eftbrt for impriivemeut of 
their writing, under the tuition of Prof. 
Hinman's course of lessons, to forward 
specimens of their present writing, to be 
placed on file for future conipuristm and 
reference. We would suggest that they be 
written as follows: 

"This is a fair s|iecimen of iny writing 
before practicing from the lessons given by 
Prof. Hinman through the columus-of the 
Penman's Art Journal. " 

Give plainly the name and address. 

We are also requisted by Prof. Hinmnu 
to say that ho will talie pleasure in answer- 
ing, through the Journal, any questions 
pertaining to practical writing which may 
be sent to him during the coutinuaure of 
his course of lessons. All specimens of 
writing, aud such tpiestlons should be ad- 
dressed to Prof. A. H. Hinmai 

'» An I eiOHKNAL 

The Mysterious Note. 

I was a harum-Bcamm youtb, and for a 
dozen years of my manhood had uo settled 
aim. I started out a* a clerk in a country 
store, then I became a school-teacher, next 
a clerk in a drug store, where I learned my 
chemical myateries; finally, I became a 
law fltndent; and it was my knowledge of 
chemistry— a science of which I am pas- 
sionately fond — that gave me a start as a 
law student. 

My shingle bad been bung out in vain 
for four or five months, and I had not a 
single brief to prepare. What liltle money 
I had possessed after my studies were com- 
pleted was rapidly melting away, and I 
could not ignore the fact if tio fees should 
come in my way for a couple of months I 
should have to go on the street, or on the 
prairie, and labor for a living. It would he 
no disgrace, to be sure, but when one has 
spent bis little all in preparing himself for a 
professional life, and when be has set bis 
heart and hopes od such a lire, it is sad to 
have to abandon it. 

I was seated in my office one afternoon, 
indulging in certain gloomy thoughts on the 
subject, when the door opened, and a mid- 
dle-aged man in humble garb came in, and 
I recognized him at the first glance as an 
honest and industrious machinist, named 
William Campbell, a former neighbor of 
my father's, who was now dead. He was 
flurried and nervous, and I saw, at once, 
there was something wrong. 

"Good morning, Mr. Campbell," said I. 
" How did you happen to find the office of 
a poor young lawyer like me ?" 

" Byaccident,"he said. "1 am in trouble^ 
and if I don't get out of it I am ruined. 
All the savings of my life will he gone 
unless I can find some lawyer smart enough 
to defeat the rascality of a certain man, and 
I was going along, intending to call on the 
first lawyer I should see, and it happened 
to be you. Ae I knew your father well, 
and knew you when you was a boy, I 
thought I could not do better than to put 
this case in your hands; I'd at least be sure 
of fair treatment, I thought." 

"You would be sure of that at the 
hands of any lawyer to whom you should 
intrust your case," said I. "Now, let me 
hear what it is, and I will see what can he 

" Well, it is this : I've worked quite hard 
all my life at my trade, and accumulated 
some money — about six thousand dollars, iu 
fact. I have ucven children I should like 
to provide fiir, and it has been my steady 
aim to increase my 'money all I could. A 
year ago, a friend of mine, who is in the 
came business I am in, told me if he could 
take a partner in the spring, and if I should 
KO in with him, we could make a lot of 
money. I looked into the matter, and 
found he was not mistaken about it. I saw 
I could, in a few years, increase my six 
ihoupand to twenty thousand, and I told 
him I would be ready to join him in the 

; the 

my money was laying in the hank, where I 
ought to have left it, drawing five and a 
half per cent, interest. 

" Shortly after I made this arrangement 
with my friend about the partnership, a 
inau I knew well, and bad great confidence 
in, came to me and asked me to lend him 
the money till I sbmild want it at the end of 
the year, and he could readily return it by 
that time, and he would give me eight per 
cent. So t let bim have it, and now it is 
due and I cau'i get it hack." 

"Has he any property!" 

" Yea— the amount of it; but I have 
since understood lie's a slippery fellow, but 
I had not known that before." 

" But you took his note, surely," said I. 

"Yes, but I can't find it; that's what 
troubles me. I called on him yesterday and 
told bun so, and he said ho had no recollec- 
tion of borrowing any money from me; if I 
had the note, he would pay it; if I hadn't 
be certainly would not." 

" And you can't find the notet" 


"What did you do with itt" 

" I put it in this pocketbook, where I 
kept all my important papers; but when I 
came to look for it among some other notes, 
and the like, I couldn't find it." 

He produced a large old-fashioned, 
leather pocketbook, as he spoke, and I 
looked through it and examined a lot of 
receipts and notes that were packed together 
in one of its pockets, thinking that two of 
the papers might be sticking together. 

"There is no promissory note for that 
amount here," I said. " But what is the 
blank sheet of paper doing beret" and I 
took up a slip of white paper that I found 
among the documents. 

" Who is the man that gave you the 

" Alexander Bolton, the druggist." 

I knew Alexander Bolton well. He was 
wealthy and penurious, and had the name 
of being very tricky. I was satiefied that 
Mr. Campbell was telling the truth. I was 
as well convinced that Alexander Bolton 
was not a man who would be likely to for- 
get having borrowed such a sum as six 
thousand dollars, and I jumped to the con- 
clusion that he had played some cunning 
trick to wrong the confiding mechanic out 
of the fruits of many years of labor. But 
what was the trick T That was the ques- 
tion that puzzled me. 

" Have you had this pocketbook in a se- 
cure place ever since he gave you the note t " 
I asked. 

" Yes ; under lock and key, where no one 
could touch it but myself." 

" Are you sure that it has been ever since 
impossible for any one to find it to purloin 
the note f " 

I am perfectly sure of that. The lock of 
my desk in which I have kept it is one I 
made myself. There is but one key id the 
world that will open it, and here it is," he 
said, producing from his pocket a bright 
steel key, of very odd outline. "Not a 
thing has ever been disturbed in that desk." 

I mused a few moments as I again casu- 
ally overhauled the papers, then said : 

" Mr. Campbell, I don't mean to say that 
Mr. Bolton ia dishonest, but might he not 
have handed you this blank sheet of paper, 
and slipped the note into bia pocketbook 
with the money yoa lent himt" 

"No, that is out of tbe question. I ex- 
amined the note again, after I reached 
home, before I put the pocketboik away, 
to see that no mistake bad been made; 
found it all right, plain as day in every let- 
ter and figure, and I remember as well as 
though it bad been yesterday ; I even re- 
member noticing how bright the ink was; 
it bad quite a reddish tinge." 

I was in the act of banding the pocket- 
book back to him, as he said this, but a 
thought suddenly struck me, and I opened 

" Mr. Campbell," I said, carelessly, " do 
you remember whether the note was filled 
out on a blank form, or not?" 

" It was not; be wrote it out in fiiU him- 
self, on the top of a piece of foolscap, and 
cut it off with a pair of scissors. I re- 
member everything about it very clearly, 
for it was about all I had in the world, and 
to me it was a ve:y essential aflair." 

I examined the strip of white paper, for 
a startling idea had already taken shape in 
my mind, and I perceived that it had been 
cut froui the top of foolscap, evidently with 

" Do you know how you happened to 
place the slip of white paper in heret" 

" No, I don't remember placing it there ; 
I might have done so, thinking it would 

" Will you let me have it! " 

" Certainly," he replied, somewhat sur- 
prised at my modest request. 

" Well," I said, as I laid tbe paper on the 
table, and set the inkstand on it, "I am go- 
ing to make an effort to recover your money 
for you; 1 shall bring suit against Bolton 
at once and have him summoned to appear 
before Judge . You o&n, of course, 

wear tha 
nd the nc 

, him tbe money. 

be gave you is missing." 

"Yes, with a clear conscience; I could 
not be mistaken about it." 

" Then call on me to-morrow morning at 
nine o'clonk." 

" I will." 

He left me, and I took tbe slip of paper 
and examined it closely. 

It seemed to be nothing hut a stray frag- 
ment of foolscap, hut it occurred to me that 
it might have a history. It was here that 
my chemical knowledge came into play. 

I remembered that Alexander Bolton was 
a chemist ; and I also remembered that an 
ink could be made %vith aniline, iodide of 
ammonia and chloride of zinc, in certain pro- 
portions, which had a fresh, reddish tinge, 
and that it would fade out entirely in four 
days, leaving no mark on the paper. Bol- 
ton, no doubt, knew his secret that he used 
to swindle the mechanic out of bis earnings. 

The more 1 considered this subject, the 
more I became convinced that such was the 
case. The note had been written with fad- 

But there was another chemical secret 
which probably Bolton did not know ; as I 
bad discovered it myself by accident. This 
treacherous ink, on fading out, leaves the 
zinc in invisible atoms in the paper, so that 
every fine trace may be restored by the ap- 
plication of a certain solution of sulphate 
of iron and hydrate of calcium. So, no 
sooner had Mr. Campbell left my office, 
then I hurried to a drug store where I ob- 
tained the solution. 

Returning to my office, I saturated a 
piece of blotting-paper with a drop of it, 
and applied it to a corner of tbe blank 
paper. The result made me jump up, clap 
my hands and yell with delight, for fresh 
and clear the dollar came out. I knew not 
what hidden words the paper continued, 
and I placed it in my pocketbook, corked 
up the vial — which was destin-id to prove a 
vial of wrath to Mr. Bolton — and went 
immediately, and brought suit against him 
for the recovery of the amount i)f the note, 
with interest and costs. 

A few days later, Alexander Bolton stood 
at the bar of justice, to answer in his own 
behalf. It seemi 
did not deem it 

Mr. Campbell swore to tbe facts be had 
related to me concerning the loan. Mr. 
Bolton answered, on oath, that he had no 
recollection of ever borrowing any money of 
the plainlifi". If he did, where was the 
notet He would thank anybody to pro- 
duce it. 

"Your honor," said I, addressing the 
judge, "I think I can produce the note in 

" I understood you that it was not to be 

found," said Judge D , somewhat 


" It has never been lost," I said, as I 
took from my pocket the blank slip of 
paper, and passed it to him. "This is it." 

"I hope you are not trilling with the 
court," he said, as he glanced at both sides 
and perceived that it was blank. 

" I am not, your honor," said I, as I pro- 
ceeded at once to explain to bim the chem- 
ical fact I have already described. 

I watched Alexander Bolton as I did so 
and noticed that he turned very pale. 
When I had concluded, I took from my 
pocket the vial containing the solution, sat- 
urated a piece of blotting paper with it, 
and pressed it upon the blank slip of paper 
that lay upon the judge's desk. 

A few seconds I left it so, then lifted it 
up, confident of the result; and I was not 

The blank slip of paper was suddenly 
transformed into a promissory note, every 
word, letter and figure, as clear as sunshine. 

It was a note of six thousand dollars, 
with a year's interest just due, drawn in 
favor of William Campbell, and the signa- 
ture of Alexander Bolton was at the bottom 
of it. 

Tbe judge gazed with amazement, from 

n, that he 
nploy any 

tbe note toward Alexander Bolton, just ia 
time to discover that that tricky gentleman 
was skulking away toward the door. 

At the judge's order he was brought back 
by an officer, and informed that he would 
have something more to answer for than tbe 
amount of the loan, interest and costs. 

And so be bad. Abashed and terrified, 
at the discovery of his unsuccessful swindle, 
and in hopes of propitiating the court, he 
at once gave bia check for the amount due 
Mr. Campbell, and the costs. 

In view of his confession, he was let off 
with two years' imprisonment, and I don't 
suppose be will ever dabble in invisible ink 

This, my first case, attracted considerable 
notice, and I have never since had to lounge 
in my office and yearn for clients. 

Our Winter Evenings. 

By Paul Pastnor. 

How are we spending these long winter 

evenings — so long that lamplight almost 

pute the amount of work which may be 
done during tbe reign of eacht Are we 
spending them wisely — doing something, I 
mean, to improve ourselves or benefit 
otherst Not necessarily,- except in the 
sense that all activity is a sort of work, — 
but "useful play," perhaps ; are we doing 
something that is not a dissipation of men- 
tal or moral energy, and that tends to make 
us really and permanently better and hap- 
pier t Are we reading useful and valuable 
books, for instance, or studying something, 
or doing some work aside from our regular 
pursuits, which rests us by its dissimilarity t 
probably wasting a very 

valuable portion of I 
season for mental aceor 
kind. The mind share 
the exilaration of the 
guidness and indisposit 


ipliahment of every 
i with the body in 
eason. That lan- 
on to effort, whiiih 

such a bar t 

rt-ork in the 

of the year, disappears entirely with the 
coming on of the keen north winds and the 
snow. We are all alive to the enterprises 
of the busy brain, when the blood courses 

hearing its 
every nook 

nclined to 
of winter 

eo swiftly through the 
nourishment and stimuli 
and corner of our being, 
plish more iu a given lim 
think, during the four 
than in all the other eight. 

What a considerable progress any one 
interested iu penmanship might make, by 

Here are, at lea;<t, three good hours of 
mellow lamplight, with <iuiet and leisure, 
every evening. All admit the value of 
good penmanship, bnt the excuse ot moat 
poor writers ia that they do not have any 


88, they say, 
he day, and 

which such 
g that tbe hourt 

engages their attenlion 
consequently they have 
practice the art. The 
persons make is in assu 
commonly devoted to business comprise the 
only practically available portion of the 
whole day. They look at the time between, 
say, seven and ten o'clock p. m. as a soit of 
temporal interregnum, an empty gap, to 
be whiled away in the pleasantest manner 
possible. Now this is all a mistake. Our 

of t 


tween the days, to be filled with odds and 
ends of little things. They are integral 
parts of our days, and very valuable parts, 
too. Now, why could not these golden 
hours of lamplight he utilized, for one 
thing, in the study of penmanship t There 
are a great many aids to the individual and 
private study of this beautiful art. There 
are manuals, and compendiums, and copy- 
slips, and books of introduction, and last, 
but not least, there are penman's jonrnals, 
combining the good qualities of all, with 
other good qualities distinctively their own. 
With such helps, our long winter evenings 
might he most profitably spent in the study 
and practice of the art of penmanship. It 
really requires but a short while to get tipon 

the ridht track — to learn the principles of 
the iirt, and to become familiar with the 
correct method-i ; &m\ theu progress is easy 
and nip'd. The quiet evening in the home, 
with one's business finished lor the day, and 
one's nerves hinging for sonre pleaBant and 
restful change of occupation, ought to be 
the very best time for the practice of the 
graceful and delightful art of writing. Of 
course, one would not expect to inahe the 
progress, or to attain the reeults, of a recu- 
lar course of study in a business college or 
school of penmanship. The one, is profes- 
sional work ; the other, amateur. TUe stu- 
dent at school expects to make it his life- 
work ; the amateur aims only to improve 
a very necessary qualification for bnsiuega 
or professional work of any kind. But the 
results of much study, as I have indicatpd, 
cannot fail to be satisfactory, and would, I 
believe, richly repay the outlay of time. 

Address upon Personality of 

Handwriting, and Expert 


DeLivERED OT D. T. Ames 

Of the necessity for expert 
of handwriting you are all familiar. TLe 
frequent occurrence of cases in courts of jus- 
tice in which the identity of handwriting is 
involved has called into service a class of 
persons who are supposed to possess supe- 
rior experience and skill in the examination 
of handwriting. Respecting the vahie of 
testimony baaed upon such examinations 
there is among jurists a wide diversity of 


This results from various 
cases differ widely in the character and ex- 
tent of writing called in question. There 
are cases which, from the great skill em- 
ployed by the forger or the limited extent 
of hia work, wellnigh defy detection ; while 
others, of great magnitude, or perpetrated 
with less skill, are detected with wellnigh a 
certainty. Second, it oflen happens that 
unskilled or mercenary persons are called as 
experts when, through their blundering or 
transparent knavery, the very idea of ex- 
pertism is brought under suspicion if not 
into disrepute. 

The question, then, often arises: la there 
any reliable dependence to be placed in 
scientific examinations and comparisons of 
handwriting when conducted by persons of 
acknowledged skill and integrityt We be- 
lieve that there is. Every adult handwrit- 
ing possesses peculiar personal character- 
istics, unconsciously established through the 
force of habit, that became unavoidable, and 
which mark the identity of handwriting as 
conspicuously and certainly as docs physi- 
ognomy the identity of the person. No 
two persons' writing naturally, in accord- 
ance with habit, can ever write in all re- 
spects alike. Different writings may, as 
will different persons, present a general 
resemblance so close as to deceive the un- 
familiar observer, and yet really have little 
or no characteristic resemblance. 

Peraons writing naturally, do 8o without 
thought respecting the peculiar construc- 
tion of their writing. The hand operates 
the pen, as it were, automatically through 
the sheer force of habit, by which all the 
innumerable personalities are uuconsciously 
unparted to writing. Learners and forgers 
think respecting their writing, and hence, 
the more stiff and formal style of their work, 
there is wanting the easy, graceful flow ap- 
parent in thoughtless or habitual writing. 
Lines show more of nervousness and hesi- 
tancy, while the whole construction of the 
writing is more exact and formal ; and, 
besides, every different handwriting abounds 
in wellnigh numberless habitual peculiar)- 
lies, of which the writer himself is uncon- 
scious, and cannot, therefore, avoid. Thua, 
two other insurmountable difficulties are 
placed in the way of the forger: first, to 
observe and imitate all the characteristics 
of the writing he would simulate; and, 

second, to note and avoid all the habitual 
characteristics of bis own hand. Habit in 
writing becomen so fixed and arbitrary, 
(not to mention the great artistic skill re- 
quired to exactly imitate an unpracticed 
hand ) that I do not conceive it to be pos- 
sible for any one to simulate the writing of 
another, or to so dissemble his own writing, 
in any considerable quantity, us to defy 
detection through a really skilled expeit 

Forgeries are mostly of autographs, and 
are perpetrated by various methods — one 
of which is to place the paper upon which 
the forgery is to be made over the signature 
to be copied, when, by holding the «ame to 
the light or to a window, the writing to be 
copied may be seen through so that an out- 
line may be traced with a pencil, which is 
then carefully traced with a pen. Another 
method of obtaining an exact outline is to 
place over the signature or writing to be 
copied a piece of thin transparent paper, 
upon which is traced with a pencil the 
outline of the writing which appears nnder- 
neath ; after which the side of the paper 
opposite the tracing is blackened over with 
a toft pencil crayon, or other similar sub- 
stance, when the traced paper is placed 
upon the sheet where the forgery is to be 
made, and then, with some smooth-pointed 
instrument, the penciled outline is re-traced 
with sufficient pressure to cause an ofl'set of 
the coloring matter to the paper underneath, 
sutBciently tto present a distinct outline of 
the writing as made upon the tracing. A 
forgery perpetrated in this manner is sure 
of detection; when subjected tb a skilled 
examination it will be manifest — first, in 
the shaky and hesitating quality of the ink 
lines, as the result of being carefully drawn 
to follow the traced outline; second, in un- 
natural rests and re-tracing, occasioned by 
stops to study the original writing; and, 
third, in the retouchings of the shaded 
strokes, which can seldom be made of the 
proper strength the first time passing over 
the tracing with the pen, and therefor rec|uire 
subsequent modification. All subsequent 
touches of the pen, rests and re-tracings are 
certainly detected when subjected to micro- 
scopic examinations. Yet forgeries made 
in this manner are very likely to deceive 
unskilled or unsuspectmg persons, since if 
made with a tolerable degree of skill they 
will be in outline and general appearance a 
close reproduction of the original. Another 
and, perhaps, the most dangerous signa- 
ture is where a skilled artist places before 
him the signature to be forged, and prac- 
tices upon it as from a copy until his hand 
lias become so accustomed to its formation 
and movement as to reproduce it to a great 
degree of accuracy^ with the natural move- 
ment of ihe pen. Where this is done by a 
really skilhd imitator, a signature which 
presents no extraordinary and difficult of 
imitati<m personalities is often reproduced 
wellnigh to perlection — so near as to render 
very difficult, if not bailie, all expert exam- 
inations. The lines and movement, of 
course, are correct, and the only basis fur 
the expert is in the variations of the forgery 
from the characteristic forms of the original 
writing. These will vary according to the 
skill of the lorger. Should his skill be very 
great, the variations may be so slight as to 
scarcely exceed the ordinary variations be- 
tween genume autographs ; in which case 
even skilled experts may fail to discover 
any tangible or convincing proofs of forgery, 
and may honestly differ in their ojiinions. 

The speaker here made a skillful use of 
the blackboard for illustrating his subject 
— first by writing a name in a natural man- 
ner, and then making a copy of the same in 
imitation of a tracing, and afterward touch- 
ing in the shades in imitation of the man- 
ner of forgery. 

Mr. Ames continued by saying that no two 
genuine signatures are ever exactly alike. 
They vary, as do different kernels of the 
same grain, in size and outline, while they 
are characteristically identical ; aud a per- 

Bpeoting the identity of bis autograph than 

he would his coat, bat, or the feces of his 
relatives and friends. When apparently 
twn autographs are found that appear ex- 
actly alike, and when fluperimposcd oue is 
found to exactly cover the other tlirough- 
out, the forgery of one or both is certain. 
1 was lately called into a bank in Brook- 
lyn. Ab>I entered I met the cashier about 
going to his dinner. He returned to liis 
desk, and from it handed me a package of 
several hundred checks, with a request that 
I look them over while be was gone. I was 
without the slightest clue to liis object, 
but presumed that within the package there 
was a suspected forgery, and so at once be- 
gan an examination. I at first passed them 
through my hands, and any one that in the 
least degree excited my suspicion I placed 
one side. I fhus selected half a dozen or 
or more. These I again passed through 
ray hands, laying out those most suspicious. 

In a very few minutes, and long before 
the cashier returned, I found remaining in 
my hands two checks, the signatures to 
which appeared exaetly alike, and different 
to a considerable extent in their style from 
all of the others. I placed one over the other 
and held them to the window, and they so 
correctly covered over the other as to appear 
as one signature. I then examined them 
with my glass, and was convinced that they 
were both forgeries. One for$l,S((0, bad 
been paid by the bank ; and the other, for 
$t,7u0, would have been paid had it not 
exceeded the deposit, which caused a delay, 
and notice to be sent to the depositors, who 
denied its genuineness. 

When the cashier returned I handed to 
him the two checks and said : " I think 
those checks ace what troubles you." 
"You surprise me 1 " he said. "How in the 
world did you ascertain that!" I then ex- 
plained, and he admitted that I was correct. 

The writing of the person suspected of 
the forgery was obtained and identified with 
that in the forged checks, so as to lead to 
conviction and imprisonment. 

Where the original writing or signature 
of any forgery, made by tracing, can be 
found for comparison, the forgery is easily 
and certainly proved. Moat forgers under- 
stand this, and hence either destroy or con- 
ceal the original, or purposely vary their for- 
gery from the exact outline of the original. 

Mr. n. C. Spencer ; " How does a pho- 
tograph, when enlarged, aid in detecting a 
f()rgery ? " 

" It is no aid as a means of detection. A 

good glasses, is a much better and more re- 
liable method'. The photograph is of value 
where access cannot be bad to the original, 
and for purposes of illustration; by placing 
duplicates of the writing in question in tlie 
hands of the court and jury, that they may 
better understand and appreciate any ex- 
pert testimony and explanations given. 

Mr. C. H. Peirce: "When diamond 
outs diamond — t. e., when the skill of the 
forger is equal to that of the expert — do you 
not believe that a forgery may be so per- 
fectly executed as to defy detection?" 

Mr. Ames: "I would not presume to 
define the possible or impossible. I believe 
that it would be, to say the least, rare that 
a forger would do his work so perfectly as 
to leave absolutely no indication of ungen- 

Mr. Peirce: "When you have ex- 
pressed your opinion fully, and taken sides 
in a case, do you feel bound to sustain that 
aide in case further developments should 
ahow you to be in error?" 

Mr. Ames: "By no means. It is the 
sole duty of an expert to discover and pre- 
sent facts without regard to whetlier they 
may or may not sustain any theory be 
may have formed, and should he at any 
time find that he has been misled or de- 
should say so, and frankly state his reasons 
for the change of opinion; and in any case 
where he is in doubt he sliould ao admit, 
giving his reasons pro and cow; aud wliou 
under cross-examination he should admit 
frankly any fact which be may believe to 

exist, tending to controvert hia expressed 
opinion. An expert witness thouhl, in my 
opinion, have no facts to conceal, or about 
which to quibble." 

Mr. II. C. Spencer: "You have stated 
that one genuine autograph differs from 
another. You also disprove the genuine- 
ness of an autograph, by pointing <iut its 
differences from your genuine standards. 
How are you to determine that the varia- 
tions noted resolt from the inability of tbe 
forger to correctly reproduce an autograph, 
rather than from the incidental variations 
between genuine autttgrnphs? or, in other 
words, whether they are the natural varia- 
tions in writing, or imperfections in copy- 

In reply, Mr. Ames requested a member 
to write his autograph twice upon the 
blackboard, and another member to copy it 
as perfectly as possible, aud then write his 

Mr. Abies said: "When a person writes 
his own autograph it is without thought, 
from force of habit; and, if repeated, al- 
though with variations in form, size, and 
etc., there is a perfect ease or thoughtless 
freedom uf line, and a bomogeneousoeea 
which stamps both as the result of oue 
writing habit. Peculiar shades, turns, spac- 
ings, and ttie nice personal character islics 
which impart a personality to writing, are 
reproduced with a natural ease. Not so in 
a forged writiug." 

Turning to the blackboard, Mr. Ames 
gave a very elaborate analysis of the 
genuine autographs — pointing to their ap- 
parent differences, and comparing them in 
tlieir nature and degree with those in the 
counterfeit. He made it very apparent that 
the differences between the genuine were 
slight, and of very different character than 
were those between the genuine and forged 
writing. He pointed to many instances 
where it was very apparent that the force 
of habit had asserted itself, aud caused the 
copyist to impart his own personality, 
rather than that of the original. Loops 
were differently turned and proportioned, 
letters differed in the manner of their con- 
struction, shades were misplaced and differ- 
ent iu degree, and letters were differently 
joined and proportioned. It wjia clearly 
shown how these were radical differences, 
resulting alike from the inability of the 
copyist to observe and reproduce tbe writ- 
ing habit of another, and to avoid his own. 
In these comparisons, Mr. Ames made it 
very apparent how such differences, as he 
pointed out, must be the result of an en- 
tirely different habit, rather than of the ac- 
cideutal variations of the same habit. 

It is a matter of much regret that full 
illustrations, as used upon the board by Mr. 
Ames, cannot accompany his lecture; but 
for that, very elaborate and numerous draw- 
icg would he rfquired. As an example of 
his blackboard illustrations see the accom- 
panying cut and analysis. 

In answer to a question, Mr. Ames re- 
ferred to the Morey-Gartield letter. He 
said that one of the conclusive reasons 
which led him at the Erst sight to pro- 
nounce tliat famous letter a forgery, was the 
fact that the dot intended for the i, iu Gar- 
field, was to the left of the/, and over the 
r. I did not believe it was possible that 
Gen, Garfield had not learned where the » 
was in his autograph, or that a habit so 
long and oft-repeated should make such a 
mistake. Had the dot been omitted en- 
tirely, 1 should have thought that a possi- 
ble oversiglit; but such a misplacement 
could only be tbe blimder of a copyist. 

Mr. Ames having concluded, Mr. S. S. 
Packard took the floor, and spoke as fol- 

Mr. Packard: "It ia uo extravagance 
to say tliat Mr. Ames stands at tbe head of 
writing experts — that this is his posiiion in 
New York and throughout the country." 
And he has honestly earn^ this position by 
the kind of work of which he has just 
givon an illustration. It is evident to all 
that ho goes to the bottom of things, and 
what is possible in execution he aooom- 

pliflhes. Believing fair 
corraptible he < 

1.iB OpiDi 


tify ciintrary ' 

Hud lie (loi 

bi9 reputatii 
thelew, I have dnulits about Ihe efficacy of 
expertism, asji is nUeu prosecuted b; eini- 
ueot lawycrH, vho waut to bolster up a 
weak caufie and some iiueelion as to the 
propriety nf Bcudiug^ a man to State's Prison 
on merely expert testimony. There are 
two binds of experts in whom the public 
hrtve more ur less confideDce : one, is th« 
intuitive expert, who, like the bank-teller, 
judges of the genuineness of a signature 
by the first impressioD, and who never 
lereons on tlie subject, but simply decides 
ofT-liand; aud the other is the careful, log- 
ical, keen-eyed, educated detective, who 
compares points, and studies habits, and 
weighs testimony until he is driven to a 
cuuclusiun. There are, doabtlees, merits in 
both methods; but it is the latter sort of 
experts who are most useful on the witnees- 
staud, and who are relied upon tu influence 
jurors. Experts of this kind have great 
power for good or evil, for it requires but 
fewlrifks to confound the average juryman. 
And, bcsidea. the popular method of using 

side has Ihi 
the jury — fi 



and call it 

;pert8, the other side must 
ire, or suffer in the eyes of 
ifjrtunately, experts must 
side or the other and must bend 
nony to fit a theory. I do not 
Ames ever accepted a retainiug 

thouglu he would ha 

Dd I ha 
' the I 


• go 

r that he had founded hi: 
JD wrong premises. Snnit 

nd I 

1 of 

A Wiff . 

this question <.f 
uld like to know Mr. 
t. I was railed upi»n 
t as an expert in a suit under the 
il States law against the writiug of 
I'lus postal-cards. Il was the first cate 
ihe law, and elicited a good deal of I was asked by the defeudant 
cover that the postal- cards which he 
liiirged M'ith writing had been forged 
that they were not written by him. 


iiten them, and I told him at once 
that I could not do him any good. He 
asked ine if 1 believed the writing his. I 
told him that it was not necessary to answer 
that question, but if I should be shown one 
of these cards, and a Iptter which he ac- 
knowledged as his, aud under oath asked 
if 1 believed Ihey were wrillen by diflereut 
persons, I should not say yes. I told hiui, 
however, that I didn't think it would be at 
all ditficult to imitate the wriiiug ou the 
card, aud if it would att<,rd him any comfort 
I would undertake to d^, it so well as to de- 
ceive any or all the experts ou the other 
side. And although this would prove 
nothing it would show to ihu jury that ex- 
pert testimony was nul iDfallible. He said 
he w<iuld like me to do it, and I obtained 
the privilege of taking a few cards for a 
belter examination, and one of them I 
copied— not servilely, oi by tracing, but with 
a free band, aiming to preserve only the 
cbaracteriatics— or what Mr. Ames calls the 
" unconscious habits" of the writer. I had, 
fortunately, an important clue, which was 
given me in confidence, and which I might 
not have discovered myself. The writer 
had a habit of icuching his pen Hyhtly— to 
obtain a fiow of iuk — just preceding a 
word. It was a very small dot, hardly 
distinguishable, but was repeated very often. 
This characterialic appeared in all the writ- 
ten cards -about fifty of which were in 
evidence— and, also, in the standard letter 
acknowledged to be hie. Of course I did not 
omit this ear-mark. After copying the 
card, I manipulated it, aud blurred il with 
ink-blous after the manner of the original; 
submitted it to the defendant's counsel, 
Judge FullertoQ, who was biu)8elf deceived 
by it, and said the imitation was perfect. 

Well, to be brief, this card was adroitly 
slipped into the package in the hands of one 
the chief experts for the prosecution while 
under cross-examination, and his attention 
was particularly drawn lo it by Judge Ful- 
Icrton, and the expert was told to 

noticed that o 
the post- mark 
the <]uestioQ i 
with Mr. Ame 

only money ] 

of the cards did not bi 
Lud so the jig was up. f 
Romes to me whether, ev 
s's skill and patience, he m 
be thrown off the track. T 
aver received aa a writing c 

i bhick- 

Illustrations and Analysis. 

The following cut and analysis will serve to convey an idea of the no 
board illustrations which accompanied Mr. Ames's Address, 

The force of habit aud the difficulties in the way of forgery are illustrated in the 
cut beh.w. The first two represent genuine autographs; the third, a skillfully executed 
forgery, and to the casual observer it is a fac-simile of the genuine, and would pass as 
such. Yet, under a scientific examination it differs very widely — in fact, has scarcely a 
characteristic resemblance — while as proof of its ungeuuineness uo less than thirty char- 
acteristic differences may be cited — twenty-five of which are indicated by numerals in 
the cut. (1 ) The staff of tha F in the genuine terminates at the base line with a round, 
free movement, while in the forgery it is broken at the base and horizontal at its termi- 
nal. ( 2 ) The i^is crossed with a curved line, while in the g. it is straight. ( 3 ) The 
initial line to the cap of the F is longer iind farther from the second, and not so nearly 
parallel, makiug a differently formed aud larger space than in the f. (4) The loop is 
larger and more egg-shaped in the g. than in the f. (5) The cap of the F iu g. is far 
the lop of the stem, and close to it in the f. (ti) The shade of the loop is chietfy 
ve that point in the f. (7) It is a more graceful 
. (8) The iniual to Ihe R begins with a well- 
pound one in the f., and (!») the sl.ade is low 
■ itnpiu Ihef, ( ID) The top portion 
n the f., and ( 1 1 ) it is less shaded iu 
(JS) The last (.troke of the i? is shaded lower down in the g. than 

below the middle 
and better balanrei 
defined right curve 
down toward the bH 
of the R is larger a 
the g. than in the f. 

, diffen 

the g., while 
curve than 
in the g., ai 

in the g., while 
more round in the 

in the f.; while the center loop points straight upward in the g , and nearly horizontal 
in thef. (la)The finishing turn of the ii, the lower turns of the u — in fact, all the 
turns of the g. are more round aud full than iu the f. ( 14 ) The ss's in the g. are more 
round acd open at the top, aud have for the down-stroke a simple right curve, and { i5) 
terminate witti a triangular form; while in the f these letters are closed au3 pointed at 
the top, have a compound curve in <lown-slroke, while they terminate with well turned 

graceful loops. ( li!) The W% in the g. m 
in the I. above, J; aud (17) all the^/'s a 
round in the f . ; while from habit the fin 
second, while they are in all respects alik. 
with a straight downward movement; in 

(19) In the g. the loop at the base of the 

(20) while the staff is more sloping with 
thef. (21) The y ingisanguli 

•s less than 1 of their hciglith from the base ; 
■e angular iu their top-tuvns in the g, and 
l\n the g is shorter and thinner than the 
in the f. (18) In the g. the Ts terminate 
he f., with a turn and upward right curve. 
L is much larger and bmader then in the f . ; 
Ih till- shade much lower down in the g. than 
the top of the first part, and roond in its turn at 

he bottom of loop ; wl>ih- the first part in the f is round, and the turn of th.> loop a: 

gular. {'l-l) In the g. thi 
base, while in the f it appr 
while the whole letter iu th< 
(2:() In the g. the n is rouu. 
while both these turns in the f 
pound curves, while in f. it is 
tion points in the g. are are 
curved dashes. 
It i 

jonnecung line to the o approaclies at an angle near the 
oaches on ueariy a parallel movement, and mucli higher, 
i g. is much more narrow and coutructed than in the f. 
] at the top, also the first turn at base is round and open, 
'. are sharp angles. ( 24 ) The terminal lines in g. are corn- 
curved only slightly to the right. (25) All the punctua- 
very delicate points, while in the f. they are conepicuous, 

apparent from its churacter that the above forgery was perpetrated without 

lUg, and upon ueariy the natural movement, as the lines are smooth, graceful, and 

? of the sha 'ed lines show retouching, and all the variatiors noted in the foregoing 

lit from the power of hahit asserting itself ou the part of the forger, and 

note many of the nice habitual characteristics of the genuine autograph. 

f ,, „, " " " ^^^ ^'^® P*'" ^'>*° ^''f writer 

OI tiie geuume. This appears in the better balanced lines in the top of the F ~ — 

pound f>iit-v..o ..f .!>., ..-i^ .1 _._ « , . . ^ ' 



pparent that the forger was a more skilled artist 

iiue. This appears in the better balanced lines 

es of the ss's, the more graceful loops, better rounded «, ouu ..iurc Licuiy 

ind the whole movement appears quite aa free as the genuine; while it must 
have been thoughtfully nnd carefully writleu; hence, it is a fair inferonce that whoa writ 
lug with entire freedom from thought and without effort to copy there would have been 
manifest additional grace and pkill. 

it closely, and say if in hie judgment it was 

written by the dtfeudant. He did examine 

it closely, and (aid that there was no doubt 

whatever that the defendant had wriUen it. 

But the opportunity was lost of making a 

point on the jury, for the District Attorney, 

miatrnetiug a irick, had discovered that 

there were loo many cards in the witness's , been wniteu by Scott to his wife and I ex- 

hand, and upon a subsequent investigation I pertly said it cot*W noi have been written I 

pert I took foi 
Northampton I 
have disgraced 
letter which I s 
chief rascal Scott h; 

ervices on behalf of the 

ik rubbers; aud I should 

yself inetriovahly if the 

.8 not written by the 

not been ruled out 

by him. I have not been on the witness- 
stand as an expert since. When I am 
called upon I always say that I have sold 
out to Ames. 

"And I will say in conclusion that not- 
withstanding luy belief that expert testimony 
is not wholly nliable, I do believe that the 
only method by which reasonable and sat- 
isfuclory conclusions can be reached are 
those which Mr. Ames uses." 

Mr. Ames: "I was called in the Norih- 
ainpton Bank case, and suppose I got the 
same fee that Mr. Packard did. [ Laughter.] 
I looked over the papers, and said to Mr. 
Scott's attorney that I felt very sorry to 
aay that I could be of no service to him, 
as I believed the writiufr ii. question to be 
that of his client. He argued and urged 
that I was mistaken, and when I persisted, 
he said: 'For God's sake, Mr. Ames, get 
out of this town before Pinkerton's men 
get hold of you aud suhptiMia you upon the 
other side ' I had been shadowed by Pink- 
erton's men from the time I arrived in 
Norlbarapton. I left at on.-e, »nd was at 
least more firtunate than was Bro. Pack- 
ard id my guess. [L-iugbter] Respect- 
ing the postal card iiientioued by Mr. Pack- 
ard, I would venture a wager that he put 
ks into the forgery than were iu 

the r 


utaining irrelevant 


Mb. Packard: *' No, I didn't: I counted 
them." [ Laughter-] 

Mr. Ames: "Suppose you had under- 
taken to have simulated tlmt writing in 
other composition than that upon the card, 
you would have noted the more conspicu- 
ous peculiarities of the hand, which, in re- 
producing, yiu would have most certainly 
overdone, while a multitude of lesser pecu- 
liarities would have been overlooked; but, 
supplied fn)m your own hahit, and these, 
had there ever been a proper examination 
and comparison with your writing uiade, 
would, I believe, have identified the simu- 
lated writiug as yours." 

Mr. Brown: "Does the law of New 
York r.cpjire that an expert shall be ac- 
quainted with the writing of the party 
whose hand is supposed to have been 
forged ■? " 

Mr. Ames : "Only from comparison. 
UotU within a (ew years, much diffioulty 
was experienced re?pecting the introduction 
of the proper standards for a basis of com- 
parison and expert tpstiincmy. Previously, 
all writing used for comparison had to have 
some relevancy to the case; otherwise, it 
could not be admitted. The law now is to 
the cttVct that any writing proved genuine 
to the satisfacli<m of the court, may be put ' 
in fur the i<pecial purpose of comparison 
by experts. In several of the Stales, where 
I have te.-<tlfied, there has been an almost 
insuperable difficulty on account of the 
sharp limitation of writing that could be 
used for comparison, and the work of the 
expert baa many limes miscarried for want 
of the proper standards for comparison." 

Standard and Complete. 

Ou the occasion of deliverinc an educa- 
tional address, Prf sldent Garfield very aptly 
designated the Spencerian as "that system 
of penmanship which has become tlie pride 
of our ct.untry and model of our schools." 

Its latest complete American edition of 
Standard Practii-al Penmanship, prepared 
for the Journal by the Spencerian Broth- 
ers, is a reliable and popular publication for 
self- instruction. 

It is not sold to the book -trade, but mailed 
direct to studenls, accountants, merchants, 
bankers, lawyers, and professional men gen- 
erally, on receipt of $1. 

The work embraces a comprehensive 
course, in plain styles of writing, and gives 
their direct application in business forms, 
correspondence, book-keeping, etc., etc. 

If not found superior to other styled self- 
instructors in writing, the purchase price will 
be refunded. 

Sample copies of the JOURNAL scut ou 
leceipt of price, III cents. 

The Proper Caper. 

Una made upon b 

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Two nvi 



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Educational Notes. 

[CommuDicationa for this Department may 
be addressed to B. K. KKLLRV.SOf* Broadway, 
.. ■ . . .. ngaoiiciled.] 

New York. Briel educi 

The Uuiversity of Edinburgh will soon 
celebrate its ^iOOth anniversary. 

Cornell is going to exiierimeut by drop- 
ping the languages, .tnd directing all its 
energies toward the sciences. 

In Germany, every teacher who goes 
into the schools must lalte a course of di- 
dactics and mental philosophy. 

Out of 303 colleges in this country, 155 
use the Roiian, 144 the English, and 34 
the Continental pronunciation. 

Mexico has a population of 10.5ni),lX)U, 
more than a third of whom are of pure 


Two daughters of the p et Longfellow 
have entered as students at Newnham Col- 
lege, England. 

Siicty-fuur of HI New Jersey school- 
teachers eay in report that whipning is 

Miss Elaine Goodale, the elder of the 
Sky Farm poets, has become one of the 
teachers nf the Indians at the Hampton 

It is estimated that there aie in attend- 
ance in the various schools f-.r business 
education in the United States, about 4U,- 
OOU pupils. 

The college Presidents, in their recent 
meeting in Boston, were unanimous in the 
opinion that football, as a college sport, 
ought to be prohibited — Boston Herald. 

Business departments are now opened in 
many of the high schools and academies of 
the country, and the number is rapidly 
increjisiog. This may be considered as 
reflecting favorably upon busincsB college 

Mexico has a school of arts and trades 
for women, numbering 'AGS pupils, ranging 
from twelve years to women of middle age. 
Sewing, and all worit suitable for women, 
are taught, as well as drawing, painting 

England. — The Educational Depart- 
ment, in its instructions to school inspec- 
tors, advises that the birch tree be left to 
develop its beauty, and be nut rubbed of 
its branches for the purpose of corduroying 
the backs of the adolescenta.— 5c/iooi Jour- 

The entire amount, $4,431,{)50. was ap- 
proved by unanimous vote, $750,000 of the 
sum being appropria'ed for sites and build- 
iues. The appropriation last year was 
$3,750,000. The appropriation of $136,- 

000 for the College of the City of Ne 
York was adopted. 

Educational Fancies. 

[ la every instanoe where the source of any 
item used in this departnienl is known, the 
proper credit is given. A like 

jthers will be appreciated.] 
The IndiB 


Matthew Arnold calls a cov 
He has a cowrious style of pro 

"I am burning to stand at the head of 
my class," as the boy remarked when he 
threw his schoolmate's exercise into the 

*' Lands are measured in rods, leagues 
and so forth," said the teacher, "now what 
is a. surveyor?" "A land leaguer!" shouted 
one of the boye. 

"John strikes William," remarked a 
school-teacher, "what is the object of 
strikes ? " " Higher wages and less work," 
promptly replied the intelligent youth. 

Professor to student: "Your answer is 
wrong." Student: '* Well, the principle is 
all right, isn't itf" Professor: "Yes, the 
Principal is all right, but the student is 

" Miss Jane, you will have for your sub- 
ject llie King of Spain." ''Impossible," 
says Jane. "Why?" says the teacher. 
"Because," says Jano, "it is impossible 
for a king to become a subject." 

" What is the worst thing abou( riches ? " 

Teachers, Please Answer. 

By Arthur Oeklek. 

The watchword of popular education in 
its various divisions is progress. This 
grade of progress fluctuates, and is more 
prominent at certain times with some 
branches than others. 

Fur the last few yearp, thfre has been a 
steady though slow advancement in Pen- 
manship in our public schools, or, rather, 
in the teaching of writing; while the 
business colleges have made rapid strides, 
and done a grand and noble work in this 

Of course, the circumstances between the 
two (namely, the business colleges and the 
public schools) have been, and are, entirely 
ditlerent; and it must be said decidedly 
favorable to the business collegps. But, 
then, better work must also be done in this 
branch in the public schools, and will, ere 
long, be demanded by school officers as well 
patrons. It therefore behooves ub to give 
this branch the attention it deserves, by ex- 
changing ideas, and, in this way, reaping 
mutual profit from our varied experiences. 

In accordance with this spirit the follow- 
ing questions are euhniitteii ; and whoever 
has had experience in writing, will very 
likely read considerable between the lines. 

First. Why do girls from the age of ten 
to seventeen, as a general rule, write a bet- 
ter hand than boysf 

Second. Is not wri ing in concert (in our 
public schools) a failure ninteen times out 
of twenty t Why? 

t photo-engravtd from a /ourwA executed by A. H. Kelley, penman t 
Ititner's Commercial College, St. Joseph, Mo. 

asked a Sunday-school teacher. "That 
they take unto themselves wings and fly 
away," promptly rejdied the boy at the foot 
of the class — Cincinnati Saturday Night. 

'■Give me," said the schoolmaster, "a 
sentence in which the words 'a burning 
shame' are properly applied." Immediately 
the bright boy at the head of the class went 
to the blackboard and wrote: "Satan's 
treatment of the wicked is a turning 
shame." — Philadelphia Chronicle. 

Said a teacher to the school: "What is 
the largest city in the world f" And the 
child replied "Chicago." "No," eaid the 
teacher; "Chicago is not the largest city 
in the world." "Well," said the child, 
"anyway, a Chicago man told me it was." 

A boy of eight years 
Zenith i 

teacher whe 

\ asked by his 
He replied: 
directly over 
To test his knowledge fur- 

ther, the teacher a*ked: "Can two persons 
have the same Zenith at the same timelf" 
"They can." "How?" "If one stands 
on the other's head." 

"Gaze upon that pure, beautiful even- 
ing star, and swear to be pure while its 
light shall shine ! Swear, my love! Swear 
by Venus!" exclaimed a Boston youth, in 
impassioned accents. ",How stupid you 
are," answered the Boston girl. "That is 
not Venus. The right ascension of Venus 
this month is 15h. Om.; her declination is 
J7 degrees 25 minutes south, and hor di- 
ameter is 10 ^^."-Ea:. 

Now is the time to Bubsoribe for the 
J'URNAL. and begin with ihe new year and 
Pruf. Hiuman'a ledsuus in practical writing. 

Jliird. Why do a large number of pupils 
experience so much difficulty to ar(|uire 
proper and regular slant in writing ' 

Fourth. Is the full, right side position 
not a disadvantage to the pupil sitting on 
the left hand side of double desks f 

Fifth. Does it pay, in public schools, to 
give any further attention lo penholding, or 
the position of the hand, while writing, 
more than that the wrtit must, under no 
circumstances, touch the desk? 

Fellow teachera, let us hear from you. 

Work and Think. 
By Professor H. Russe 

In IhoBe terrible days which tried men's 
souls during the early part of the war, a cap- 
tain of one regiment asked President Lin- 
coln, with whom ho was acquainted: " Mr. 
Lincoln, what ought men do to succeed in 
lifet Mr. Lincoln answered in the never 
to be forgotten words, "Work and think." 
For twenty years I have told this as a 
motto for my school, and if there is a better 
one I never heard of it. Never was the life 
of a great man more fully illustrative i-f the 
motto, than that of Mr. Lincoln. Born in 
the lowest poverty, it was his uudcviatiug 
and tirm adherence to this principle that gave 
him such a grand and ennobling triumph; and 
many another great man tvho has been im- 
bued with the like flenliment has enabled 
himself to secure sucuess. Ou every field 

that bears a tempting harvest on its breast, 
on every brick in every building that was 
ever reared, on every book of value that 
was ever written, rm every thought that 
burns to light the world, in every work- 
shop, mine, furnace, factory, and wherever 
labor sweats, are written the credentials of 

What is your secret asked a la<ly of Tur- 
ner, the distinguished painter. He replied, 
" I have no secret, madam, but hard work." 
Says Dr. Arnold: The " difference between 
one man and another is, not so much in tal- 
ent as in energy." " Nothing," gays Key- 
nolds, " is denied well directed labor, and 
nothing is to be attained without it." 
" Excellence in any department," says 
Johnson, "can now be attained by the 
labor of a lifetime, hut it is not to be pur- 
chased at a lesser price." " There ii but 
one method," said Sydney Smith, "and that 
is, hard labor; and a man that will not pay 
that price for distinction, had better at once 
dedicate bimse I to the pursuit of thcfox." 
" Step by step " reads the French proverb, 
"one goes very far." "Nothing," aaye 
Mirabeau, "is impossible to a man who 
can will. This is the only law of true suc- 
cess. "Haveyru ever entered a college, 
or traveled in a coach, talked with a peas- 
ant in the field, or loitered with a mechanic 
at the loom," asked Sir Edward Buln-er 
Lytton, "and found that each of these men 
had a talent you have not, knew something 
you did not. The most useless ereature 
that yawned at a club, or idled iu rags under 
the suns of Italy, has no excuse for the 
want of intellect. What man w^nts, is— 
not talent, but purpose; in other worils, not 
the power to achieve, but the will to labor." 

All honor, then, to the toiler? who "work 
and think," whether on land or water, 
whether pal-d with study er hfgrimed with 
sweat. They are the parents aud possess- - 
ors of all true enjoyments, aud commerce is 
their servant and their friend. All men 
are by nature born free and equal. They 
are equal in the sight of our law, and in the 
Creator's love ; and the'man of business, or 
any man who forgets this great truth, is 


ligion. The laborer, e(iually with the mil- 
lionaire, should enjoy ease and «It(;rnate 
labor. The drones, if there be any in our 
busy country, are few. Th( re can be no 
high and pure enjoyment in their lives. 
" Wealth is power." It is as Bacon said : 
" Like manure, and must be scatternd to be 
useful." If applied to great good ends, it 
brings heavenly satisfaction, and, with God's 
blessing, promotes hapi'iness. If hoarded 
or put to the piisseesor's personal use, it 
cankers the i^uul; aud Scott's lines apply 
forcibly to him wlio so basely neglects his 



Aod doubly dying ibalt go down 

To the vile dukt from wbere l>e ipraog 

If work aud thought, then, can produce a 
Lincoln, a Ga tii-ld. au.l hundreds of self- 
made men, as ii undoubtedly has dtme; if 
it can iu the short space of one hundred 
years build up the richest aud most power- 
ful nation on e.irth— what grand prospects, 
what splendid examples, are before every 
young man who wights to do or be anything 
in the world ! 


Tlie Wriling-Ruler has become a stand- 
ard article with those who profess to have a 
suitable outfit for practical writing. It is 
to the writer what the chart and compass is 
to the mariner. The Writing- Ruler is a re- 
liable penmauship chart aud compass, sent 
by the Journal on receipt of 30 cents. 

The Hand ■ book ( in paper ) is now 
otfered free as a premium to every peraou 
remitting $1 for oue year's subscription to 
the Journal. Or, handsomely bound iu 
oloth, for S£5 «eDts additional. 




Movement as Applied to 

Mr. Pretidtnt, I^ditn and GenUtmen, and 
Membtrt of the Convention : _ 
I am always proud to assist io a move- 
ment having for its ol'ject the advancemeDt 
of maQkind. If in my experieuce I have 
gathered anything valuable 1 gladly oflVr it 
without reserve to the lionoralle nieuihers 
of this asdiicialiuii. Moveiiieut, as applied 
l(. peninanshtp, is that power whidi secures 
freedom of motion io execution. Movement 
\9 the central power that gives force and 
Btrfugth of character to the most graceful 
of forms. Movement is the magic wand 
that gives life and beauty wherever found, 
( X. B. That the above couplet was not 
intended for poetry.) 

lu presenting this *uhjcct I am well 
aware that m'lch must be raid that you al- 
ready know, in order Io elucidate tliat which, 
to me, forms a very important part in the 
highest rdUfCption of education. 

I r;iun'it liope to reach minor points in 
the Hllnlledlime, but will endeavor to travel 
iu a measure untrodden around. 

To substantiate my position, and prove 
conclusively that I am correct in my reason- 
ing, permit me, if you please, to make 
comparisons that I may he enabled to pro- 
duce a eliiigiog argument in favor of the 
Peircerian Method of Instruction. Years 
before the publication of No. 4 of the New 
Spencerian Compendium I had advocated 
the prarlice ot Tracing Movements, Ex- 
tended Movement, etc., which are idenlical 
with those found on the first two p.-^ges of 
No. 4, and are denominated " Capital Exer- 
cises." 1 borrowed them from no oue, and I 
am very positive the authors of the Spence- 
rian System did not borrow tbem from me. 
The results achieved iu either case are the 
outgrowth of necessity, and differ only in 

While there is ntit very much in a name 
— because "a rose by any other name would 
smell aa sweet"—! chose to name the de- 
designs that run in the same groove, 
"Tracing Movements," and those that 
were drawn out, " Extended Movements." 

With these general statements I pass to 
the consideration of a more special applica- 

First. What are Tracing Movements, 
and for what are theyusedt Tracing Move- 
ments are designs. composed principally of 
capital letters used as the initiatory step to 
produce freedom ot motion. 

This ia accomplished by the teacher 
executing t^e various deiugns with blue 
pencil, and having the student follow the 
same with lead-pencil or end of holder. 
By reference to No. 4 New Spencerian 
Compendium (See cut on thia page.) you 
will find that what I term Tracing Move- 
ments are those which follow in the same 
channel, and are designed to be traced from 
1 to 23!i,t(K) limes according to necessity, in 
order to acquire freedom, or action of tiie 
muscles that must of necessity he gained at 
the outset. An attempt to produce results 
with a i»en at liral by the unskilled, to say 
the least, is laughable. Therefore, to make 
doubly sure and avoid disccuragement in a 
measure, educate the muscles to do the 
simplest class of work well, and advanced 
steps are easily taken. It may not he ne- 
cessary, but I make this etatemeat so that 
all may thoroughly understand the situation. 

Movement, as generally understood, is 
unleachable to children. Long Division is 
unteacbable to the child of six years; in- 
terest cannot be comprehended by the child 
of ten years. The child of twelve and tif- 
tecu is not expected to explain thoroughly 
all points embodied in Cube Hoot. 

Physical development has its time as 
well as mental development. This fact m 
too well known to need repetition; yet, hs 
applied to penmanship, it is by some 
wholly ignored. The muscles are uoisuffi- 
slflDttjT dsvelopad U ohUdhood to udoiU of 

the training necessary to produce the results 
desired. This is true with the mass below 
the ages of twelve and fifteen years. 
Therefore, the conclusion is reached that 
the success of teaching Movement depends, 
first, upon how developed ; second^ to 
whom taught. 

It might be asked, is it necessary, in in- 
troducing the subject of Movement, to al- 
ways begin by tracingt Every rule has its 
exception. I know of a gentleman who 
always eats his dessert first, and I am almost 
convinced that this would be a good rule. 

The rule is that movement should be in- 
troduced by beginning with tracing exer- 
cises. This, of course, is conceding the 
fact that all beginners possess little or no 
available power. Occasionally a euiart 
"Alexis" is found, and I invariably begin 
with Extended Movements. 

What arc Extended Movements and what 
purpose do they serve? Extended Move- 
ments are groups of capitals executed with 

3 acquire increased powe 

The joining together of capital letters, 
s given in No. 4 of the New Spencerian 

which I have chosen to demominate the 
Philosophy of Movement. 

As I understand it, the Philosophy of 
Movement is the embodiment of certain 
principles necessary to a true conception 
and perfeet execution of capitals. The 
Philosophy of movement is an application 
of mechanical force, wliioh operates in con- 
formity to certain laws. 

There is a certain power which every one 
must possess to render the execution of cap- 
itals easy and graceful. Some one will say 
a free, easy movement, and a knowledge of 
forms, with the proper application — t. e., 
with due amount of practice — will produce 
the highest order of results. 

Theoretically speaking, this is true. 
Practically speaking, it is not true. Too 
many of the so-called best results are de- 
void of merit. Productions that are below 
mediocrity are landed to the skies. Praise 
comes too often from an unworthy source. 
Do not get puffed up into an .overween- 
ing confidence of your ability too soon. 
Age and experience will do much toward 
taking off the wire edge, after which pos- 
sibly a keen edge may be discovered. Let 
me Dot be misunderstood : I do not affirm 

The ahwe cut represent! one of the platet of No. 4 of the New Spencerian Coiapendium ( re 
duced one-half in tize), to which Prof. Pevrce alludes in his lecture. Seven Parti of thU 
valuable publication have been laautd, and are mailed from the o^ce of the " Journal" a. 
60 cmts each. 

Compendium, is what I term Extended 
Movements. My ambition has been some- 
what exercised in this direction until I have 
now reached more than 400 different de- 
signs. It may seem strange to the uninitia- 
ted, but the fact ia susceptible of proof that 
Extended Movements containing capital 
letters are easier of execution than single 
capitals of similar design. This will be 
demonstrated later on. Analogous princi- 
ples in teaching are a sure guide. It is not 
necessary, in teaching the chihl Addition, to 
dwell upon the subject until all points 
have been gained before proceeding to sub- 

A few of the eighty designs, produced 
with ease and grace in Tracing Movements, 
will give enough power to secure fair results 
—with a little application— iu Extended 
Movements. Besides, the three steps in 
this class of work are sure to affect ad- 
vancement, even with the most plodding.. 
If necessary, first nee a lead-pencil. Sec- 
ond, A coarse pen will aid in giving confi- 
dence by producing the form without shade. 
Third and last. By producing a pure, 
smooth line and shade with fine pen. 

Enough of thia work should be done to 
give dash and finnness in execution before 
attempting capital letters proper. The 
crowning effort ia to thoroughly understand 
what I deem the connecting link between 
movement and cai)itals; or, in other words, 
tb« appUcAtloa of movement to oapitolj, 

that the highest order of execution embod- 
ied in any capital of a wholearin or forearm 
nature, depends upon the application of the 
Philosophy of Movement. 

Mechanical forces are operated through 
certain laws. To ignore those laws and 
expect or hope (or the best results is to 
shut our eyes against a truth ( that many 
unconsciously do), and commit the fatal er- 
ror of unintelligent practice M'hich fosters 
ordinary results that will ultimately defeat 
the most sanguine. 

To succeed in any undertaking every pos- 
sible advantage must be taken. If a watch 
keeps perfect time, it must be true in all its 
parts. One imperfection will in time work 
disaster. If you would reach the highest 
ideal in the production of capital letters you 
must submit each part of the law to a tech- 
nical test ere its full force can be ascertained. 
To execute any pen-work ia not "difficult" 
or " hard to do." To say that certain work 
requires great skill is in proper keeping, 
because we can then infer that a system- 

of 1 



through which great results are achieved. 
Skillful execution is the outgrowth of intel- 
ligent practice coupled with patient, earnest, 
determined repetition. Intelligent practice 
is the only true guide, and every step taken 
is a well conceived plan of instruction, which 
will grort^ results that are sure to lead to 
perpetual advancement. 

Ther« u« penmea in the field to-day who 

have made but little or no advancement in 
the past ten years. The reasons to me are 
obvious : superficial scribbling, with ignor- 
ance of all law as its base, is productive of 
evil worthy of condemnation. Analogous 
reasoning will prove to the most skeptical 
that there is a philosophy of movement. 
That a capital letter can he produced with- 
out any introductory movement does not 
disqualify my statement any more than 
jumping without moving the arms is impos- 
sible. The point is simple: can tfae high- 
est order of execution be reached without 
the application of this philosophy of move- 
ment t or, in other words, can a (standing) 
jump be made as far and with an equal ease 
without as with moving the arms f Most 
emphatically uo ! a thousand times, no! 

The intuitive nature which our best 
penmen possess, brings them to the attain- 
ment of results without knowing the rea- 
sons why; and the want of it leaves the 
world at large to cry, "We are doomed be- 
cause we have no natural talent!" True, 
teaching-power must supply every link in 
the chain if the mass he led to a successful 
termination. A little natural reasoning, or, 
better still, a development of brain-power 
into a sensible diagnosis of the case, will 
produce, other things considered, hosts of 
natural penmen. 

This introductory movement ia a "power 
behind the throne," and without a proper 
understanding of it I have failed to discover 
that encouragement attends the average 
student, or renders the work a pleasant task 
for even the most precocious. 

There are five principles embodied in the 
Philosophy of Movement : First, Motion 
preceding execution. Second. Motion larger 
than result. Third. Time in execution 
same as motion preceding it. Fourth. 
Location of movement preceding execution. 
Fifth. Going from an ellipse to atraight 
line. ' 

1st. "Motion preceding execution." By 
this is meant that in the formation of capi- 
tals ji certain speed or power must be avail- 
able before a letter can • be smoothly 
executed. The motion preceding the 
pitching or throwing of a ball or a lasso ; 
the motion of the arms in jumping; the 
threshing of grain by horse-power; and the 
motion necessary to precede the actual work 
i. e , the driving around the horses once or 
twice to acquire certain force before actual 
execution, all Are practical illustratione, 
and furnish proof of one principle in 
mechanical force necessary to perfect results. 

Therfore it is usual to count I, 2, while 
making the introductory motion, and pro- 
duce the letter or part of a letter on the 
third count. For example, take the capital- 
loop in its simplest form, and count i, 2, 3, 
completing the work on third count. 
Again ; take the capital " O " as an illns 
tration, the form to consist of its regular 
proportions, with last part extending in an , 
oval form below base-line and ending in 
center of the "0" proper; count 1, 2, in 
the preparatory motion, and th — ree, fo — 

I'he s 

» of ; 


capital, and the count ia regulated according 
to the number of downward strokes, or the 
number of lines composing the Tetter ; i. e., 
the simpler forms of capitals contain less 
strokes, hence fewer counts. 

(N. B.— That in counting I invariably 
name the downward strokes only. ) 

In producing a capital "J " there is but 
one downward stroke ; the count, then 
would be wn — n, tw— o, for preparatory 
motion; and th— re e iu execution of let- 
ter; i. e., while uttering the "th"the first 
upward stroke is formed; while uttering 
the "re "the main stroke is formed; and 
while uttering the "e," the finishing stroke 
is added. 

You will notice the lines dividing the 

word ( th — re e ) are of different lengths; 

thia indicates the time at tops and base of 
letter iu execution. The short turn at base 
of letter always requires a check, which 
constitutes a longer pause than the long 
turn found at the top of letter. This ia the 
only loieBtiSa tuethod by which ths form of 

a capital cao be produced that will conform 
to restheticB. Long turns require less time 
in execution than short ones. 

Wheu I eee the forms of a set of capitals 
that are insipidly ugly, held up aa repre- 
senting some quality for a apecilic purpose, 
I not only know that the Philosophy of 
Movement ha* heen set at defiance ( in ig- 
norance, doubtless ), but that refuge has 
been sought in these imperfect results, ( be- 
cause nothing better could be achieved), 

aud a plea set up for thei 
The production of artistic 
forms of capitals does de- 
pend upon the appUcJ 


Fourth. The location of movcmeut pro- 
ceding execution. I can best explain what 
I mean by this in a practical example. 

Suppose I desire to execute any of the 
single capital loop letters like V, U, Y, X, 
W, Q, 'I, J, and by observing the first, 
seoond and third principles. 

I locate my movement by having the 
point of centre at base of line, making half 
the movement below base line. As these 
letters begin below the base line, the loca- 
tion of movement secures the result without 

and effect, and uJust be applied to make 
progress certain. 

Admitting tbat what has been said is 
true, we come to the fifth principle, and 
propose proving that the curve in first part 
of any capital letter is determined by the 
direction of the movement preceding exe- 

If I make the capital " O" too wide, what 
is the cause f If I make the capital stem 
too cnioked, or too straiglil, what is the 
cause! ll 1 make the capital " I " too large 


How the; 
1 be seei 

are disregarded i 
at a glance. Examine, if 
yoQ please, the results of 
even some of our profes- 
sional penmen and you can 
readily detect error. What 
is the cause t Surely not 
imperfect conception ; sure- 
ly not a lack of freedom of 

Surely not from want of 
practice. Go down, down, 
down, and you will find 
timt the application of 
movement, or the science 
that treats of the philoso- 
phy of motion, will unravel 
the mystery. 

Do not present wishy- 
washy results in this Nine- 
teenth Century, and advo- 
cate them on a basis of 
business. The claims of 
busiuess are just, but let us 
not retrograde ai]d be led 
to forget our mission by 
the larger per cent, of hu- 
manity who do not even 
aspire, much less attempt, 
to produce anything beyond 

The aecond principle ne- 
cessary to the best execu- 
tion is that the motion 
(spoken of) should be larger 
than result. 

This is deemed necessary 

amoantot capacity, and at 
the same time generate 
en<mgh reserve force tu 
carry the hand through a 
letter without materially 
impeding its progress. All 
machinery must have a 
given amount of momen- 
tum preceding execution. 

An increase or decrease 
of power after execution 
beeins, materially lessens 
the chances of obtaining 
excellent results as to form, 
and is in direct opposition 
to the third principle, which 
asserts that the time in 
execution should be the 



(MT cut represents a t/cKiV/Ji for blad^-buard llo»fiihn^j. axil <s one ,./ cUjhUai plates prepartd c 

• Jvumar for the penmanship department of' VtaUS FopMlar Educator and Cyclopedia of Rffcr 

a finely illmtrated quarto-work of 70S pages, lately issued by Ji. S. Peale <f- Co., of Chicago. 

cf^ding it. 

In all mechanism time has ever been 
considered indispensable to superior results. 
If we walk out of time we walk irregularly. 
If we talk out of lime we talk irregularly, 
and consequt^ntly with bad effect. 

If we sing out of time we spoil that 
which is beautiful in music. The regularity 
with which all machinery runs, lends a 
charm that is never lost untU irregularity 
creeps in. ■ 

Why does my watch keep perfect timet 
For no other reason than* that the move- 
ment is perfect. Again ; your watch keeps 
imperfect time because of not having beea 
properly adjusted. 

It runs, but not with any degree ot satis- 
faction. You have what might be termed 
a good movement, but you cannot execute, 
and whyt Simply because you do not 
conform to regularity of stroke— a law that 
you do not dare ignore without fatal reaults. 

any additional effort. Again ; if I am pro- 
ducing a letter like the capital O, etc., the 
centre of movement is at top of letter. In 
addition to its being directly applied, its 
effect is very noticeable upon the grand re- 
sults obtained in cmijunotion with the fittb 
principle, viz., going from an ellipse to a 
straight line. 

The majority producing the loop letters 
invariably spoil the general shape of them 
by attaching a long introductory curved 
line. This is caused by ignoring the fourth 
and fifth principles. The first part of 
capital () being made with a hook and 
much higher than second part, is attributed 
to the same causes. Mathematical criticism 
is all well enough, but there comes a time 
when, if something else is not substituted, 
there cannot and will not be any pro- 
Philosophical criticism deals with cauie 

at the top, what is the cause t Is the motion 
preceding the execution of " I " and " J " the 
sameT If not, by what process am I to 
produce one large and the other small t 
This entire reasoning is based upon the 
theory that conception of form ia properiy 

In conclusion allow mo to say, that" new 
theories, properly substantiated, must dis- 
place old ideas (however valuable they 
may have been in their day), in order to 
render progress positive. 

A Minister's Notes.— The si 
nroiriinent minister that recently 
the possession of a vandal was 
along the margin thus : " Dolivo 
sago in soleum times." " Scornful ; 
the word 'never.'" " Pauso long enough 
to count twenty-five after this paasage," 


lile aftei 

"Close bible with violent alam after this 
passage." " Contemjilato ceiling in attitude 
of adoration at this point.'' '' Sarcastic 
wav« of the hand," etc. And yet ministers 
declaim against the theatric art. — Inter- 

About Counterfeits. 

Tlie $'»00 counterfeit note found in a 
powder-horn recently in a Tliird Avenue 
liawribrgker'H store, and pronounced .a 
counterfeit by Chief Drum- 
mond, of the United States 
Secret Service, was declared 
by that officer to be one of 
thp best imitations of a 
genuine note ever seen. 
Mr. Brooks, of the Secret 
Service, recently stated to 
a Telegram reporter that 
the, note was presented at 
one of the leading rity 
banks and that the ofiicials 
declared that they would 
accept it without hesita- 
tion. It was shown to the 
publishers of a bank-note 
ileteotor, and they would 
not pronounce as to its 
being spurious or not. The 
note waa evidently in cir- 
culation for some time and 
was patched. It is thought 
' have been produced by 
Smitli, a member of the 
Brockway gang of counter- 
feiters, who is now at lib- 
erty, and by Thomas P. 
Ballard, who is now in 
the Albany Penitentiary 
serving a tenn of thirty 
years for counterfeiting. 
Mistakes, however, are 
sometimes made, and notes 
and coin which are genu- 
ine are regarded as count- 
erfeits. Nut long ago a 
Chambers Street merchant 
called upon Mr. Brooks, 
of the Secret Service, and 
told him timt he had two 
counterleit silver coins 
passed upon him, and that 
he c(msidered it his duty 
to inform the Secret Serv- 
ice of the fact. The coin, 
he stated, had been refused 
at the elevated railway sta- 
tions, and by others was 
declared to be eountorfeit, 
one person after weighing 
them declaring them be- 
yond all doubt spurious. 
Mr. Bn.oks viewed the 
coins and then weighed 
them and astonished the 
Chambers Street merchiint 
by declaring them genu- 
ine. The five-cent pieces, 
gilded, so as to look like- 
five-dollar gold coins, re- 
cently discovered, were 
manufactured as watch- 
charms, and there was evidently no crim- 
inal intent. To issue a gold, silver or 
other coin, even of true metal and over tlie 
value of legal coin, coustilutes the crime 
of counterfeiting, and leaves the person 
who raanuiixctured them liable to prosecu- 
tion, the same as if the intention to defraud 
had existed. Some time since a wealthy 
man in the South issued gold coins which 
were worth more than the legal ones, but 
this fact did not save him from prosecution 
and punishment as a counterfeiter.— £ren- 
iug Telegram. ^^^ 

The " Hand-book " ( in paper) is mailed 
free to every person reniitiing $100 for 
a subscription or renewal to the Journal 
for one year, or, for $1.25, the book hand- 
somely bound in cloth. Price •>( the book, 
by mail, in cloth, $1 ; in i)aper, 75 cents. 
Liberal discount to teachers and ngenttf. 

The Spencerian Hall of 
New York City. 

The SpenceriHD Hall is located at No, 
1J4 West Fourteenth Street, New York, 
opposite the Fonrteeoth Street Theatre. 
It is eixty-five feet hme, piesfiant and ac- 
hle, with offices an.i receplion-rooir, 
lip but one flight of Btairs from the street. 
The New Shorthaud Company aiake it 
their headquarters, under whose auspices 
individual and class ioetruciion is ^iveu in 
Alphabetic and Phonetic Sborlhand ; also 
inetrudtion in Spencerian Practical Penman- 
ship. The Company have in press a book 
,nd seU-iostruction in Shorthand, 
to be ieeued on rir before April 1 0th. In- 
stitutions, under able manaf^ement, devoted 
to long and short baud, should command 
remuoerative patronage in every lare;e oitj. 

Practical vs. Artistic 

The importance of any attainment is to 
iBUred by the degree and extent of 
Thus judged, practical 
writing weighs down the scale with many 
times the force of fancy or artistic penman- 
ship. In this land the person who cannot 
write Bome sort of a hand ib highly except- 
ional, and should be a curiosity ; while those 
who have no need for that accomplishmput 
are indeed idiot* or nobodies. It is, tlicu, 
an accomplishment universal in its utility, 
and, hence, should be of UQi-'ersal interest, 
to the person who caunot read and write, 
one half^and by far the greater half— of 
the wurld is a sealed book ; and an equal 
parlion of his sources for wealth and hap- 
piness are closed. Indeed, such a person 
can be said to only half live. Practical 
writing, then, may be classed as one of 
the universal necessities of civilized man, 
and one of the greater sources of his 
knowledge and advancement. Not only is 
this true of the human race as a whole, but 
of individuals. No other single accomplish- 
ment will so soon and frequently help a 
young lady or gentleman to renuraerative 
and desirable employment as a really good 

To be truly good, writing must be 
easily read, graceful, and mpidly written. 


year has been added to those of the past, 
and what has itP record beeni What 
portion of the fair promises made, and 
bright hopes cherished at its dawn, are now 
among its realities? These are fitting 
4hought3 to accompany the lurnioe of the 
new leaf. If upon the old one are rew.rds 
of acts we would were 
ment, loss, or failure- 
cause, that we may, in the light of 
eoce, improve the record upon the now. 
Possibly some have failed to secure coveted 
positions or promotions that wiili greater 
iuAistry or etKciency in the discharge of 
incumbent duties might have been won. 
The assistant or clerk who exercises more 
ingenuity and solicitude for his own comfort 
and ease than for the interest of his em- 
ployer will record disappointments and fail- 
ure upon his new leafj while he who ie 
dilligent and looks with honest and inielli- 
gent solicitude to an employer's interest, 
may reasonably hope to make a record of a 
gratifying success. 

Young reader, did you ever think, as you 
look around you and behold the great mer- 
chants, learned and honored judges, atatea- 
id others of 

Hinman's Lesson. 

In the first or introductory lesson givei 
by Prof. Hinman in this number of th^ 
it has been found 
on to some of the most iioport- 
underlyine successful practice, 
presented by Prof. Hinman are 
reached through a long experi 
in our opinion, are worthy of 
careful study. In the next and future les- 
sons special attention will be given to 
methods of analysis and practical means uf 
criticising letters of various styles. As 
Prof. Hiumau expresses himself, he is "in 

id d0( 

; pur- 

pose to confine his teaching 
bounds of any published system, but rather 
be guided by whatever he has found to be 
good and true inside and outside of pub- 
lished methods." In the next number he 
promises to give a method of learning the 
correct formation of letters upon a plan 
similar to that taught by tha founder of 
Spencerian penmanship. 

Subscribers wishing to have their address 
changed, should be careful to give both the 
old and new address. 

Extra Copies of the ' 

Will be sent free to teachers i 
desire to make an effort to s 


nd others who 
icure a club of 

Be Your Own Master. 

P. Chase in early life appealeil 
to his uncle, who was then in a hitrh official! 
position at Washington, for a clerkship in 
one of the departments. He was met witU 
f* firm refusal. " f will give you half a> 
dollar to gu out and buy a spade to dig 
with for a living, but I will not get 
yr.u a place under the Government ; 
and you will live to see that this is the 
best advice I can gi^e you." Had Mr. 
Chase secured ihe coveted clerkship, 
he would probably lived and died a 
department clerk; for once in that 
positi" n, n«dnidy quits unless by dis- 
charge or death. As it was, Mr. Chase 
entered upon the study and practice of 
law; became G.-vernor of Ohio, U. S. 
Senator, Secretary of the U. S. Trea- 
sury, and Chief Justice of tl'e United 

It is far better h>r a man to be his 

than the servant of others. 

The great leaders in every avenue of 

thought aud action have been 


while it is true that a vast number 
o constituted as to need to 
turae directed, and equally 
ast number of great enter- 
surceasful rf quire united 
, and that in such all can- 
not be presidents, directors, or even share- 
bolders; most must be subordinates and 
and simply laborers. But many of our 
educated, enterprising young men largely 
seek clerkships and Gov(>rnment positions, 
which secured, usually ends their indepen 
dent enterprise and exiatenre. Thousands 
of eu.-,h, had they struck out boldly and 
manfully for themselves, might have 
achieved fortune and honor far beyond what 
is to he hoped for in the capacity of a mere 

The Piatt R. Spencer Memorial. 

The Comuiiltee having in charge the 
collection and compilation of materials for 
the biography of Piatt It. Spencer and 
Persis Duty, hia wife, make a request, 
through a late ipsue of the Geneva (Ohio) 
limes, that all persons having a knowl- 
edge of any fact i-r iucident material to 
such biograpliy should' communicate the 
same to J. B Treat, Geneva, O., or Hon. 
R. C. Spencer, Milwaukee, Ws. 

How to Remit Money. 

The best aud safest way is by Post-offiod 
Order, or a bank draft, on New York ; next, 
by registered letter. For fractional parts of 
a dollar, send jjostage-stamps. Do not send 
personal checks, especially for small sums, 
nor Canadian postage- stamps. 

For $2 the Journal will be mailed one 
year; also, a copy each of the "Standard 
Practical Penmanship" and the "Hand- 
book of Artistic Penmanship" (in paper 
overs; 25 cents extra in clvtht. Pric« 

The King Club 

For the last month uumbera otu hundred 
and eighty-nine, and was sent hy Prof. 
Charlea H. Wells, special teacher of wriiing 
in the public schools of Syracuse, N, Y. 
Ftir Learly twenty-five years Prof. Wells 
has ranked among the very first wriiers and 
teachers of writing in the Empire State. 
And the faot that from among his prisent 
pupils and teachers with whom he is as- 
sotiiated, he is able to send nearly two hun~ 
tired subscribers to the JouitNAL. is the 
most conrlusive evidence that h. 
etlicient and popular work in h 
field of labor; for it is from thogfl who have 
become interested in, and alive to, the im- 
portance of good writing that subscripuuns 
come; and it is only the skillful and eulhii- 
eiasiic teacher of wriiing who can enkiudle 
such interest io, and appreciation uf, good 
writing, as to lead his pupils aud associates 
to seek every available m'aus of Improve- 


as we ofieu do, that they cannot understand 
why their pupiU c-aunot be induced to be- 
come subscribers to thn JoOBNAL. we feel 
assured that they are not doiag very euthu- 
siaetic or fuccesaful work in their classes. 

The Q leen club numbers thirty-one, and 
was sent by A. G. Coonrod, a special teach- 
er of writing. Biisicess Deparlment of the 
Minneapidis (MiiiQ.) Academy. Mr. C. is 
himself a superior writer, and, evidently, 
believes in the JoURNAL as an aid to those 
who wish to become so. 

The third club iu size 
0. and comes from W 

A. S 

lers twenty 
mons, Lauk 

C W. Slooiim, CtiiUiootho, Ohio. 

enter, Minu. 

H 8 TftvUir. Bii»IneMColl-ge, Rochwler. N. Y. 

A cUib uf/yur/«n com 
an. a principal of one 

es fro 

of tl 

n H. Folar- 
e Bchojla of 

H. K Hosleller. Box l<iU.1, Sterling. III. 
C. W Tallman, HtlUdsle. Miob. 

lobec, Canada. 

Raniiilph Appleby, Jr., Summit Ave.. JenieyCily. N 

Clubs of smaller dimcDsioo 
ry numerous, and promise 

s htive been 
to be much 

C. H Ki.nroing. Iu2i Water St.. Phila , Pa, 

I, .S. Pre*ton, \M l'latlm»li Are.. Or. oklyn, N, Y. 

Dangerous College Currency. 

A commercial coll-ge student in Provi- 
dence K. I., is charged wiih defraudiug a 
poor half-blind ol<l man who had moved his 
furniture by payiug him wiili one of the 
worthless five dollar bills used in the college 
to illustrate the practices of trade and fi- 
nance. Sub8pq'i''ntly the victim tendered 
the bill innocently at several shops, from 

ously kicked out. It is said that the stu- 
dent is known X** the police, but that he 
will not be prosecuted io c^se he makes 
ample amende. He will be luckier than be 
deservf^s to be if he escapes as easily as thai, 
for the Government as well as the individual 
sufferer by his trickery is interested in his 
case. — -W. Y. Tribune. 

A few months since a newly landed im- 
migrant at Castle Garden, iu ihia city, was 
induced by a sharper to exchange $1600 
in gold for a like amount of buMuess college 
currency. Tltis aud mauy other similar 
impositions which have been perpetrated 
through the aid of the finely engraved cur- 
rency has led ihe U S. Treasury authorities 
to enforce the law which places sharp re- 
strictions upoh the engravers and printers 
who have been furnishing such currency, 
as well as upon those who use it. We 
have twice been cilled upon to absDdon 
or greatly modify, at great loss and expense, 
plates irom which we were printing college 
currency, which plates were purposely made 
greatly inferior to most designs used by 
other engravers aud printers. We have 
now, after consultation with the authorities 
at Washington, arranged, with their written 
approval, an entirely new set of designs, 
which, although without the dangerous and 
distiuctive chaiacteristics of bank notes, are 
very attractive, and serve well all the pur- 
poses of college money. This currency is 
on good bank-note paper, and is kept in 
stock, so that orders to any amount may be 
tilled by return of mail or express. Samples 
aud circulars sent on rtquest. 

8ample copies of the Journal sent only 
u reoeipl of prioe — t«D rent*. 


Again Mr. Cupid has been practicing his 
archery, and his happy "victims" are Mr. 
Austin N. Palmer, of the Cidar Rapids 
(Iowa) Business College, and Miss Sadie 
P. Whitney, of the same place, where the 
ceremimy was performed on Jan. 1st. Mr. 
Palmer is an accomplished and popular 
teacher of the commercial branchei", and he 
lias our best wislies for a bm^, happy, and 
prosperous wedded life. Aud so, Mr Ar 
thur L. Wyman, of the Omaha (Neb.) 
Business College, and Mi a Julia E. Hard- 
cnbergh, of the eame place, where the cer- 
emony was performed on Dec. 25th. 

Autograph Exchangers. 

In accordance with a BugePf^'"a '" the 
last numb r, the fidiowiug named persons 
have signified their williugue^B or desire to 
exchange autographs, upon the Peircerian 
plan, as set forth in the August number of 
the JnuRNAt.: 
0- C. CooUraa, Central IIi|[U Sebuol, PilUburgh, Pa, 

Books and Exchanges. 

We have had left with us for sale three 
rare old publications upou jteumanship, viz., 
a work published by William Miln, in Lon- 
don, in I7;)4; it consists of thirty-six UxU) 
plates, «nd embrrtces every phase of the 
art beautiful, as it was, practiced iu those 
days. It is finely engraved on copper, and 
evinces great chirographic skill. Another 
work fublished in L mdon, by John Seddon, 
in If !l-i, ctmsists ftlno of thirty-six copper 
plates, 9x14, and, like that of Milns, covers 
the entire range of writing, dourishiug and 
lettering, as then practiced by profefslonal 
penmen. It is not as well engraved, nur 
does it present as high a degree of artistic 
taste and ^kill as does that by Miln, yet it 
is a rare and val-iable work. It is quite 
apparent to the Nineteenth Century student 
of penmanship that both of these works 
were liberally consulted by the early Amer- 
ican authors. The third work is by Nepo- 
uiuck Weber, bearing date I81G. It con- 
sists of thirty-two shee's, 9ixl5, all exe- 
cuted with a pen-quill, and considering the 
time and manner of tlieir production are in- 
deed a curiosity. The text consists of plain 
writing, Uttering, and tlourlshing. These 
works can all be examined at the office of 
the Journal. 

"Hill's Manual of Social and Business 
Forms," published by Hon. Thoa. E. Hill, 
Chicago, 111. This work was first issued 
1873; since which it has passed through 
thirty-eight editions, aggregating two hun- 
dred and seventy-eight thousand copies 
sold. It was originally a book of rare util- 
ity and elegance, but a« it has passed 
through edition after edition it has been en- 
larged and improved in a manner almost 
lavish, until now it is one of the most com- 
plete, comprehenfive, and beautiful sub- 
scription - books offered to the American 

|Mihlir. \\ ,. )i ive never belore examined a 
work which seemed a'> neariy faultless in 
its Workmanship, and at the aame time so 
replete with choice and useful infontialion, 
aa this work. It certainly richly merits the 
great popularity " and wonderful »ale to 
which it has attained. 

'P.'ale's Popular E bl.-».tnr aud Cyclo- 
pedia .»f Rtifereiioe." This is dwell printed. 
handsomely-illu-trated wo-k of 702 quarto 
paees. It i^, as its title iudicHtei», an inval- 
uable book of refcn-nce, full of f^cta and 
informati'm altout a multitude of the things 
interesting and of value to all classes of 
person". It is of iis<lf a kind "f hoiise- 
huld library that would bn often consulted 
relative to some ol the thoueanda of useful 
scraps ol kuowlcdne wliich it contaioe. It 
would rp(|iiire columns c,f the Journal to 
describe the various departments of this 
great wttrk. IVrsona interested in such a 
b «ok can ..btaiu full information by addres 
sing R S. Penle & Co., Publishers, Chi- 
c«go, III 

" VickV PIrtral Guide ^or 1884 " has l.W 
pages, three c»dored plates of tlowera and 
vegetablve. and more than I.OOU illustrations 
of ch.iice tloffprs, plauts and vegetables, and 
direitions for growiuif. It is printed in 
hot II English and Gorman. The Fhral 
Guide will tell how to get and grow Vick's 
seeds, which are al« ays reliable. The cover 
this year is a delicately tinted background 
and a dish of gracefully arranged flowers. 
It is printed on good paper, and ia filled 
with just such inform*r.iou as is rfquired by 
the gxrdener. thn farmer, those growing 
plants, and every one needing seeds or 
plants. The price, ten cents, can be de- 
ducted from the first ord<r feut for go<-ds. 
James Vicb, Roohesler, N Y. 

The Universal Penman (Canadian), 
which baa been in a t-tate ol suspense since 
April last, is announced l-y circular to re- 
appear again soineliuie this uioDth. Pen- 
man's papei^ which are as capricious in 
their issuo aa this erne appears to have been, 
are auylbitig but a credit to the profession. 
It has with impurity skipped tuonth after 


one number for two months, aud it should 
or else appear accoidmg to programme. 

"Suggestions to China Painters" is the 
title of a little work juat published by 
Robert Clarke & Co., Cincinnati, Ohio. 
It is a practical manual for the use of ama- 
teurs in the decoration of hard porcelain. 
By Miss M. Louise Mcliaudhlin. Square 
I2mo. Ornamented cover. Price, 75 cents. 

The Exponent is the title of a sprightly, 
fine magazine, published by J Geo. Cross 
and Geo- Yeager, at Bloomington, 111. It 
is the exponent of the Ei^leclic system of 
shorthand, .if which Prof. Cr-ss is the au- 
thor. It is monthly, at $2 per year. 

The Students' Quarterly, lately issued by 
J. A. Weber,, N- H , is a nice 
appf-aring f.'Ur-p^ge paper. 

What lias become of the Penman and 
nook deeper — that of promise bright and 
fwirl It is smne months since it has |ut in 
an appearance. Is it hibernating, or has it 
altogether ceased to bet 

An Amateur's Views. 
By J. H. IJuvANr. 
Having been for a long time a constant 
reader of the Journal, and an enthusiatitic 
advocate of the art which it seeks to ad- 
vance, I would humbly ask permission to 

New Special Premiums. 

The attention of our readers is invited to 
the advertisment, in the adverlising col- 
umns, ot a dictionary and a fountain pen, 
which from their merits we have been in- 
duced to offer to the patrons of the Jour- 
nal as a premium for clubs, and also at 
a low cash price. Please read, and tli 

required club. 


Send your name to the New England 
Card Company, 72 Nassau Street, New 
York, for new price-list (1884) of cards 
and penman's specialities. Sample free to 
ing the paper. 

. hel 


rithout I 

nga that I ^ 

list of contributors 

and finfl 


oaines of 

such men ns Pei 

CO, .Spe 



C"oper, and others 

who gi\ 

e iia 


the Journal's co 

amas, th 

e bo 


knowledge, practic 

1 experi 


and valu- 

able hints culled from their y 


nf labors. 

But these, with th 

e gnldeu 


of infor- 

Illation given by th 



ible edito- 

rial staff, go to 

Tiake tha 

' P 

per, pre- 

eminently, the one 

for ainat« 

11 rs, 

aa well as 

for professionals. 

Being but an amateur, I would not pre- 
sume, as yet, to add now ideas to those of 
my more experienced brethren; but woald 
rather suggest or comment upon views al- 
ready advanced. I do not wich to have it 
inferred from this that I am content to fol- 
low in the wake of (Uhers — a me'C machine 
— but believe that we may sometimes profit- 
ably "read between the lines." The claim 
of originality shall not be one of my weak- 
nefises. Am willing to credit a good thing 
for all it is worth, no matter where it is 
found, or by whom presei.t d. Such, I 
believe to be the spirit nhich should, and 
does, characterize every true "Knight of 
the Quill." 

Iu the December Journal appears an 
article under the caption, " What I saw in a 
Brooklyn High School," by Miss Robertson. 

Though already an advocate of "time" 
in writing, the suggestions given in that 
article put me to experimenting in this line 
on a broader scale than before, and with 
very grutifying results. Members of my 
class have reached the speed of ^l.'iO strokes 
(straight )with the pen in <me minute; and 
when grouping letters together ( five or six 
in a group) have made 400, 500, and even 
upwards of GOO, movements of the pen per 
minute. The last was on miscellaneous 
work, each doing his best, and contioned 
not to exceed two minutes at a time. We 
have not yet reached the speed on capitals 
and signatures mentioned in the article re- 
ferred to; but the redult so far justifies ns 
iu believing it can be reached, and even 
a reasonable amount of 

'ever, that iu working by 
t first should be only mod- 

surpasstu, alter 

I believe, hoi 
time the speed a 
erate — perhaps • 
cure regular, systematic work, aud corr'^ct, 
active thinking; increasing the speed, ac- 
cording to the ability of ttudenta to perform 
the work mentally, until a high rate of 
speed is attained; having the work from 
tirst to last under control of the will, 

" Slow and rapid writing at will," as the 
iiit-thod has been properly styled, may be 
made a very valuable drill, aud will tend 
toward placiug penmauship in the light of 
an intellectual attainment, ultimaiiug in 
highest degree of ; 

I reccommend 
method to others. 

Brooklyn teacher's 

The London Tiwiessays: "Statisticians 
have pronounced the United States to be 
not only potentially, but actually, richtr 
than the United Kingdom. Counting the 
houses, furniture, manufactures, railways, 
shipping, bullion, lands, cattle, crops, in- 
vestments and roads, it is estimated that 
there is a grand total in the United States 
of $49,770,000,000. Great Britain is cred- 
ited with something less than *lii,0O0,0(M),- 
000 less than the United States. The 
wealth per inhabitant in Great Britain is 
estimated at $1,100, and in the United 
States at $S«)5. With regard to the re- 
muneration of labor, assuming the produce 
of labor to be 100, in Greiit Britain 56 
parts go lo the laborer, 21 to capital, aud 
24 to Government. In Franco 41 parts go 
to labor, 30 to capital, and 2^ to Govern- 
ment. In the Ubited States 72 parts go to 
labor, 2;J to capital, anJ 5 to Government.' 

'■!)T'^Vi«-r-"J<>ii,K.\AiJ. "^i 

Back Numbers of the "Journal." 

Every mail brings iuquiriw respectioe 
l)«fk Dumlieri. The followiog We can senj, 
.nd no others: AU numbers of 1878; aU 
for 1879, except Mat/ and November: for 

1880, copies for months of January, Feb- 
ruary, April, May, June, August and 
December only remain; all numbers for 

1881, and all for 1882, except June. It 
will be Doled that while Spencer's wrilinR 
the June number. Only; a lew copies of 
several of the numbers mentioned above 
remain, so that persons desiring all or any 
part of them should order .|uiclily. All the 
.^1 numbers, back of 1883, will be mailed 
for $1,0(1, or any of the numbers at 10 cents 

And School Items. 


The Lawrence (Kaa ) Buaiueaa College, in 
charge of E. S. Mclleavy, reoeivM a flaller- 
iug commendatiou through the Tribune of that 

We learn Ihat Prof. H. RusBell, of Joliet, 
111., ia aboiu lo publish a book of 500 pages, 
eutilled. " Hints and Helps on Praclical Edu- 

D. L. MuBselman, Ihe enterprieing proprie- 
tor of the Geneva City (Quincy, III.) Busi- 
ness College reporlH over 300 etiidents in daily 

The writing academy opened last Fall by 
Prof. H. W. Flickinger, in Philadelph: 
deservedly prosperous. Prof. V. ia a te 
and writer of superior akill. 

Wm. Heron, Jr., of the Manchester ( N. H. ) 
Business College is highly and deaervedly 
complimented by the press of thar city for bis 
successful management of the college. 

Prof. S. Bogardus, principal ot the Spring- 
field ( 111. ) Business College, lately received a 
wiill-merited "caning" at Ihe hands of his 
students. The cane was gold-headed, and the 
tables were heavily ladened with choice delioa- 
cies. The Professor ia believed to be out of 

W. E. Drake, for the past year associate- 
principal of the New Jersey Business College, 
Newark, N. J., has lately purchased, and taken 
personal charge of, Brown's Business College, 
Jersey City, N. J. Mr. Drake is a competent 
and faithful teacher, and will, no doubt, win 
favor and liberal patronage in his new posiriou. 

A. P. Root, for many years an efficient in- 
structor of penmanship in the public schools 
of Cleveland, Ohio, has bo far recovered 
from a long and prostrating illness as to be 
again able to enter upon active labor. His 
letter and specimens lately sent to the JOUKNAL 
indicate that his skillful pen has lost none of 

At the late graduation exeroiaes of the 
TrenloD (N. J.) Business College the princi- 
pal, A. J. Rider, was the recipient, from his 
studeule, of an elegant silver tea-set; also, a 
set of engrossed resolutions expressive of his 
pupils' high appreciation ot him and his 
tutiuii. The gradi 
highly enlerU 

H. V. Wbittier, a lad of sixteen in the Stale 
Reform School, Poriland, Me., writes a hand- 
some letter. Mr. E. P. Wenlworth, the super- 
intendent of the school, informs us that four 
years since young Wbitlier could scarcely 
write his name. He is an interested reader of 
the JouUNAL, from which he has derived effi- 
cient aid in. his great progress in writing. 

N. S. Beardflly, formerly penman at Curtis's 
Business College, Minneapolis, MiuD., is now 
superintendent of penmanship in the public 
schools of Council Bluffs, Iowa. Prof. B. is 
an accom) dished writer and a successful 
teacher. He has also contributed, to the Min- 
neapolu Journal of Education several important 
articles upon penmausbip — one of which was 
copied inlo the JouitNAl,, for which, by an 
oversight, he was not credited. 

The Hon. Thos. E. Hill, author of" Hill" 
Manual" and other popular works, has reoeotly 
purchased, for some (16.000, a tract of about 
one hundred and fifty acres of land south of 
ProspMt Parkj on the Chicago dt NorthwMterD 

Railwny, and will (it it up for his future 
homestead. People who know of Mr. Hill's Hne 
tastes and of his abundant means, will feel as- 
sured that he will make this tract of land one 
of the best and most bea\)tifut homea in the 
■uburbs of Chicago. 


[Persons sending specimens for notice it 
this column should see that the packages con 
taining the same are poi^tage paid in full al 
letttr ratet. A large proportion of Iheae pack' 
ages come short paid, for sums ranging fron: 
three cents upward, which, of course, we ar* 
obliged lo pay. This is scarcely a desirable 
cousideraliou'for a gratuitous notice.] 

E. E. Morris. Raymore, Mo., a letter. 
H. C. Carver. Lacrosse, Wis., a letter. 
C. W. Jones, Batesville. Ohio, a letter. 
J. B. Nelson, EddyviUe, Iowa, a letter. 

C. K. Mason, Hillsboro. N. H., a letter, 
Emma M. Pool, DeGraff. Ohio, a letter. 
Will T. Hariis, Jackson, Tenn.. a letter. 
Wm. M. Evans, Richmond, Va., a letter. 
Mary D. Lackey, Alleghany, Pa., a letter. 

D. Clinton Taylor, Oakland, Cal., a letter. 
ii. W. Rice. Mendola, III., a letter and cards. 
G. W. Allison, Wilkins Run, Ohio, a letter. 
J. F. Corcoran, Denver, Col., a letter and 

F. H. Heath, Epsom, N. H.. a letter and. 

E. C. Brownelle, Black River Falls, Wis., a 
Miss Mary A. Philip, Wankesha, Wis., a 

W. W. Blair, 141) Tremont St., Boston, a 

E. J. Keeb, Indiauapolis Business College, 

. A. B. Kathamier, Farmington, N. Y., a le^ 
Aer and cards, 

E. E. Childs, of Holyoke ( Masa. ) Busii 
College, a letter. 

Prof. A. R. Dunton, 26 School Street, Bot 
on, Mass., a letter. 

C. F. Reynolds, Fitchville, Ohio, a letter, 

Thomas E. Hill, author of " Hill's Manual." 
Chicago, III., a leller. 

W. O. Haworlh, New Market, Tenn., a let- 
ter and set of capitals. 

M. V. Casey, Treasury Department, Wash- 
ington. D. C, a letter. 

;rcial College, 

B. Musser, the veteran penman of Smithville 
(Ohio) Institute, a letter. 

D. McLachlan, of the Chatham (Ont.) 
usiness College, a letter. 

W.H. Heron, Jr., oftbe Manchester (N.H.) 
usiness College, a letter. 

T. C. Chapman. St. Joseph ( Mo. ) Normal 
usiness College, a letter. 

i letter, 

Geo. M. Nichol, of the Richmond (Va. ) 
Business College, a letter. 

C. P. Meads, of Meads's Syracuse ( N. Y. ) 
Business College, a letter. 

W. L. Howe, principal of Oakaloosa ( Iowa) 
BusiDesa College, a letter and cards. 

L. Madarasz, card-writer, of this cily, sev 
eral superior specimens of oard-wriling. 

C. W. Slocum, superintendent of writing in 
public schools, Chillicothe, Ohio, a letter. 

C. M. Cable, of the Smithfield Practical Bus- 
iness College, Greensboro. N. C, a leller. 

R. S. Collins, Knoxville (Goodman's Busi- 
ness College), a letter in excellent style. 

C. N. Crandle, Bushnell, 111., a beautifully 
written Christmas and New Year Greeting. 

J. D. Briant, Raceland, La,, a disign of 
drawing and lettering and roundhand writing. 

The Spencerian Business College, Detroit, 
Mich., an elegant Christmas and New Year 


John C. Brown, Commereial Department of 

ampbell Uoiveraity, Holton, Kas., a letter 
and card. 

W. W. Philips, of Evergreen City ( Bloom- 
ington, III. ) Business College, a letter and 
flourished bird. 

J. E. Suule, of Bryant & Stratton Business 
College. Philadelphia, Pa., a superbly written 
New Year greeting. 

E. F. Shaw, book-keeper for the Plymouth 
( Mass. ) Foundry Co., a most excellent speci- 
men of business writing. 

F. A. Froat. with the Boston & Albany 
Railroad Co., at Albany, N. Y., a letter in a 
most excellent business style. 

W. A. Wright, of Baltimore, Md., a letter, 
in excellent practical style, and a set of grace- 
fully- executed flourished capitals. 

D. H. Farley, professor of penmanship and 
book-keeping at the Stale Normal School, 
Trentou, N. J,, a set of splendidly - executed 

A. N. Palmer, of the Cedar Rapids ( Iowa ) 
Business College, a letter, copy-sHpa, and a 
flourished bird — all in superior style. 

W. Martin Rogers, Scoltsville, N. Y.. a let- 
ter which, in view of his statement that iie has 
been thirty years ont of practice, is very cred- 

Prof. H, C. Spencer, of the Spencerian Bus- 
iness College, Washington, a New Year greet- 
ing on behalf, of himself and Mrs, Spencer; 
written in most elegant Spencerian. 

J. W. Whittleeey, Lincoln, HI., a letter, in 
which he says: "I find the Journal a very 
interesting and welcome visitor ia my house, 
and heartily wieh it could go to every family 
in America," 

A. M. Hootraan, Principal of the College of 
Commerce, Jennings's Seminary and Normal 
School, Aurora, HI., a letter and set of capitals, 
He says: "I have been a subscriber to the 
JoUHNAL for several years, and cannot do 

L. S, W. Wilson, Secretary of the Commer- 
cihl Traveler's Association, Syracuse. N. Y., a 
letter in an excellent business style. He says: 
■'I am much pleased wiih the Journal. Your 
article on Business Writing was good; more 
should be written on that subject." 

Property and Home. 

new College, Milwaukee, Wis., by the priooipal, R. C. 
Spencer, Nov. I3lb, 1883. Reported foe tlie Phkman's 
Art JouaSAl. by George Hobart. Stenographer. 

I recently said to you that the foundation 
of home iu woman j that the perpetiiatioo of 
the race ia depondoot upon sex. This is 
the order of nature. The home is the typo 
of progress. The home of the savage ia 
not fixed ; it is a temporary hut, a wigwam 
— an ephemeral contrivance. It is con- 
structed of the hranchea of trees, of their 
bark, or of the skin of animals. It may be a 
hiding-place from the winds and storms, on 
the leeward side of a trunk of a tree, or 
some great rock — a cavern possibly — 
something made without hands. 

The wandering migratory habits of the 
savage or barbarian are not favorable to the 
preservation a nd development of the life 
of infancy, which is held by a thread, so 
tender and frail that it needs the most in- 
telligent and constant care and affection. 
Parental instinct holds offspring in loving 
regard that tend« toward thoughlfubesB in 

preserving its life. Little forms are clad 
with more care, but this clothing must be 
woven by hands; and the moment hands 
touch the material out of which is to be 
fabricated the dress of a human being and 
it thereby takes useful shape, it becomes 

Looking out this morning upon the city, 
in the midst of which we are, we see a pop- 
ulation of one hundred and fifty thousand 
souls, well clad and shielded against the 
cold and *he piercing winds of approaching 
winter. These protections to living forms 
are property which indicate the place we 
hold in eiviHzed progress. 

The affection which springs spontaneous 
ly in the heart of the parent toward its otF- 
spring is a feeling which exists in the breast 
of the savage and barbarian. In them, 
however, love toward children is not so de- 
veloped as in more advanced society. It ia 
not as intelligent as that which nourished 
and cherished each of you, and brought you 
safely, healthfully and vigorously up to 
yotiDg manhood and young womanhood. 
The infant of the savage may be neglected, 
exposed to cold, to hunger, treated with 
neglect and cruelty, and yet there is in the 
heart of the savage parent the germ of that 
love and affection which alternately blos- 
soms into comfortable and beautiful homes. 

Property tends to forms and applications 
corresponding to the thought and feeling of 

When the feeling which founds the home, 
establishes the hearthstone, warms it, and 
creates its attractions, becomes powerful in 
the human heart, thought, care and hope 
are directed toward the home. Into it is 
organized the best efforts in the pursuit of 
happiness, and home life becomes the foun- 
tain of the best satisfactions. 

As home and the perpetuation of the rare 
are dependent upon relations of sex, mar- 
riage presents itself to the thought of every 
member of the community as the most im- 
portant of its institutions. Hence young 
people in preparing for the business of life 
should direct their attention wisely to the 
subject of property in its relation to home. 

I submit, then, this subject, the most 
suggestive probably that I can offer for 
your consideration. It calls up to your 
hearts pictures that will be ever dear — pic- 
tures of home. 

Those whom you love and who love you 
will pass away, but the home is perpetual. 
To my mind, the home is cue of those 
things which in order of creation never will 
be entirely perfected. It will continue to 
grow liotter, sweeter and more beautiful, 
and its improvement is our improvement. 
For the home and its satisfactions you will 
labor, seek gain, choose companionships, 
and form associations in the life that now 
is — the busy toilsome life of to-day, the 
hope and fruition of the past, the promise 
of the future. 

A giiE 

OF Antecedents. — "You 
know, ma, that in Philadelphia people al- 
ways ask who one's grandfather was, and as 
I am going there soon you must tell ine. 
Was my grandfather a judge, or a governor, 
or a president, or anything t " 

'* Well no, my dear. He became very 
rich, though, and you may say he had some- 
thing to do with banks." 

" But what was his profession or trade t" 

"Oh, never mind about that." 

" But those Philadelphia people will ask 

"Well the only trade he ever learned 
was shoeuiaking." 

" Sboemaking! Oh, well, he got rioh, so 
that is all right." 

"Yes; he made shoes a great many 
years. He learned the trade and worked at 
it in a penitentiary, but yuu need not men- 
tion that."— 5c^ 

Remember, that if you renew, or send, 
your subscription to the Journal, with 
$1, you will get a 75 oent book free, or a 
$1 book for as oenta extra. 


The above cut is photu-eDgr&T«d from pen-and-ink copy, executed at the office of the Journax, ai 
new "Compendium of Practical and ArliBtic Penmanship." It is unirereally acknowledged to be the moBi 
of the penman's art, t-vtr issued. Comprisea a complete course of inBtniciioo iu Plain Writing, a full couri 
ornate alphabets, and over twenty 11x14 plates of commercial designs, engrossed resolutions, memorials 
inch pldtes. It coiitaina numerous examples of every epecieg of work in the line ot a professional peu-s 
the Bender of a club of twelve eubscribers ($1'^) to the "Journal." We hereby aijree thai, should anyone, < 

be at liberty to i 

it, and we \vill refund to them the full i 

i is ^ a page from the department of alphabets in Amet'e 
comprehensive and practical gnide, in the entire range 

3 of Off-hand Flnnrifhiqg, upward of forty etandard and 
certificates, title pages, etc., etc.; in all, eeveniy 11x14 

■tist. Price, by mail, $5; mailed free, as a premium, to 

a receipt of the book, be dissatiatied with it, they shall 

"Ames's New Compendium of 

Practical and Artistic 


By W. p. Cooper. 

We have in our hands to-day, and have 
joBt been carefully looking through, another 
new book upon peomanabip. The title is 
"Ames's Compendiutn of Practical and 
Ornamental Penmanflhip." In the last two 
or three years meritorious publicatiuns have 
followed each other in such rapid succession 
that one is scarcely thoroughly examined 
before another appears. Nearly all are 
from the great metropolis— the mother of 
publishing facilitieB. We might almost 
safely eay that from " The Geme," by 
Williama & Packard, down, ench and 
either, to the capable and critical pupil, 
would or might furnish all of the aids to 
the mastery of this art absolutely essential or 
really needed to reach success. If we look 
into otlier tnattera of art education, or any 
other department of public school or uni- 
versity education, we shall find nothing like 
the energy, emulation, ability or progress 
exhibited in this accumulative array of 
grand authorship. 

We have now what might be properly 
called the "Penman's Library" complete. 
We look with astonishment over the mag- 
nificent plates in the set of books. 
{We must not omit Hill's great work.) 
What more can he added ? Possibly some- 
thing, but we unhesitatingly say, Ma( some- 
thing must be superfluous and unnecessary. 
It must he, if anywhere, in the direction of 
new triumphs in pen-art; novelties, in the 
way of execution; and original and merito- 
rious conceptions in composition.. Well, 
we may as well wait and see. Since this 
richer in books than auy 
sGed with what we have, 


ago Qaakell 

undertook a ohaiaoterUtio and great work| 

— to wit, " Gaskell's Penman'sHand-book." 
This work is largely European, somewhat 
American, and finely put up. The Spencer 
Brothers and their publishers have just 
given the people "The Spencerian Com- 
pendium of Penmanship." This great and 
elaborate work, which conies from the living 
and the dead, is largely, almost wholly 
American, and is almost exhaustive of pen- 
art. We cannot conceive, with the art as It 
is here to-day, how, considering the price 
of the work, the publishers get their iiinuey 
back. Here, at last, is another book by 
Ames. This book is pre-eminently charac- 
teristic. It is" Ames all over— inside and out. 
It is what we might expect from a roan, to 
a fault self-reliant, painstaking, industrious 
— almost beyond human power of endur- 
ance — in short, from the editor and publisher 
of the Penman's Art Journal of the 
United States. For its " timber " the 
JouitNAL is the cheapest publication in 
America. This book in ijuality and charac- 
terietics beats the Journal itself. Gask- 
ell's Hand-book 18 9x11 inches; this book 
is 11x14 inches — a very large book. For a 
book of art, we thought Gaskell's very 
largo ; this one has one-third more surface 
to the page. The paper in this, in qual- 
ity and fineness, equals Trench-board. It is 
the best paper we have seen in a book. 
The fine board in this book (1)7 sheets) 
must be worth $1.50 alone, without a 




plates or boards are each whole and complete 
art compositions. We thiuk that most of 
these masterly compositions are by Prof. 
Ames himself. Gaskell's book, properly 
speaking, is not a book of compositions or 
the work of modern artists. TJiis is a book 
of elaborate composition ; not Kuropoan, but 
American, of the present and not the past. 
The marked traits and character of these 
compositions is as much Ames as the indi- 
vidual type ol his agreeable face. We take 
it for granted that pentneo eipeoially wil 

see the incomparable value of the book in 
this respect. We have in these twenty-seven 
or thirty sheets as many valuable pictures 
altogether in illustrated casing. And really 
for exhibition, what finer adornment than 
this for the homo and drawing-room ? We 
have spoken of twenty-seven or thirty ela 
borate compositions. There are dozens of 
other plates, really compositions or group- 

The limits of this article will not, of 
course, permit of a review, plate by plate. 
We can barely hint at excellences or touch 
upon matters of great interest to the pur- 
chaser or the public. The first division of 
the work is a text-hook to the student of 
practical writing. The diagrams are not 
only fac-similes of, but by large size of line 
and shade preserve the spirit of, practical 
writing. They thus preserve every advan- 
tage of pen-copy with perfect precision, and 
far more palpable forms; heuce the student 
will copy these, not only with more pleas- 
ure, but far greater profit than steel-engrav- 
ings. The instruction in regard to position 
is excellent. Let no student underrate the 
importance of a perfect mastery of position, 
reached only by care and habit. By ]>rao- 
tice, converted and fixed, master the three. 
We prefer the front. That position which 
gives the greatest power over every faculty 
used, leaving every part the least cramped 
and under the least restraint, surely cannot 
be a bad position. The book, on the sub- 
ject of Position, is exhaustive. That is 
surely enough. Pages 4, 5, (i, 7 and 8 
embody the philosophy of shape and com- 
bination. On this subject the " Self-instruc- 
tor" seems to he lame; I mean particularly 
combination. We practice^^rs/, movement; 
next letters ; then words ; and, lastly, sen- 
tences. Thousands of the pupils of the 
" Invincibles " master capitals, exel in 
particular words, but fail in the sentence, 
paragraph or discourse. It is because free 
movement once acquired ii oontinuoUf ob* 

structed, perplexed and confounded in thf 
perpetual passing in sentence -writing ^om 
one movement to another. The best prac- 
tice after capital- practice is single-word 
practice Repeat words at least twelve 
times; write a great deal, not across, but 
in Column, connecting the words with vi- 
bratory lines from right to left. Take the 
words on pages 8 and !J of this new book ; 
repeat every vord at least a dozen times ; 
first slowly ; then up, by accelerated move- 
ment, to rapid. You will soon see by re- 
sults that at last jou are in the right way. 
After long and oft-repeated word- practice 
try by the same rule the single sentence, 
and, lastly, the composition. We are not 
to forget that penmanship is an exact sci- 
ence ; henre that, if the letters are correctly 
made the word will be correctly written; 
but herein lies not the rub ; it is in the dif- 
ficulty of rapidly passing from one move- 
ment to another and preserving the perfect 
letters complete. Page 12 gives three 
business slips. Put yourself in drill by 
what is overhead ; then write each of these 
slips a score of times. Kepeat the two 
letters on page 1'2 two score of times, re- 
turning very otten while doing this to word 
and capital practice- In capital- practice, 
look continually after slope or slant. (See 
diagram at the top of the lOth page.) On 
page 14 try the upper set of capitals, mus- 
cular movement : first, one at a time, across 
over and over; then the whole set in tbeir 
order; then the whole arm-movement set 
below after the same order; then turn 
back to page 10, try sets No. 1 and No. ^, 
small muscular movement, a score of times 
each. The movement copies on page d are 
always in order. The size may vibrate 
between large and small, but use no super- 
fluous marks. Determine upon success 
when you begin, and let no hindrance what- 
ever stop you short of a correct and rapid 
handwriting complete. These words are, 
of course, for students who buy this r«r« 

bonk. The iQstructiooB fouod io this book 
lie'oD^JDe to tfaia divieioo are uot Ipse re- 
markable for pflrepicui'y than Irjvity. If 
Prof. Ames always speaks to the point, 
he orteoer says too little rather thaa too 
mueh. The hiots on dpsigD and tl'iiirishing 
are most perepicauus, cornprehfusive and 
coiuplelf. Ever>thiug here is hufi and to 
the poiut; theso a^e fuiind on pace l(i 
The fl:rample9 on pafie IS. for drill, are se- 
lected from many,.Rud cauuot be practiced 
t'o mu'-h. The diHgraiiiB on the riRht and 
left of the base are opeuiue buds, finished 
with hi^h oruaincolatioD. Xe«rly all of the 

aro put in 
parif. The 



Qceits for 

Page l!l is the bird in 
e is in simple liue and 
of Ibis page should 


be repeated until the pupil produces each, 
off- hand, nearly or tiuite correct ; then try 
the bird at the top of page 21, without its 
flurrouDdinps; then Jry your baud at 
Spencer's bird in the center of thi 
with the nourished eurrnuudings ; n 
teiript the two birds in the b.^se of the plate, 
cvtT and over, until you get them— that is, 
off-h)tnd. Now undertake the bird at the 
top iif page '23; pass the swan -it is too 
diflicult; then turn to page 24. and study 
the diagram; try the birds. The eagle at 
the top of the page presents too great diffi- 
culties to a new beginner. Page 25 gives 
a new study in birds; try Ihece three birds 
over and over; aud siudy the wines, head?, 
faiidifs and position. Now uudrrrake, if 
you please, this ideal bird's ne&t ; oinit the 
o;isG ornamentation. If you wish to fill a 
card, place below, scroll-work and your 
namo, or something of that sort. Now 
inni to pagB 24, or the one of card -desi ens. 
Try diagram No. 2 and 3 on the left, and 
No 2 and a on the right; finally, the one 
in the left base. Yuu are by this time 
ready t.. try the aurroundings, in fl.jurisb, 
in each diagram before undertaken. 

These imperfect bints are simply lo intro- 
duce you to, and make easier the beginning 
of yo'ir work. To yon, the stndent . f 
Pen- art, let me say, Do not be afraid of off- 
hand flourishing; every hour at thie work 
will help your wriiing. Use the pan both 
ways, direct and reversed. 

The editor of the Gazette recommends 
the position revprsed exclusively. When 
he is older he will see that there are morf. 
diffic-iiliies overcome with the direct than 
the reversed position of the pen; besides, 
this kind of pracliue dimbles [en power in 
every direction. We regret the brevity 
forced upon ns by waul ..f space in speaking 
of each deparimeut ..f Mr. Ames's book as 
weg'. along. We must say to you, however, 
trace but very liille; Work long at simple 
forms, and get one study or some part of it 
before you touch au-.lher. Understand, we 
say nourish the varieties of birds first with- 
out surroundings; then try oue afrer an- 
-th.r with surroundioes, and have faith 
from the begimiug iu uhimHte resolts. 
We have in this great work fuuileen plates 
of loitering; many wiih three or more al- 
phabetjj ea.-.h. You will never see more 
beaulilul text than on page 32. Turn now 
to page;jt>; see the richness of the rustic 
alphulieta; next, to plate No. 4().c..inpu8ed 
of twenly-f,ur types of letters. For variety 
;ion, beauty of desigu, richness in 
B never saw these surpassed. You 
can contemplate at your leisure these won- 
derful studies in lettering. They are the 
outgrowth ot ath.-usand )ears. You have 
here a style of l«lter for every possible pUce 
and purpos-;. From these you c-^n si-Iect 
always iho best varieties for use. Cbo ise 
for your needs, and then trace or 
sketch for using. The best and richest al- 
pbabela lurnish distinct and complicated 
studies, as grand to contemplate iu bi.urs of 
leisure, as useful tw engraver or artist any- 
where. Now look, if you pjea-e, at the 
four designs on plate U ; here is the begin- 
ning of composition, Observe deeign No. 
1 on the right ; the artistic bottom idea is 
this: ^rst, the beautiful in form ; next va- 
riety; next, high conrrH«t iu lieht, shade. 
fttshioa and liue 

effect. All work 

clearly defined, ch 

ing in character an 

irig the very beet, considp 

composition. This kind of 

eye and hand of Prof. An 

sort sl'.ould be 


fair ha, 


from beiug 
lie rich noA Hrtistically 

t and );raDr) beyood des 
F.iurleeD years hro we tirsi eaw a Jirst 
deiign iu letlerioK from tlio hand of Pn.f. 
Ames. Palpalily siguifinaut was tlie worlt, 
and fore-shadowed ihe leader of a uew 
school in lelter-desigu easy «unugh. His 
work, although iuBnilelj varieil, is all of it 
of one origionl type. His forms, although 
always multiplied beyond other artists', 
uever want either in harmouy or unity of 
purpose or eH'ecl. Turn in the new hook 
to page or plate 5.1. This design embodies 

the virtues of William Sauer, deceased, by 
the Tauiinsny Hall Central Coinmiltce of 
Kleventh Dialriot, New York. This com- 
position, in its way, we imagiue to be 
inimitable; a masterly and dnished work, 
both in execution and cumposi 
else such 

A Few Comments 
O.N " Ames's Xew Compendium." 

ttar Sir — The copy o( Ihe New Compeodlnin i 

shall find 
men of , 

in forms 
liScally , 

s this; I 

di in sliad- 
1 grouping, 
ally, in all 

..grouping Torijeu, 

pro-emiucntly illustrates Ames's style and 
manner throughout. The only serious dif- 
ficulty with the student is lo know where 
or how Ui begin or prosecute the study of 
these plates. Plate No. ^1) is aiioiher de- 
sign in engrossing, wholly different from 
the one just mentioned. It is Eeither so 
diverpiBel, complete or elaborate, but still 
the comi o.iliim is in eicel'ent taste. You 
can find iu banker's hand no belter copy 
for practice llisn is furnished by this beau- 
tiful card. .Should you undertake large 
csrd. of engrossing, you can have no belter 
model than the above plate. The masonic 
card or plate, on page 51, is a work of rare 
merit. Kveiy part of this beautiful design 
is so contrived as to give Ihe w|]i,le an ele- 
gance and brilliancy rarely reached by any 
work with graver or pen. Now turn lo 
plate ()7. This card contains four lines of 
lellering; the heading of this card is a 
masterpiece of art. The effect of the de- 
sign, as a whole, of this plate is wonderfully 
b.dd, brilliant and beautiful You can have 
no richer study in bold lettering than this. 

Volumes might be written iu explanation 
and praise of this array of plates — this in- 
comparable grouping of masterly compo- 
sitions; but our circumscribed limils will 
not permit of our dwelling longei 
part of our subject. It seems tf 
this book, considering its content 
be accepted as the crowning labo 
Ames's lung, laborious, but triuii,pha 

ityoo (he nil of penman 

bip, ai be 

i> oD« Of the nid 

known and mosl famou* 


Q baadtrrillD^. A 

tboii^b he modciiUjr puis 


n enlirpU aeTwr 

0( the cevcDiy plntei Im 


re r^rri"'ed Ma 


eaiily, an 

1 tba Toliiuie will 

founil iovHliiBljIe by all 

eachem o 

r p.nn.flo,h!p, wh 

every reader may f(ain m 

ch vahul 

le iaformalion by 

^orrly le'iechTJpenl', 

0^1*!'^ " 

rorg rrequenlly occ 
e«p«rially by tbe 

fully ejcplBioed by 1 


grand pen -pictures by the 

To prodo 
use of all 1 
achievement for penmen ; but to do this not 
by these aids, but by the use of simple group- 
ings and cmpositiou alone, this was left for 
Ames, and nobody else, as wo understand 
it. Proud as he must be of this assembled 
exhibition of his best w.,rk, he now offers it 
to you, the yo,mg men and women of this 
great country, and at what price? Tbe 
largest and richest work in pen-art and 
compoHliou in America, and wo might say 
ihe world, not put up in paper, but the 
finest board, a volume for Jiae dollars. 
Twelve dollars for a bible, twelve for a 
dictionary, twelve for a book of maps, and 
only five fur a great work of art I Very 
thick and heavy books are apt to give way 
in the binding. This book has no fault of 
this sort; firmly and strongly bound, and in 
the very best possible shape to handle; 
practically, as a thing to buy, it is without a 
fault. By careful usage it will serve three 
generations of writers, instead of one ; then 
why not have it J The wriler of thia faulty 

life and he: 
book happi 

I wishes Professor Ame, 


id tbe purehaSBi 
and aucceis, and 

of the 

About the "Journal.' 

SOUTH naxD, iDd., Jan. 4i 
roar v.lmbl. end highly I 

nake the JOUBSAL a perfuol gem 
luto hoil glaJdeos Ihe hearts of a 

SCI success t nm, most reepectrully, 

Bnglh, and engraved speolmeDS 

at HourisLilDg, ju,t as p« 

sUlentlyaa people 

Prof. H. C Spentier,, tit 

a dreu and penon 
n^aiiblugtoa, hasju 

ad Prof. II. C. Uiumnn 

i» U> begin auotli 

upoluiuly avoid oDTeiidia 

«« ayes, and «ei 

ba ot Ihe greaieet beueQ 

loan.— iV«(r« Zla*. 



Tremendous Power of Water. 

The properties of water are only partially 
understood by those who have never seen 
it under high pressure. The Virginia City 
Water Company gets its supply from Mari- 
ette lake, on the Taboo side of the moun- 
tain. It gels it through by a long tunnel, 
is then on the crest of a high mountain op- 
posite Mount Davidson, with Washoe val- 
ley between. To cross this valley by a 
Hume would be almost impossible, so the 
water is carried down the mountain side to 
th^ bottom, and crosses under tbe V. & T. 
railroad track, on tbe divide between 
Washoe and Eagle valleys, then up again 
in pipes to the re<|uired height. The de- 
pression created in the line of carrying is 
1,720 feet, and the pressure on the pipes is 
800 pounds to the square inch. One pipe 
is eleven inches in diameter, and is rpiarter- 
inch iron, lap-welded, and eighteen feet 
long, with screw joints. There is little 
trouble from it; but the other, which is 
twelve inches iu diameter and a riveted 
pipe, makes more or less trouble all the 
time. The pipe is laid with the seam 
down, and whenever a crack is made by 
the frost or sun warping it, or from any 
other cause, the stream pours forth with 
tremendous force. 

If the joint is brAen open, of course the 
whole stream is loose and goes tearing 
down the mountain, but usually the escape 
is very small. The last break was less 
than five eighths of an inch in diameter, 
and yet tbe water in the flume lowered 
an inch and a half by it, and the pressure 
went down fifteen or twenty pounds. 
Capt. Overton says that fifty inches of water 
went through it. It has been probably a 
year in cutting out, and was made by a lit- 
tle stream hardly visible to the njikid eye 
that escaped through a joint and struck the 
pipe two or three feet off, eating away ihe 
iron until the pressure inside broke through. 
When such a break occurs the noise can be 
heard for half a mile, and the earth shakes 
for hundreds of feet Br..und. A break the 
sine of a knitling-neellle will out a hole in 
the pipe iu half an hour. Such breaks are 
repaired by putting a band around the pipe, 
pouring in moulten lead, and tamping it in. 
Such a stream bores through a rock like a 
sand blast. The flying water is as hard as 
iron, and feels rough like a file to the toucli. 
It is impossible to turn it with the hand, ns 
it tears the flesh off tbe bones, and if tbe 
fingers are stuck into the stream, with t le 
point up, the nails are iustantly turned 
back and sometimes torn loose from the 
flesh — Reno Gazette. 

The Lost Rivers or Idaho.— One of the 
most singular fealures in the scenery of the 
Territory of Idaho is the occurrence of dark, 
loky chasms, into which large streams and 
eeks suddenly disappear and aro never 
more seen. These fissures are old lava 
channels, produced by tlie outside of the 
molten mass cooling and forming a tube, 
which, on the fiery stream becoming ex- 
hausted, has been left empty, while Ihe 
roof of the lava duct, having at some points 
fallen in. presents there the opening into 
which the river plunges and is lost. At 
one place along the banks of the Snake, 
one of these rivers reappears gushing from 
a cleft high up in the basaltic walls, where 
it leaps a catariiet into the torrent below. 
Where this stream has its origin, or at 
what point it is swallowed np, is utterly 
unknown, though it is believed that its 
sources are a long way up in the north 
country. Besides becoming the channels of 
living streams, these lava conduits are fie- 
quently found impacted with ice masses, 
which never entirely melt. — Public Opin- 

The Price of a Specimen Copy 

of the Journal is im cents, which is not 
paid with a one, two, three, or five cent 
stamp, aa many applicants seem to suppose. 
Persons expecting their orders for specimen 
copies to receive attention should remit tm 



V ,r ^- 


^^^mlti ill tijj. ° 

NE iiuwia 

2^-'«j -w^s. 

) ^^yti^/*""^ 




The N.vriONAil Rvuk Ban^^ 







College Cupbekcy — Uiiilor tlie slriiigent laws and rulings (.f llio Vmt. .: ^ , T . - i . m I , 
ililBsiWe, it has l.ceD ve.y dilliciill to analige iksigns thai would be in their nc « i : ^ i : 

believe, we have now acooinplighed, anl aliuve we preterit twii of Iho des'giis n|M 

It will be observed that the same di'figns are used f<ir both large and sintill iNjnii li aiii i^ j.m 
proper proportion for convenience, viz.; I, 5, 10, ai, .W. 1(111, .'idO, 10(111; small, I. S, Ml, -J.), ..ii. 

Both kinds will be kept in stock, and ordtiR tilled, by leiiiiu of mail or, upon the following t 


I ■ -;vb' »i"l iliaiafter cf Coll. go Ciirreiioy that was per- 
,1 ;ill aiTepIableinsrho. Is iiB .uriencj; but this, wo 

Is li:<\iiig for lilt- large the following denominations in the 

•reRentiug $8:1 :):in ci-piml 
Ilili.UtlU ■■ . 


$7(10 I Fragliuiial Curielirj, pw KU 11,. 

Dnplicate relief plates, which can be iise.l iu piinling eirculiirs, ™iiilogue», papers, etc., I'lirnislnd— of laige, *:); ..f small, *a each. 

f he above cuts are photo-mgraved from pen-and ink cojty executed at the oj/ice of the " Journal," attd a> e i^iven as sjjedmenii of commercial toork. 
Orders /or etmtlur wuik rtceiveU and promptly JilUd, Eslimatee gioen on requeet. 

How to Write a Postal-Card. 

Tlicre «re difftrent ways of writioK a 
postal-card— g*od, bad and indifferent. A 
postal-card often carrif» as inuoh informa- 
tion as a letter, yet few persons are partic- 
ular to dale it properly, state clearly what 
they wish to say, and direct carefully. 

That is tlie first thing to see to in writing 
your po8taI-«ard— the address. Be sure to 
give the name of the person, the place 
where he lives (street, aod number of house, 
if iu a city), county and state. It sounds 
rather absurd, but it is true that postals are 
often mailed without the name of the state 
attached to the address. Strange that it 
never reaches its destination I Now turn 
over your card and write on it lengthwise, 
just the way the direction rnns. In this 
way you will not need to distribute half of 
one word on one line and half on another, 
a? you would if you wrote across the other 
way. At the upper right - hand corner 
place the date and your address as you 
would in a letter. The heading, " Dear 
" is usually omitted on the postal- 
card, and the space occupied witli wliat is to 
bo said. Be as brief as possible, and tiign 
your nanio bo that the one to whom it is 
addressed will know who has written it. 
Initials are often misleading. Of course 
vou will use a capital to begin every sen- 
tence and every proper name, and a period 
after abbreviations and complete sentences. 
It is not necessary to suggest that personal 
allusious are out of place on what is con- 
sidered by many as public property. — Schol- 
ar's Companion. 

A late order of the Postm aster-General 
provides that no parcel or letter will be 
forwarded upon which the postage has not 
been fully paid. This is an important 
order, and should be fully understood. II 
the card of the sender is on the package, 
such package will be immediately returned j 
otherwise, the addressed will be notified and 
required to furnish the requisite amount of 
postage— JV. W. Trade BuUetin. 

The Double Penholder, mailed fro 
the ollice of the Journal, at 90 cents p 
be used oblique or straight, ; 
may prefer. 

the wri 




'AMOciation Hitll,'' corner of 15th and Chestnut Street 

W. p. COOPER. 

per huBdrvd 
SU CU.I p« 






by L. aUPAiiAB 




priDdpltw and mar 
W. 205 Broadway. 

n T' 

Addf^. D. T. All 




ta per i groia. A 



A. eT Paiibos^ ( 

Don*. Addr..*, 



^««*; Bolcosih rubllililaf Co.T'ciMilil 

Mr. Jjhn Bright then glanced back over 
the history of the Episcopal State Church. 
Had its influence made the State better, 
more just and gentle, more merciful and 
peaceful t Not a bit of it. In IC83 no 
less than 1 ,000 Quakers—" members of the 
small sect to which I belong," said Friend 
John, " were in the horrible English jails 
of that time. Hundreds of ihem perished 
there. Three years later William Penn 
wrote: 'There [have] been ruined since 
the late King's restoration about ] 5,000 
families, and more than 5,000 have died 
under bonds for matters of mere conscience 
to God.' That was the work of the State 
Church. The reformation of the bloody 
penal code, under which men and women 
were banged for petty larceny, was carried 
over the opposing votes of Bishops and 
Archbishops."— Sitirfeni's Journal. 





e Col.imb.iB Buggy Co.. Columl 
hou«*,-dri9 and 4til Central A 

Learn to Write. 

BuaiHESs Lettxr, s< 

AddreM J. R. HOLCOUB i 

DEN'S eap^cJally adajited for flnts peoni 

t poat-p^d oa receipt of $175. 


yOUR name (vritteo od k package of owdi. with tiie 
for 36 MQU, by L. Madariu, S13 BmI Wlh Hlntl. 


LAPILINUM (.Stone-Cloth). 

Roll, tightly, like a map, wilhoul 1h)mi 
marking «urlaoe. Superior 

Black Diamond Slating, 

The Beit Liquid Slating (without txfeption) /07 
It'aiU and Wooden Blackboard.. 

the nuiuber usually applied. 
Used and give. Perfeet Satiafaction in 

WuahiDgton,D.C.,(exc1uuveIy|. Paleivor 

i'l^S's"!: '' Pongitr 

'n'oholien"'?rJ. ' 

olgh, : 



1 - - - - Size, tJx3 feet . . - . 
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Thi. w universally admitud to be the belt 
material for blackboard in use. 



205 Broadway, New York. 

centB ptr package, 


ard» are the lateal t\y\e. and L. 
hem. and aa a. Bpeplal offer to 

Penmanship and Art Department 


JBuahneU, IU. 

Qraduatej will be tboTOU)[bty qualified to take cbar^ o 
For ipeDimea, pritiellat and cironbtr, addreu 

C. N. CRANDLE. Manager. 
3-12 BosHNKLL, III. 

oa oae doitm cairU. AddiMa, J. A. WUJje, 7 liobart 
81ml, VIha, M. Y. M 




Ailapl«<i for Dse with or without Text-Book, 
and the only eet recommeDdetl to 


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119 AND 121 William Street, New York. 


American Popular Dictionary 



Peamanship $5 

Netr Sponoerian Compendinm Id porta (6 puta 

ready), per part 6 

WUllama'and Packard'a Gema 5 

Codk<1od'i Normal Lettering and Flooriahing, «aob 

Shorthand Writing 


Thorough iBitmotiop In the heet .y.t.u, ; lena. low, 




> than 

id State.. 


WiltMS Uuiuholory, OUoa(0, 111. ^.iA 


The Source of Mathematics. 

Algebra is an Arabic word, denoting t 

iibining the scpnratpd. The 
Moslems in Carlo zealously cultivated it, 
and after tliey came to know Euclid they 
became great mathematician a on the basis 
of the writings of Claudius Pttdenuims, and 
also great astronomers and geographers. 
In this province, ton, they owe to the an- 
cient Egyptians more than has hitherto 
boon acknowledged. It is by no means ac- 
cidental that the greatest niatliematicians 
of Hellenic antic]uity were styled pupils of 
tlie Egyptians, or that it was said of them 
tliat they had lived on the Nile. Thales 
{GOO B. c.) is reported-to have measured the 
height of the Pyramids by their shadow. 
Pythagoras lived long in Egypt, and studied 
particularly at Holiopolis. He is said to 
liave been master of the Efiyptiau language, 
and Ouupbis and Souchis are mentioned as 
his principal teachers. In the same city of 
scholars was trained under Nektaulbos I., 
Eudemos of Knidos ( 357 ) who discovered, 
among other things, that a pyramid was 
the third part of a prism whose base and 
lieight were equal. It is well kuown that 
Euclid wrote his "Elements" in Alexan- 
dria, under the first Ptolemy (Soter). The 
great Eratosthenes, who was the first to 
measure a meridiau of the earth, owed his 
success in doing so to previous investigations 
made in that department by the Egyptians, 
who were already able to (five with tolera- 
ble accuracy the distance in a straight line 
from Alexandria to Tyana. In all this 
there is nothing that is new to mathemat- 
icians, but few of them have any acfjuaint- 
ance with the records that made known to 
us the state of mathematical science among 
the Egyptians in the beginning of tlie sec- 
ond milleniura B. C. The Rhind papyrus, 
preserved in the British Museum, may be 
termed a hand-book of ancient Egyptian 
mathematics. It was written by a certain 
Aahmesu, under one of the last Hykso 
Kings, and shows that the science of an- 
oicnt times continued to exist even under 
the hated conquerors. The Heidelberg 
Egyptologist, Eisenlohr, has published this 
remarkable codex and a translation of it, 
with the assistance of Kantor, the well- 
known authority on the history of mathe- 
matics. Some of the mistaken renderings 
of these scholars — easily excusable on ac- 
count of the great difficulty of the matter 
— have been pointed out in a most acute 
and stimulating paper by L. Rhodet, which 
we recommend to the atteuliou of all 
mathematicians. The Rhind papyrus es- 
tablishes the remarkable fact that certain 
processes of reckouiug uSed by the writer 
of that very ancient document are identical 
with processes found among the Greeks, 
and through them, among the Arabs and 
the Western mathematicians of the Middle 
Ages, to whom the writings of the Arabs 
were made known, for the most part, by 
Jewish scholars. When we find, for ex- 
ample, the arithmetical process of the 
"false stating" to have been practiced 
from the time of Aahmesu (about 1700 
B.C.) down to the sixteenth ceutury a.d., 
that seems remarkable enough ; but it is 
more astonishing still to find that certain 
examples of progression which extort a 
smile from us on account of the heteroge- 
neous character of their arrangement, are 
contained in the writings of Fibonacci 
( Leonardo von Pisa) about the' year 1200 
A. D,, in exactly the same form in which 
they are given by Aahmesu. This fact, 
discovered by Rhodet, is so remarkable, so 
easily understood, and ao striking to the 
eye, that it will interest even the lay mind. 
The Egyptian example ia stated : Scribes, 
7; cats, 49; mice, 343; meaaures of corn, 
2,401 ; bushels, 16,807^ total, 10,607. 
That ia, there are 7 scribes, and every 
scribe has seven cats (49); and every cat 
catches 7 mice (343); and every mouse in 
a given time eats 7 measures of corn (2,- 
401 ) ; and every measure when sown pro- 
duces 7 bushels (16,807). How much is 
the whole t 1^,607. —Contemporary Re- 

A $1 Book and the "Journal " one year for $1.50. 

We have made arrangements by which we can mail the following described book, 
with the Journal one year, for $1-50. Or we will mail the book, free, to anyone send- 
ing us a club of three subscribers and $3. 







It isKelfiotnthatWP meet with an article th^tt so full f/ corresponds 
with its advertised good qnulitieA «<* docs the New Atne ' 
ff'ntch. It has the advantaye of being made of that precious metal 
Aluminum Oold; its tvorks are of the best make, and the general style 
of the case rank it with the best Watches made anywhere. We ; 

Watrh that will give entire satisfaction. 

mend it to our readers 

The Best Fountain Pen M^adel 

Peuograph nil 

I well aa heavy 

piDloD tbe 
I pencils In (*ai|v use. lis 

the pocket 

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lulio ot LeIl«riDg ounia 


lealpbBbela, nithbooli 

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galar prlc 

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lea that we ar« euable. 




le pen, oblique or slraigbt. as Uie writer m 

Cards (do tno alike), bMotinil samples 

i i-> Cards (no two alik 

, ,'ctcai.OltSgr*^USafJ£ 

SEND 10 oen , 
samples of hU elesant 
, US E. Sylh 81.. Mew Vorti. 

'oard-wTltiDff. HU aAinu U 

Shading T Square. 

s^ Ta)>ldly mIliim tniuls fr^ bfinrl, Thv iiiho* ImIwm 
line, may b# vmipd l.y tominff n thnmbMntr. froni tw 

(•TioH Hiia .leifTiptioD D, T. AMES, 

SO.'i BnwIiTKy. New York- 
W» ((lv« herewith Spartmeni of Tinting, i.bolti 
«i<irr*T«a dirarlly Ihim nilinit .|.>iie liy tba aid or th<*. with ih. ™,.i.llrj ul fre* luwi lio«. 

SKH Youk.JliIj -m. 1880. 

iltrned. Kuiierifuil)'. U. E. SrcKKijt. 

NKW yOHK Sept. 9, 1880 
D. T. Amu. VihM—UrarSir: One of yoor naient 'I 
.M..»« i^ !».., >» ........1 », by ,™ (a, .„.. ,1„, 

Lilly yuan, KuwaiiIi E JoXRh. 


arlouTllle, OnuudBga County, Mew Yorl 

Otntral ^tvtpaptr Subitription Agent, and 
itilUUer of SWiSTB llAXi-itooltB of IXK Racil-B 

: Red. 4 

400+, ~^;;'^„;^^ 

Penmanship Instruction Charts. 

(/. H. REED. Lancaster, Wis. 


U ^ m\ ^f Aiii.'ricaa and Foivl^ 

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Single Copies. 20 cents. I Fer Sale by All Newsdealers. I Subscription. $2.50. 


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"i r 




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StvUVVVi - 

W:,»\'«^VV\«A'\\\SVfeVA 'iVS.V^\ W>t®S>t 



p Series of 

Used In all the Leading Colleges and Schools. 
Class-Book of Commercial Law 






Address C. E. CARHART, Principal, Albany Business College, Albany, N. Y. 






fOR the convenience of thos 
• who may wish to try thenn, 


containing SQ diflerent styles of pens, with price-list of all the SPENCERIAN 

SPECIALTIES, will be sent, for trial, on receipt of IQ cents. 
S^'When you order, call for Sample Card No. 11, and give the name of this paper. 


753 and 755 BROADW^AY, NEW YORK. 

THE CEI.EBKATKD CARD WRITEU, wUh«a to call your attentiuu to Ihe 
Card., which will 1* lound among ihe v«ry fioew obtainable. Per do7.. 

Style A.— Platii while or tiiit«d HHatuI 20 cent« 

.. B — •• " w«<ldlug llrlatol 38 ■• 

'• C— Bevel gold etice 30 " 

" D.— turoed corners 35 " 

«• E.— Pen llonriaked |oo two alike) 70 '• 

AUTOGRAPHS.- For :Ui nem* I will tend jonr nama written on 12 ca-d 

AGENTS WANTED— I want an agant in aTerytonn in Ihe United Sla^li 
card!. AgenW are makiog money wpidly taking onlen tor me, aa I give them a le 
canl-wnter. Seud S.*) oenu for tny beaatiful Agont'a Book ofSampUa. oontaining a g 
.lylaa. A hand.ome apeoiroen of douritbing and lamplea of card- work aant for !i5 oeni 

CAPITALS— For 25 ceuu 

or 25 c«uU I will lend a ael of mv double curve oapilali, which are prouonnoed by the bee 

^^l «^nU*"' " "■* "''" "*^'"*^ ^y "">■ [^''"'au. A aet of Buainwi. CaplIiU. 2( 

STEEL PENS.-»aUlii'a Favorite, for biulnea.. writing, per i grow, 45 coDti; for wirf-writlng 5( 
^^^JDAKIN'S CARD INK «. wiib^nta doubt, tbe b^tink forcard-writinff in the world, h- It lajot blnok, anc 

Foran^^Xam9u'^£'^<^J^'?S^ IP ^^^^^ WITH YOU, and obtain «,me of the following premium, 
eitber rny card ink wcfpe. or i g^ ""n.y'^vome MTf^ll-i^wnting. Fo'r" or'd" amounli'nf to Ji I will '^1 
wi excellent photo- of *!>■»*» and one doien imrda, Style 0. For an order of |3. I will vend a large and hand*™* 
Srraf '••••li Aildroai, A. W. DA KIN. TaUj, N. Y, 

iillAYLUR Poniond Me 
^ mil) awr. 
phoia-aDgnvlBf. but tint 


ne Less.,!,- bv Mriil. 


.ilier lea. b,!.. K.t riinber lnlo,i„„il„„. 




Putdns UDlTmlty. Ijifay«lla. Inil 



200 Miles from St. Louis, Mo. 

Peirce's Business College 

light and airy; Ibe metbuils ol leacb-ng are recognized 
authority ; the couree of study suited (o Ihe demand* of 
the time*: and the gmduBtes ttlliug poiitlona of tro»t 

lanship, and all necesiary brancbw. only 135. 
I!ii»loe,B Penmanjh.p, when taken alone, $20. 
BiiBinesd and Onmmental ■ enmanship, #10. 


P- S. — The Journal oontaiaing full particular*, with 




Writing and Measuring Ruler, 

practical fotmi for the capitui and tm&ll aoTpt alphabelBi 



Vol. VIII.— No. 2. 

Lessons in Practical Writing. 
NuMui;ii II. 


Copj'righled hy A. il. Hlomnn 

Auy liuo taken fnun the left side of an 
oval or curve is a left curve, or from tlie 
liglit side a right curvo. A struiglit Hoc is 
tlio shortest dietanco botwcon two points. 
Snid P. K. Sponcer, Sr., in his Compendium 
of Penmanship : " Principles are fixed 
forms," Tho first, second, and third piin- 
cifiles presented in this lesson are eimihir 
to those used by him io his famous work ns 
a teacher. Priuriples are parts of letters 
OS well as fixed forms. Straight and curved 
lines one spare long are not principles, for 
the followirg reasons: A straight line one 
space long is not used just that length in 
any letter, but must bo shortened by turns, 
or IcDgthcncd, wherever used. As it is not 
a li-ted form common to many letters, nor a 
cuuiplcte part of any letter, it cannot he a 
principle. As right and left curves differ 
in curve and length, as required in the 
varied forms of letters, no one right curvo 
or left curve can serve as a principle. 
Right and left curves may be used as snch, 
to servo where principles or fixed forms 

Cut 1 represents a few of a great vari- 
ety of straight lines and curves used Iq giv- 
ing shape to letters. The famous teacher.'* 
of tho past jiroperly called them elements, 
while we describe them better as right nud 
left curves and straight lines— a description 
more definite. 

In tins lesson will be presented a method 
of viewing penmanship similar to that 
which made P. It. Spencer, A. R. Dunton, 
and the old masters famous for their suc- 
cess as teachers. And as the fruit of such 
teaching, by fixed forms as principles, we 
point to the penmanship of Williams, Cow- 
ley, Shaylor, Capp, Worlhiogton, Gaskell. 
Reynolds, Musselman, Soule, L'llibridgc, 
Ames, and the Spencer Brothers. As each 
of the principles presented in Cut 1 has been 
used through many generations, and been 
successfully taught by Spcncerian P. D. & 
S., and many other authors, their merit ia 
beyond question, and their merit will be 
proved in this lesson. In Cut 1 are pre 
seotcd six principles, separately, then uni- 
~ ted, to make the words humanity and oil 

In connection with principles, right and 
left curves and straight lines may be used 
in building up ^uch parts of letters as are 
not composed of principles. As letters can- 
not be correctly formed uuiil their parts are 
mastered, tho surest way to accurate writ- 
ing is to slick to and master the principles, 
tlien form them correctly when making 
Utters. In Cut 3 are presented tho letters 
mainly composed of tho first, second, and 
third principles. 

The fourth principle is seen on the regu- 
lar slant in the letter o, while in tho letters 
a, d, g, and q tho fourth principle, on an in- 
creased slant, furms their tirst parts. Among 
tho most important principles in wriliug, 
and those wliich should he mastered, even 
through persistent practice, are the looped 
prinaiples. The fifth and eixth aro seen 
in Cut 4, separately, and joined to curves 
or other principles to make lettora. 

In tlie words humanity and oil it is seen, 
by the numbers representing the principles 
below, that letters are principles nnited. 
This being true, it is wise to form the 
habit of concentrating the mioil upon the 
work of forming each principle correctly 
while lettera are being made, and relying 
vip m faith for perfect letters as long as 
principles are being perfectly fonned. 

Wherever one makes correct principles, 
there his letters will be correct; but where, 
for lack of skill or care, tho parts of letters 
are not perfect principles, there the letters 
Mill be imperfect. As the skillful watch- 
maker is simply one who can make the 
perfect parts of a watch and join them to- 

No. I. E.xample No. 1, in Cut I, is the Fiist 
Principle filling one space. Five-sixths of 
the descending line is straight, and one-sixth 
is the turn at the base. The right curve 
passes through one space. Kxampic No. 2 
is the Second Principle, which is the same 
as Principle No. I inverted. No. 3 is like 
Principles Nos. 2 and ] united, and occu- 
pies one space in height and is two spaces 
wide. The turns at top and bottom each 
occupy oue-si-xth of a space. The straight 
lino is two-thirds of a space long. Exam- 
ple No. 4 is the Fourth Principle, one space 
long and one-half space wide. Nos. 5 and 
G are the Fifth and Sixth Principles three 
spaces long, their lines crossing at one 

Cut 1. 


/ J^ J ^ 


^^™™^ ^Jy^^^y^y^^^^^^ 

6/ / ^ 

JVJTTT/ en/f/c/ficirrrr^s 

reus y 

^ P/P/AT/PirS 

gethcr, so is the skillful penman one who 
can make perfect parts of letters and join 
them. A very effectivo way of learning to 
think of principles while writing, is to 
writ© words by first placing numbers of 
princijdcs above the line, us in the word 
humanity ; then form the principles beneath 
tho figures. Principles 2-3M-2 3 united, 
form the word nun; 5-:M-l-2-3-l will 
form the word hunt. In tho letter t a 
straight line is added to the first principle; 
llie same may be done in forming d. Prin- 
ciples 5-3 1-1-2 3 1-1-2-3-4 (i will form 
tho word hunting. In tho examples in Cut 
5 A will Indicate the correct slant of letters, 
and it will indicate tho proportions of a 
spaco in width and length. See Lesson 

space with loops two spaces long and one- 
half space wide. The descending lines are 
straight to within one-half space from the 
ends of the loops. 

In teacliing the first, second, and third 
principles, as seen in this lesson, it was P. 
R. Spencer, Sr.'s idea to tench that the 
turns at the ends of principles should be 
half round and half angular— " Semi- 
angular" ho tirms them — and that in or- 
dinary sized writing they should bo as 
short as possible without appearing sharp. 

Who has not heard tho beginner in mu- 
sic practice for hours upon changes which 
wore simply tho foundations or principles 
of musif't Such stmUmts grow to bo experts, 
while the ouuutry fiddler who jerks and saws 

by main strength wishes it distinctly un- 
derstood that he is a Simon-pure genius, 
and timt he has never condescended to take 
a less-m iu his life, nor cannot even read 
rau>ic. There are others who pride them- 
selves upon their genius m penmanship 
who claim to know only what they have 
picked up or sponged, while those who, 
like the student in music, have practiced 
hours and hours n)ion principles, and 
learned to instantly delect the slightest de- 
fect in each and every part, aro the only 
ones who achieve the highest buccces by 
the only way to success, through knowl- 
edge which gives tlio power. 

As the most inaccurate penmen are gen- 
erally wild on the subject of movement, it 
is thought best in thcEo lessons to lay tho 
foundation for correct movements by first 
establishing definite ideas of form, that 
those who build upon this solid foundation 
may have the power to go far higher with 
their skill than it is possible for those who, 
like the country fiddler, trust to main 
strength for their music, and to luck for its 
quality. Wo teach the colt how to obey, 
not how to run. A definite knowledge of 
form will hold in check the wild movements 
which are apt to dash letters out of shape. 
When we have harne^ed and "hitched 
up" a horse, and taken tlie r^-ius, then its 
movements aro under our control; hut not 
till then. The locomotive is ucver trusted 
with lives until its power is under control; 
then its accuracy of movement through 
time and sjiace wins our highest admira- 
tion. The great skill of our most accurate 
penmen is duo ten times more to their 
critical eyes and perfect knowledge of form 
than to that activity of movement which 
less critical penmen slaughter letters with. 
We therefore commend to our readers the 
most careful study of, and practice upon, 
the principles above presented, both sepa- 
rately and iu words, for there is nothing 
truer than that good letters, like good men, 
aro only those of good principles. 

Replies to Questions. 
By A. H. HiNMAN, Worcester, Mass. 
During the continuation of his lessons, 
Mr. Ilinman agrees to reply, through the 
columns of the Journal, to all questions 
sent to him relating to practical penman- 
ship. Tho following are replies to ques- 
tions asked by the readers of the Journal 
during the past month : 

T. R. D.— A laboring man, or any one, 
can make steady improvement evenings by 
study and practice. Evenings aro golden 
hours for learning to write. You grip the 
pencil, then practice the habit with the pen. 
Use a stift" pen- Practice as long as you are 
interested and carolul, then slop. Guod 
business writing is tho produce of tho com- 
bined, but mainly uuiscnlar, movement. 
" Drawing birds and fancy work " does not 
aid that movement, but docs improve tho 

W. E. K.— Use i 

:i Elastic Spenceriau 
rtistic wiitiug, and a 

No. 1 or 24 for fin 
coarser, stiffor pe 
Maynard and Noyca's ink ia oxoeUent; but 

lh(- best I ever knew, Jiiid use. is oiic-hiilf 
AruoM's Japiiu auJ uoo hji!f ArnuU's iluiii 

J. A C. — Yon should clinngo occasion- 
ally from tlie ol>Iifiuo to the stniight Inddcr. 
The obli'Hio is extcIlcDt for curcful wiiiing 
jind wliuU'unn capitals, but the straight is 
belter for practical busincsa writinfi;. 
• L. B. S.— Fur public school work, write 
copies on the board. Have pnpiU practice 
first on blatk paper or buuks; theu give 
them the copy-book for tlieir very best 

D. S. p._Sevenleeii to twenty-two arc 
the best years to develop peumaiishiii. 
Tliirly is too old to hope f«fi' tho highest 
skill, but writing may be greatly improved 
at fifty. Stimulants iujurc the writer, and, 


•'h hi 

, tlic 


C. P. II.— I'enh.ddiug and position are 
tlie f.nnidalion of free movomenls. Until 
ciiihlrcii's arms and fiogcrs outgrow awk- 
warduess corrrct inr^vcmcuts and pculiold- 
iug will bo diflicult to establish. 

W. T. W.— Do everythirg right-haudcd, 
an ! your writing will iiniirove as your right- 
haud ovofconu's its awkwarduess. 

J. D. H.— Y.m can master penhuldiug 
ifyvt will. I see uoti.iug to cripple your 
success, except iinagii^ary objt.iclcs. 

E. E. M.— I do not know why one's 

ider I 


icuracy iu writing is possible, sonietii 


; ollie; 

Penmanship as a Profession. 
]Jy Pal'i. Tasixou. 

As a wiity wiitor has stid — tho two 
hinges in which a yjuiig man's life turus 
are tLc chid, e uf a wife and tho ch. i.-c of 
a proles^iMn, Galhiutry asi.le. 1 thiuk cvei-y 
oue \ijU agrio wi b n,c ihiitthc latter i^ the 
ii.oro i.iipi.rtabl if ihe two. A young mau 
cau live and pio-M-er ttlllu.ut a wife, but he 
ciinuot Wiihiiut a pro essinn, ulIcss ho is 
au heir and »u idler j and the man wh«i 
dues uotliing can ("furoily ho said to ho a 
mau iu tho buuotalde seuso of the word. 

Choosing a pvofearbiu, then, ii tho criti- 
cal act of a young man's life. It is that 
wbii;h delOfniiiies icaily eveiythiLg else. 
Tbiust a niHguet iuti. irou filings, aud Ihpy 
will all move aud .ling to it. So put pur- 
pose iuto a mau'fi life, and all bis Clicrgici>, 
aiuis and hopes wi.l arrange tlicmsrlvei 
around it. To choose the form ol one's 
pcruiaucDt activity is tho shapitg act of 
life. One so dcterminea, deBuiiely, liis fu- 
ture fur this world, aud, relafively, his fu- 
ture for the world to come. It is iho aeli.m 
of tho human will Sxiug the courses of in- 
dividual huuiau destiny. 

A very serious ihiug it is, then, to fully 
decide upon )>ursuing any special work 
c.'fclueivily, aud to ils ultimate results. 
Oue sboiild con-ider wilh great cwc oue'a 
qua liti cat ions, oue's tastes, uud ouc's likeli- 
hood of eLduninco, btfore committing cvery- 
tliing to n dfcision. There ihould be most 
petfect harmony of iuteicst, in at least three 
respecis, to warrdut any youug man in de- 
voting himself to a given pursuit. In the 
first {ilace, ho must have a strong liking 
foi it; iu the second place, ho must have 
(jualilicatiuus whitb, at least, measurably 
qnalify him fur the put^uit; aud in tho third 
j)tace, ho must bo sure that he ii able to 
wear well with tho work. Tho latter is a 
very important point, and yet it is most 
often loft altogether out of consideration, 
to tho grfat misfurluoe of all concerned. 
Many R young niau is fond of a certain kind 
of work, has talents fitted for it, yet is not 
able to pursue it with that intense and un- 
tiring persoveiance which is necessary to 
success in every walk of life. Ho falters, 
relaxes, and fails. This is the story of 
maty » promieiug youth who goes to the 
bad. Ho could Lot wear well with bis 

Tho profcision of penmansMp is nowise 
difltrcLt from ary othcrin the quaUliraiiuns 
which it rcqiiins of those who adopt it. 1 
have ufleu thought that especial cousidera- 
tiou ought to be given it, for tho reason 

that it is a new profession, and subject to 
somu limitalions which others arc nut sub- 
ject to. For instance, ooe needs extraor- 
dinary wearing powers to succeed in this 
form of activily. Tiicro h uvno to be un- 
dergone in gelling a foothold than in some 
uf the old professions. Ono must largely 
blflzo out his own j)ath9. Ho must be a 
piimeer, an apostle of penmanship, as well 
as a profes-or of it. Ho must make a place 
for himself, not find it. And yet I have 
not tho slightest doubt that there is room- 
yes, and need— for such a prof-ssiou in this 
country. Penmanship is bound to become 
a profession. Wilh so many iuterostcd in 
it, and such vast strides of progress iu tho 
art, how can it fail to crystulizo iuto this 
form? Journalism was nut accounted a pro- 
fession until recenlly; and it grew out of 
just such uDorgaLized begionings as pen- 
manship. The fact is that wheu any large 
number of iutelligeut men, iu any »ge or 
country, have made a specialty of any f<»rm 
of artistic or iutcU ctual work, that work 
sooner or later grows to the digui'y of a 
jirofossion. Tho narrow bigotry whicli cou- 
linod tLo term " jruffssiou" to a single 
class of educational work is out of date now. 
The time has come whfu artists and adepts 
are entitled to ihe disliurtion of "profes- 
sor," HS well as those who dt-lve among 
Greek words aud musly meta|diy3:C3. But 
tho profc-ision of penmanship is y.-uug In 
a certain sense, it is a prenirious profession, 
and only young men of the most diu ded 
iiileuis aud the greatest peri-eve ranee should 
c.ter it as a prMsion. As au adju.ict to 
other piofussious, aud ono of the gnat es- 
seuiia's of business life, pennninship, of 
course, is an art which should be acquired 
by every young man. Five or ten years 
hence, may sec as decided an cstMblishment 
of penmaui-hip as a profes^ioll as tho last 
ten years havo been sicu of the dcvch)p- 
meut of journalifm iuto a profession. Mean- 
while, there are those, who like the |do- 
nocrs in every cause, will push right on, 
fearing and faltering at nought, and raiding 
by their labors aud achievemouts tho art 
ihcy profess to tho dignity aud the iutlucuuo 
of a profession. 

The Art of Writing. 

OF SrilXCKKIA.N Penmansuu'. 

By R. C. Spencer. 

Tbe settlement aud development of the 
Connecticut Western Reserve of Ohiu, 
brought with them trade aud commerco to 
meet the wants and tfi'ect the exchanges of 
the enterprising, growing and thrifty people, 

The merchant and man of busineGS be- 
came an important factor in the snbdnicg of 
the forests and converting labor and its pro- 
ducts iuto wealth. Here, as everywhere, 
the merchant and man of affairs felt the 
need and appreciated the value of an edu- 
cated pen in conducliuK his enterprises and 
rocordiug his transactions. Here, as t-lse- 
where, ho naturally sought for what he 
wanted. Ho found it in the pioneer boy 
who was to mould and give character to the 
commercial and business writing of tho 

Anon Harmon, of Ashtabula, one of tbe 
earliest and largest merchants, the 6rst 
elage proprietor, vessel builder aud business 
man of that country at the time, employed 
Piatt R. Spencer at about the age of tifieen 
years, and rapidly advanced him until, at 
tho age of eighteen years, he had become 
his most capable and trusted assistant in the 
management of his extensive and varied en- 

Tho boy from tho woods combined with 
superior penmanship, accuracy iu calcula- 
tions aud correct use tf English languHge, 
pleasing address, industry and enthusiasm. 

. of i 

xd the metbt'ds aud principles of 
iransaclious. Uutil about the year 

over the country involved Mr. Harmon and 
dissolved hia business, young Spencer re- 

mained in his employ, discharging the du- 
ties of the most responsible and difficult 
position. Hero the boy found opportunity 
to apply to business the ideas he had oun- 
cpived of writing as a pranlical art, aud 
here, also, came a new and more real in- 
epiration in that direction. 

The graceful forms and imagery that had 
been developing in his mitd— of which he 
had dreamed in childhood — that he had 
tried to produce on tbe fly leaves of hia 
inolber's Bible, that he had f.tshi<>ned on 
tho Quaker Coblder's leather, on the sand 
and snnw when but a small l"-y, he now wed- 
ded to commercial and nifircautile life, and 
through his labors as tea.-her aud author in 
after years the uuion of his thoughts with 
th*- business chinigraphy of America has 
become fixed and permanent. 

That Postal-card! 

A Pi.EA TO Uncle Samuel. 

liy ARTIEint Okhlku. 

Ouly a postal-card ! II -w insiguidcant a 
Utile |>ieco of canl-boanl! And yet how 
great the aggregate value of iho amount 
used hy th-- buiiijess world, aa well as pen- 
pie iu general, liuriug the sp.tco of ouly one 
year! Aud how icreat the amouut saved 
throtitih tlie dillV-rence between one aud 
ibree cents postage, in such iusli^jces where 
postal-cards did Her vine since their first 
ia^ue in the year le7;j! We ei'izens of the 
Uuited States should indeed be happy. 

And yot, in view of all tbio, I take occa- 
sion to call attentiou to what has, undoubt- 
edly, caused many an uncomplimentary ex- 
clamation — uitered in a whimper, perhaps. 
— regaidiui the q uility of these cards, 
espee-ially diiiiue the last few years. Pens, 
especially fine pens, are bound to "kick 
and spatter," while the ink will spread — to 
s<ty m.ihiug of other inconveniences-all of 
wbich unile to give the whole an uucouth 

We penmen (specially shnuld protest and 
raise our voices fur a better quality of card ; 
and ihere are plenty of olhera with ua on 
this puiut. Tlio mailer cau certainly be 
brought about if suQicient atteuticm is called 
to it. In tho rather lan-mic words of an 
exchange — "Now ibat the Government is 
rich enough to carry a letter for two ceats, 
we would humbly suggest that it stup mak- 
ing the postal-cards of blottiog-paper." 

Off-hand Flourishing. 

By E. M. llL-.\T^iNGi:u. 

Tbia subject is received, not by its free- 
dom from faults and misuaaees, but from 
the greatness of its beauties aud the good 
deiived from its judicious use. Our mt)8t 
E-uccestfnl teachers and skilled penmen ad- 
vocate this discipline, in emphatic terms, to 
their claeaes ; aid especially ia it true iu the 
preparation of ymmg men for the work of 
teachers or artisLs, believiug, as thoy do, 
that the desired -kill seems almost beyoi'd 
reach except tlir-ingh the medium of this 
study. Flourisliing to-day stands unrivaled 
as an exercise for llie development of good 
general penmausiliip, and it is chiefly iu 
this light that we view tho subject. 

It is conceded by those who have given 
fl-mriahing; years of careful study that these 
gymnastics are es-^ential in securing agility, 
perfecting the obedience of the arm, and 

estahliahing c 


The a 


des aa- 

suined and th 

en.Tties e 




oft- the bold aL 

d fearless s 

veeps give 

he arm 

strength and e 


and th 



as applied to 

practical w 




strength and precision to 

tho a 


of the 

voluntary mu 

scIks of the 



•by se- 

curing greatc 

r unison h 



3 brain 

and tho pen. 

II is to l 

le pru 

fessional or 

busiuesB writer what running over tho exer- 
cises is to the pianist before performing his 
grandest ft-ats upon the keys, and for tho 
same reason that great singers practice only 
on the scales bef<.r© their most sublime ren- 
deriuga ; furthermore, training the eye to be 
alert, ready to detect, aud even to anticipate, 
the pi I falls. 

This fascioatia? study \* eaiuing in pop- 
ularity and uaefulupa*, and bi Is fair to be- 
come a general exercise in the training for 
euperior buainess writers. Even an unedu- 
cated eye would detect, in an enmunter be- 
tween accomplished peuoien, tho advanttg>-a 
and benefits to be derived frim thi^t flexibil- 
ity of motion. The eye and mind are en- 
couraged hy fresh comhioati<in9 of form and 
expression, creating and incroasing the de- 
sire for a higher standard iu penmanship. 

Aa to the artistic recomraendalion, what 
can be a more graceful sight to the profes- 
sion tlian a veteran dashing off, with match- 
less skill and aasuranoe, th ise sinewy de- 
signs whose sense of agreement and suitahil- 
iiy of parts, not only in their individual 
forms, but in their kinds, makes the be- 
holder's eyes danco with delight ? 

Penmanship and Signatures. 

The author of a book on penmanship 
spoke truly when ho stated that although 
there are vast numbers of people who are 
able ti write, there are comparatively few 
who are able to write well. Putting aside 
thoae who fill situatiuus f.r which a good 
style of handvvriiiug is a necessary qualifica- 
tion, it may be saiil that bad writing i« the 
rule. The statesman, the lawyer, the mer- 
chant, tho tradesman — all those who may 
write badly if they chooae —do so with com- 
paratively few exceptions. The notion has 
even got abroad that it \i undignified and 
derogatury to writo legibly. There ia a 
foolish idea, too, that good writing lacks 
character. A good legible style is stigma- 
tized as tho characlerle3S hand of a school- 
boy. To such au extent have these erro 
neoos notions prevailed ihat in tho matter 
of signatures the most ])itiful absurdities are 
<net. The piciiliarily of the signature re- 
sults iu many ca^ps from a desire for protec- 
tion against forgery; but It is by no means 
certain that the introductim of marks not 
warranted hy the rules of puuctuation, and 
other foreign additions conduces to the 
furtherance of the obieol in view. Possibly 
the more pictorial a signature is, tho greater 
the ease with which it may be imitated; 
the best safeguard seems to be to write well 
so that imitation may bo impussihle without 
equal ability. 

Letters and signatures of great authors, 
pools and distinguished characters readily 
sell for good prices. It ia said that an old 
autograph collector has in hia possession a 
letter written and signed by Byron, the 
poet, consisting of three closely-written 
foolscap pages, which ia valued at $520; 
two shorter letters hy the same person are 
valued at l^SfJ each. Three verses, unsigned, 
hy George Herbert, the old Eogli.^h divine, 
are worth at least $10i); if they had hia 
signature thoy would bring $J50. Tbia 
same collector is said to have once owned 
a hri- f letter written by Sir Waller Raleigh 
while a prisoner in the Tower of London, 
and which bo sold to a wealthy Virginian 
for $1,000. A letter wilh the signature of 
Tennyson, which is worth nothing in Lon- 
don, will bring $15 or $20 in Now York. 
By tho same rule Longfellow's penmanship 
will bring as much in London, and nothing 
at all in New York. Letters hy Charies 
Dickens sell at any and all times, and al- 
ways command good prices. 

Good penmanship is frequently the means 
of obtaining an excellent income for man. 
A skilled teacher of writing or penartist can 
at any time command good compensation, 
while a good hand often enhances tbe value 
of other attainments. 

One of tho biographers of Edgar Allan 
Pue relates that the pool's first literary dis- 
tinction—the winning of a prize in an essay 
competition — was due more to the neatness 
of his handwriting than to the merits of the 
essay. When the judges came to Foe's re- 
markably neat production, ono of them ex- 
claimed, "Let us award the prize to the 
first of the geniuses who has written leg- 
ibly!" And ihoy unanimously agreed to do 
BO. — Gtyer's Stationer. 



The Mystery of the Bank. 

Oue day the Directore nf tfee Bank of 
EoplftDd were much puzzled, and not a lit- 
tle amused, when the Secretary read to 
them, Ht their upual sittiog, the lollowiDg 
ill spelt »i>d sxmen-hHt cur^iouq letter; 

Two Genlleman off Bank England: Yoo 
thiuk yi^vr i^ all pare haud yuiire hauk is 
peafe, but I kn .ws hettur. I bin hineide 
ihee hanok the last 2 uite band yow tn e 
Dofliu abowl it. But I um nott a theaf, hif 
yeo will inett ine in thee gret Fqiiar rmn 
werh arl the mnueJly is, at twelf li uite lie 
ixplHiu orl t.) yoow. lett ony 1, hor 2 cum 
aluwD, and Bay uoifin 2 oobiuldy. 

Jon Smiff. 

The letter being duly read 
he expected, the topic 
of conversation and 
suggestion I 
little time. Some of 
the directors thought 
it was a hoax. Others 
thought that under the 
apparently ignorantly- 
a deeper 
mystery was hidden. 
But all agreed that the 
Bafest way was to put 
the letter, with proper 
into the 
hands of the detertives 
specially employed by 
the bank. 

The detectives looked 
grave. There was a 
plot at work, they 
and with their 
penetration ihey at 
penetrated the 
; depths of the 
iniquity. Every one 
that a file of 
soldiers march every 
night from the Tower 
to the bank, to 
walch and ward 

the directors would have treated the affair 
as an idle attempt to frighten them, had 
not their attenTion been more strongly 
called to the snliject by the fullowing inci- 

A heavy chest had been fnrwsrded by the 
Parcel's Delivery Coinpany. directfd to the 
"Directors of the Bank of England." The 
chest was, of course, opened before them at 
once— such a thing being very unusual — and 
found to contain a large packet of most val- 
uable papers and securities, which had been 
safely deposited in the vault. With them 
was the following letter: 

To the Directors of the Bank of Eng- 
land — Gentlemen; My husband, who la an 

lantern; but directly they ran to the spot 
Irom whence the light proceeded, it went 
out, and the strictest search had discovered 

The bank officials becnme alarmed. Ev- 
ery night the strictest watch was set, hut 
nothing turned up until, on the morning 
when the next sitting was to he held, 
another letter was found upon the table of 
the strong room. How it got there, coo- 
sideriug the room was guarded day aid 
nighf, was a mystery. lis contents were 
still more mysterious. They were as fol- 

It was for your own good that you were 
warned that the strong luom of the hank is 

had discovered that the police had been put 
upon his track, instead of his suggestious 
being attended to. So it was determined 
that some of the directors who could con- 
veniently do so, should visit the strong room 
at the time indicated in the letter. 

This plan was carried out. But, as might 
be expected, the directors were not alone. 
The police had advised them too well for 
that, and half-a-dozen of the best Euglith 
detectives were dressed up in the garb of 
geiitlemen, and mingled in such a way that 
anyone would have supposed that tlioy 
formed one group, and wern now at la(t 
Itlerally fulfilling the requisitions of the 
eiogularly myslerioue letter. 

They waited until 
nearly twelve, and 
impatient, approach- 
ing the table, said: 

W ell, ii'a a moat 

oxtraorlinary affair. 

d, but 

ily should be 

almost afraid if I \ 

alone but, Fcldon, 

yo are used to ihese 

aud you have 

ued the 

e the fellofl 

i°i a solid stone pave- 
ment, and its walls, roof and door are of 
wrought-iron. The door, the only means 
of access, is immensely thick, and secured 
by the best of modern locks and bolts, 
•while a sentinel is stationed in front of 
it all the night through. No one from 
outside could enter; but, of course, the 
police well understood the trick. There 
must be some confederacy within the 
bank, and one of the cua'ipiralors being 
more ctuvardly llian the rest had resolved 
ti> betray his fellows to save himself. The 
bad writing and spelling were, of course, 
only feigned. Their plana were taken ac- 

All the night long detectives were sta- 
tioned in the room; but they saw nothing 
and heard nothing, with the exception that 
said they heard, about one or two 

o'clock, a strange i 
not account for. 

The next night 
next, and the next; 
day" of the bank oa 

JO which they could 

9 the same, and the 
d when the "board- 
< round, the whole of 

honest man, wrote to you last week, and 
told you that he has found a way — which 
he believes is known only to himself — of 
getting into your s rong room, and offered, 
if y.m would meet him there at night, to 
explain the wh(de matter. lU has never 
taken anything from that room except the 
inclosed box. Yi>u set detectives upon him, 
and he took the box to show that he could 
eo there, whoever might watch, if he ch 


Dother ch« 
the 1 

1 alo 

Let a few 

the door and make e\ 

crything so 

my husband will meet 

you thf-r 

night. Yours very r 


;n Smith. 

This letter was more mysterious than the 
last. The only thing that was evident was 
that the writer, "EIIpd Smith," was a bet- 
ter scholar than her husband, who styled 
himself "Jon Smiff." The detectives were 
shown the letter and acted accordingly. Of 
course, they saw through "the dodge." 
The cleverest men were posted in the room. 

In the morning they told a strange etory. 
They i-aid they saw a light about twelve 
o'clock. It seeraed to come from a dark 

not really safe. At any time any one can 
enter it. If we wished toaleal, we cerlaioly 
would never have told you about it, or re- 
turned that box. You have basely set the 
poIi<!e to see what you ought to have looked 
after yourselves If the police are there to 
night, we will never explain the easy way 
ot getting into your strong room, but most 
likely some one else will let you know that 
we have told the truth, when they help 
themselves to what is there. Wo are hon- 
est and will not steal, hut if the police, and 
not yourselves, gentlemen, are tliere to 
night, wo will say nothing, and do nothing. 
If a few gentlemen of the directors are there 
alone from twelve to one, my husband will 
meet them there, as he said he would sev- 
eral weeks ago. E. S. 

More and more astonished than ever at 
the receipt of this extraordinary letter, and 
more puzzled still at the strange way in 
which it had been ''elivered, the directors, 
after a long cousultation, agreed upon a 
plan of action. There wore two things per- 
fectly evident: (lue, that the writer of the 
letter really had access, in some myBt^rious 
way, to the room; and the other, thit he 

was 1 ug past. The 
genlleutn, nothing 
loth, departed after "tipping" thfir assist- 
ants liberally, but vexed that their search 
ohouhl end so, and Imlf su^pccling that they 
had been on a fool's errand. The detectivcF, 
also convinced that their work fur the night 
WHS done, left the strong room aLoul six. 
At that time, heiog winter, the whole build- 
ing was enveloped in fog and darkness. 

The ue-\t moruiDg the board held an ex- 
traordinary meeting, in order to discusF the 
result of tbe tffjrts of the gentlemen who 
had been all night iu the vault. 'J'hey had 
little or nothing to say of any ronsfquence; 
and after a long argument about nothing, 
were about to separate, when a porter en- 
tered with a loiter, which he stated had 
been found on the table in the strong room, 


1 who 

, buei 


tered—about eight oMock. Every, 
left the room more than an hout- 
two— before, and, no one had been adiiiiltit 
in the ordinary way. The mjsiery in- 
creased. But, of course, tire letter was read; 
and it ran as follows: 

Aim rJouKNAi. 


Yow kin do 8*8 JGOU like. Lirs oight 
I IierJ Boioe ooe speek to Mr. Felden who 1 
no is »n hoti.'Cr of ihe perlice, bow of course 
I did not come, as I mil© ave dnc. I give 
yeou aoolhcr cbaDce. Ctmine toLite. If two 
or 3 genltemea are there aloan hi will be 
with urn. Ifeoydetektiveeiatharo hi shall 
giv it al up at Ut. 

Yeou way choose as yeou woJl. 

J. S. 
This extraordinary comoinnication was 
A source of DO smaM aaiii^ty to the directors. 
IIuw it could have bpen left on the table in 
ihe etroDK room, guarded as it wa», do ooe 
could imagine. They, howerer, «l last 
agreed to do what, perhaps, would have 
beeu wiser if done at fir^t, namely, to de- 
pute a few of their number to vJMt the vanll 
alono There was, they concludtd, but lit- 
tle danger io duiog so, as from iho strange 
letters which they received, it would appear 
that the intruders lu tho sacred preciuclB 
were only one man acd hie wifti — prubably 
the uian alono. So it was that three gcu- 
tleinen, who were selfctcd as the best able 
to deal with euoh a case, should remain all 
Dight in the ttroog room, and that no one 
else should be with them, but that iho po- 
lice should be within call, in case they nere 

Every suitable precaution was taken when 
nii^ht came. The sentinel paced up and 
down out«ide; the detertives were not far 
off; and after the moat rigorous search had 
been instituted, the gentlemen were lo?krid 
in. Hour after hour passed by, but nothing 
appeared. Somo;imps for half an hourlhey 
preloaded, by silence, that tie room was 
empty, in order to tempt the d iprcdator, if 
present, from his hiding-place. Then they 
would move about and talk in such a way 
that auy person who overheard them would 
know Ihey were alone; but mt a sound or 
whisper, save what they themselves uttered, 
was heard. At last one of them, who paced 
the fl)or rather impatiently, beginning to 
think that, perhaps, after aU, it was only a 
clever trick, cried out : 

"You ghost, you second visitor, yon 
midnight thief, come out I There is no one 
here but two gentlemen and myself. If you 
are afraid, I give you my word of honor as 
a gentleman that the police arc uot here — 
only we three of the directors to whom you 
wrote. Come out, I say ! " 

It was more io jest than earnest that 
M«ji>r Clifford— fur he was a military man 
— shouted out tins absurd speech, for, as we 
said, be had begun to aujpect that aPer all 
some practical juke was baiug adroitly car- 
ried on, as bad more than once before been 
perpetrated, and he did uot much like biiug 
victimized himself. His astonishment, 
however, was great, M'hcn, in reply to what 
he had said, he heard n strange voice say- 

*' If you have kept your word I will keep 
mine. Put out your light, for I have oue, 
and then I will come." 

The m>*i>>r and his f«llow-director3 did 
uot much like putting out the light, but 
they were not cowards, and af or some de- 
mur it was done. Where the voice came 
from was, however, a mystery, fur there 
was no hiding-place in the room, every side 
being of thick, many-plated iron and steel ; 
the ceiling was also of the same material. 
When the light was out ibey wailed in 
silence, while the major graeped firmly iu 
one baud a revolver, and iu the other held 
the lantern and a few matches. Tor a lit- 
tle while a low, grating sound was beard, 
and then a voice, evideully that of some 
one iu the room, said : 

" Are you there aloue, sureT" 
The inrtjar, who cared for nothing in bod- 
ily form, struck a match, and iueiautly a 
crasii was heard, and a low, smothered 

When the match was lighted, nothing 
could bo detected — no oue was there. 
Again the major c«Ued upon the mysterious 
somebody to cjme forth, and again a voice 
I beard, saying: 


Tho maj jv was angry, and his < 
JUS alarmed; and, after trying ia 

trace the point from whence the voice pro- 
ceeded, he exclaimed: 

"Well, we'll put out the light again; 
only come ^luickly and make au end of this 

So saying, he put out the li^ht again. A 
moment or so after, the same grating sound 
was heard, then the falling of some heavy 

ble standing in tho ii.iddle of the vault with 
a dark lauteru In bis hand. Of course he 
camo frntn somewhere, but the puzzle was 

A ghost could not have onlered more 
mysteriously, for they a ready knew that 
the walls and ceilings had been most care- 
fully oxamicel, and there was no possible 
way of ingress. The man, however, soon 
spoke fur himself; and the directors, who 
were still at a loss to explain his preeeu'-e 
there, listened in astonishment. 

It appeared that ho was a poor man, and 
obtained a {recarions liviug in a strange 
way. When the tide is low, it is the cus- 
tom of a certain class of peofde unknown 
to retined society to enter the sewers, to 
search for any Jirtioles of value which may 
have accidentally washed down into them. 
It ia a very dangerous task, and of rourtie 
revolting iu tho ojtiretne, but they not un- 
fr.q'iently find very valuable thiugs in the 

This man was one of those strange ad- 
venturers. One night lie had discovered an 
opening leading to somo place above. 
There was a large square stone which he 
found could be easily rai*ed. He listened 
for some time, and tiading all was silent, 
lified up the stoue without much ditlicully, 
and fouud after some little investigation by 
the light of bis btntern, that he was iu the 
strong room of a bank. 

These men, like miners, can readily de- 
left the exact spot of ground under which 
they arc ; and he soo^^ had a clue to the 
whole mystery, lid told bis wife, who 
was a woman of much superior education to 
his own, of the wbolo affair; and he then 
wrote, as we have seen, to the directors. 
After that bis wife wrote, until the last 

Down in the sewer he was able to hear 
all their movements as well as if above 
ground, and thus was not only able to know 
their plans, but to frustrate them, and of 

uld ^ 

:ch bis 


small but valuable box which we shw was 
afterward returned, to leave tho letters on 
tho table, and to appear so mysteriously. 

Of course no one ever thought of looking 
to the Bt<me pavement, which was Eupposed 
to be solid and itumov^blc, as it was known 
that there were no vaults below, although 
the iron walls and doors had been must 
carefully tested. 

The mystery was now cleared op; and 
the diiectors, railing for other lights, exam- 
ined the place carefully, and fully veriliod 
tho mau':> Btatementa. 

He was then liberated at the usual en- 
traucu after his address had been taken, 
and a time had been appointed when he 
sh(<uld appear before the Uoatd. 

The whole affair, which caused a great 
sensation at the time, was duly JLquired 
into, and such preciutions taken that a rep- 
eliliou of the adventure would henceforth 
ba impossible. 

The directors felt that they owed tho 
strange man a debt of gratitude. 

Although gold and silver were not lying 
in heaps upon the cellar-fljor, there was in- 
calculable wealth hidden there, iu the thapo 
not only of notes and the most valuable se- 
curitie?, but also in solid bullion and hard 
cash. It is iinpossiblo to say what a clever 
burglar might, if he only knew of tho secrtt 
eutrau?e, have taken away uudelccted, and 
until beyond the chance of detec'ioa, as 
money is always available, and leaves no 
traces behind; in fact, a jierfeclly fabulous 
amount might have been stolen, so thick 
were the walls, and so secure was the room 

The strictest eearch proved that nothing 
hnd been tiikea but the box, which was re- 

turned intact. When this point was fully 
settled, it was agreed by the directors that 
the mysterious visitor to their strong room 
should be rewarded fur his honesty, and it 
was currently reported that they settled on 
him a liberal annuity, sulRcieol to support 
bim in comfort for the rest of his days. 

Concerning Exchange. 

Our subject this morning is exchange, the 
giving of one thing for another for mutual 
benetit. Where all parties to a transaction 
reap advantage, they are encouraged to ex- 
change If neither can be benefited, neither 
will desire to exchange. If either or both 
will ho iujured, then no sufficient motive for 
exchange exists. Exchanges are the ex- 
pressions of men's opinions as to their inter- 
ests. Opinions upon matters of this kind, 
as upon other subjects, are the result of 
what we know, or think we know. Whether 
such opinions are correct or not depends 
upon the ability to draw intelligent conclu- 
siona. Mercantile and commercial interests 
arise out of exchanges, which, as I have 
said, are prompted by a real or supposed 
mutual advantage. 

Centuries ago there lived in China a great 
thinker, a phili)8opher —a man whose ideas 
disseminated among the people of that 
country have exerted powerful influence. 
Ho was one day asked il there was any word 
which expres?ed his idea of the relations 
and duties of men toward one another. He 
thought a moment and then said that the 
word reciprocity expressed that idea. That 
expresses tho idea at the loundation of all 



giving and receiving benefits to each and to 
all. Tho mercantile world is made up of 
transactions and relations based upon *hi9 
idea of reciprocity. 

The notion once prevailed in the minds of 
men, and still exists to some extent, that in 
exchanges only one party could be bene- 
fited; that whatever one gains the other 
loses ; that it was trying to overreach 
another. This is a false view of mercantile 
transactions and exchanges. If this were 
true, then mercantile life would be one man 
against another, each trying to get what 
another has without returning an equivalent. 
That is not the true principle of exchange. 
The natural law of exchange is reciprocity, 
mutual benefit, advantage to all, profit to 
every oue. It is the principle of social ben- 
efit which brings men together into friendly 
relationship with one another and makes 
thom mutually helpful. 

Wo must admit that there are people who 
enter into mercantile and commercial deal- 
ings with no higher aim than to get advan 
tage of those with whom they deal — to get 
something for nothing, to overreach, to 
cheat. But these are exceptions to the 
general rule. There was a time when men 
did not make exchanges with one another — 
tboy simply plundered and robbed one 
another. There would be, therefore, a wide 
gulf between them; but when each met the 
other for exchange in the spirit of fairness, 
a different feeling would grow up between 
thom, mutual confidence, desire to benefit 
one another while each received benefit. 
This is the modern spirit of exchange. It 
is prevalent to-day in the mercantile and 
commercial world. It is the hotter spirit of 
a better age. It is the result of moral sense, 
of scientific views, of social relations and 
interests. It has grown out of the exper- 
iences of men in the business world and is 
the wiaer way. The science of accounts, 
which is one of the prominent I ranches of 
study pursued in this school, is based upon 
tho commercial principle, it rests primarily 
upon the right of property and at the very 
bottom upon human liberty. 

In our last talk we shoned how exchanges 
arise from division of labor and diversified 
industries. Exchanges arising from these 
conditions create a system of laws and cus- 
toms which we call commercial or mercan- 

tile law — commercial and mercantile UBBges 
of which the man of business should have a 

Exchanges between individuals living in 
the same community, in tho neighborhood 
of one another, will naturally consist of a 
transfer to one another of tho products of 
their labor, which may be rude and simple. 
They do not deal with people who are dis- 
tant from them, for the reason that they are 
unable to communicate with them. They 
have no means of transportation, no ships, 
no railroads, no wagon roads, perhaps. The 
means of communication are so difficult, so 
slow, 80 expensive that they cannot carry on 
trade and commerce with other communities. 
Possibly they may be ignorant of the wants 
of other communities, and other communities 
may be ignorant of their wants. A com- 
munity distant from ourselves may be suf- 
fering for food. If there were no telegraph, 
no newspaper press, no railway, no means 
of communicating with them, wo should be 
ignorant of their sufferings, and they would 
be equally ignorant of the fact that wo have 
tho means of relieving their necessities. If 
there are means of communication between 
two countries, then the surplus of our pro- 
ducts may be transported rapidly, and laid 
down at the doors of this famished people, 
to satisfy their hunger and relieve their dis- 
tress. They in return might bo able to 
furnish us in exchange whHt will contribute 
to our enjoyment and pay their debt. 

Exchange is guided by intelligence, a 
knowledge of what people want and can pay 
for. Tiie student of mercantile and commer- 
cial affairs must, therefore, familiarize him- 
self with the conditions and wants of the 

The means of communication must be 
open between men. An essential means of 
communication is language. Language is 
a commercial instrument by which the pro- 
ducts of mind are transmitted. 

Spoken language reaches only so Jar as 
the human voice can be heard. The sounds 
which I utter to convey to you my meaning 
do not reach beyond these walla within 
which we sit. 

This morning when the civilizad world 
awoke it saw the newspaper. Glancing 
over the printed page it know what trans- 
pired yesterday, and the opinions of editors 
and thinkers in relation to questions of cur- 
rent interest. Written language and the 
printing-press are tho means by which ex- 
changes of thought and intelligence become 

Exchange ia not therefore confined to 
material things. It enters into every de- 
partment of life. There is an exchange or 
courtesies, those graceful acts of kindness 
which all refined people practice in the re- 
lations of life, in the family, in the social 
circle, and elsewhere — those delicate atten- 
tions which do so much to sweeten human 
intercourse. There is the communication 
of great minds by which their thoughts en- 
lighten the world. 

There are also excbanges which are very 
mysterious. The religious aspirations of 
the world have long led men to believe that 
it is possible to carry on commerce with the 
invisible world with spiritual intolligeoceB, 
by some subtle process affecting the soul. 
Therefore man sends up his voice iu prayer, 
and believes that he receives in return for 
the worship which he gives, blessings that 
are more precious than any benefit which 
may be derived from the intercourse and 
exchanges of men in relation to material 

Looking, then, at man from every side, we 
find that his want", both physical, intellect- 
ual, moral, social, and spiritual, cau be 
supplied through the process of exchange. 
In this way be not only enriches others, but 
is himself enriched in bis whole being io- 
dividually and collectively.— Sunday TelC' 

The Double Penholder, mailed from 
the office of the Journal, at 90 cents per 
dozen, cau bo used oblique or straight, OM 
the writer may prefer. 

The Triumph of Science. 

( PKi/.i: POKM.) 

SlamplDg, railing, b 

Oronnd and colo 
Peoa <»r E«l«rbro 

urd'ning, louuring, 
■ dCToiiriog, 

Wrought by all Ibe 
GoinpcllliOD now en 

■lit and pliant. 
Nininge device* 

Dli>ped in glonlogi 
On the magic BM 
Which ihRll float 11 
Wiiting iipon glided 

rough all the agp., 

• ofbi 

Bed aniffealher 
Link the old and mw together 

Our readers will remetnber that n few 
moulbs since the Esterbrook Steel Pen 
Company offered, tbrough the columns of 
the Journal, a prize for the best poem 
upon the pen. Th* above is the poem to 
which the first prize waa awarded. 

Educational Notes. 

[Communicalione for this Depariment may 
be addreBBwi to B. F. KELLKY.aOS Broadway, 
New York. Brief educational iteme eoHcited.] 

The Now York State Teachers' Aesocia- 
tion will meet at Elmira, in July. 

The number of students working in the 
chemical laboratory at Harvard is 208. 

The Dakota lands eet apart for educa- 
ticnal purposes are valued at $^5,000,000. 

Out of a population of IG,3:i3,277 in 
Spain, ll,i)78,lC8 can neither read nor 

Forty two million acres of land in Texas 
have been devoted to the use of schools and 

The oldest university student in Berliu^ 
and probably in the world, is sixty-nine 
years of age. 

Oxford, Camhridge, Durham and Lon- 
don Uoivereities have opened their doors to 
• women. — Argonaut. 

The University of St. Petersburg, Russia, 
has 23,00U students. Five hundred were 
martriculated last term. 

The Annual Meeting of the National 
Educational Assoriatioo will be held at 
Madison, Wisconsin, July 15th. 

Six ladies, having recently graduated 
with honors from the London College of 
Chemistry, are to begin life as druggists. 

Dr. Mayo says: There are in the South 
4,000,01)0 whites under twenty-one; of 
whom nearly half have never attended any 

Prof. Huxley says that the cramming 
system of tho present day renders the pupil 
conceited all the forenoon of life and stupid 
all the afternoon. 

The laet annual report of the Board of 
Education shows that there were 208 public 
schools of all grades and 3,021 teachera in 
the city of New York. 

Amherst and Dartmouth are to have 
daily papers. Harvard, Yale and Coruell 
are the only institutions at which dailies 
have eucceeded so far. 

Matthew Arnold lecture? once a year at 
the Cambridge University, England, and 
by so doing holds his professorship in the 
Univcrsity.—J^roire Dame Scholastic. 

The Chicago /nfer- Ocean says, the ten- 
dency in Eastern Schofda to abolish the 
good old custom of allowing children a re- 
cess, morning and afternoon, ib a tendency 
toward barbarism. 

Boston. — The city maintains one Nor- 
mal, ten Latin and High, fifiy-one Gram- 
mar, and 404 Primary schools. Besides 
^ese the foUowiog. special schools are 

maintained : one for deaf mutes, two for 
licensed minors, an evening High-school, 
thirteen elementary schools, and five even- 
ing drawing-schools. 

The city of New York was taxed by the 
State for the support of the common 
6<ibool system for 1883-84, the sum of 
$1,410,088.73, and received in return from 
the State, $574,029.09. 

South Carolina increased her aohool at- 
tendance last year 27,000 pupils. Twenty- 
seven per cent, of white and forty-five per 
cent, of colored children are still outside the 
echoolhouses of tho Slate. — N. 0. Journal 
of Education. 

In the Albany Academy, twenty per cent, 
of the students have taken Greek, and 
eighty per cent. English Literature and 
Rhetoric. Sixty per cent, of the medals 
for English composition have gone to the 
Greeks. This is a nugget for Ancient nlas- 

The Hon. G. P. Pomeroy, U. S. Consul- 
General at Cairn, has presented an Egyp- 
tian mummy to Coruell University. The 
mummy is now on its way here from Egypt. 
The inscriptions on the wrappings state 
that the mummified Egyptian lived about 
3^700 years ago, and was named Penpi. 

The income of some of the prominent 
Universities might be of interest. The in- 
come of Harvard for the year 1881-2 was 
$233,352,88, and during the same year it 
received besides, $2tl8,(i32 in gifts. The 
income of Yale for 18c« was $182,855; of 
Cornell for 1880, $73,981, and this is now 
greatly increased; of Boston University (or 
1880, $105,56!>; of the University of Mis- 
souri for 1880, $51.[)I5; of the University 
of Minnesota for 1880, $51,090; of the 
University of Wisconsin for 1882, $02,73<J.- 
90; and of the University of Michigan, 

Educational Fancies. 

proper credit is given, A like i 
olhere will be appreciated.] 

Three degrees of mining speculation — 
Positive, mine; comparative, miner ; super- 
lative, minus. — Detroit Free Press. 

" What is the worst thing about riches t " 
asked a teacher. "Their 8i.arcily," replied 
a boy; and he was immediately awarded a 

When Tegg was asked regarding tho 
latest addition to the English language, he 
said he would ask his wife. She always 
had the last ■won\.~Engl\sh. 

A teacher said to a dull pupil, " When I 
was your age I could answer any queslion 
in Arithmetic." "Yea," eaid the d. p.; 
"but you had a different teacher." 

One of the Harvard students has fitted 
up bis room at a cost of $4,000. We sus- 
pect that the young man's room is belter 
than his company. — Boston Transcript. 

Sunday - school teacher (to the bright 
boy of the class) : "Johnny, how did Eli- 
jah die?" Johnny: "Ho didn't die. He 
was translated from the original Hebrew." 

"What are you going to do when you 
grow up if you don't kuuw how to cipher?" 
asked the teacher of a slow boy. "I'm 
going to bo a schoolteacher and make the 
boya do the ciphering," waa the reply. 

Teacher of English Literature to p:tpil: 
"What does Shakespeare mean by his fre- 
quent use of the phrase 'Go to'? " Ptqnl: 
" Well, perhaps he thought it wouldn't be 
polite or proper to tinish the sentence." 

Was it slippery weather when tho prodi- 
gal son returned ?" asked a Simday-ecbool 
pupil of her teacher. " Why do you 
askt" said the teacher. "Because," re- 
plied the child, " it saya the old man fell on 

The late Prof. Sophocles, of Harvard, 
once asked a student in the claaa-room the 
question, "What was done with the bodies 

of the Greeks who were killed at Mara- 
thon f" "They were buried, sir." 
" Neit." " Why, they — they were burned, 
sir." " Next." " I— I don't know, Profes- 
sor." "Right," said the Professor, " No- 
body knows." 

"A preparatory school for boys" in 
Connecticut is called "The Gunnery." If 
the design is to prepare boys f.)r the lite 
beyond, "The Toy Pistol-ry " would be a 
more appropriate name, and find more fa- 
vor with the juveniles— Ej;. 

"So you are going to keep a tchoolt" 
said a young lady to her old aunt. " Well, 
for my part, sooner than do that I would 
marry a widower with nine childreu." 

" I should prefer that myself," waa the 
reply ; " but where'* tho widower ? " 

" What is a limited monarchy, Johnny!" 
" Well, my idea of a limited monarchy is 
where the ruler don't have much to rule." 
"Give an example I " "Au example. 
Lemme fee ! Well, if you was bossio' your- 
self, for instance." — YonketU Gazette. 

I. A locomotive when going at full speed 
can pass over 138 miles in six hours — what 
isthe engineer's name f 

H. If a boy can eat six- pieces of minoe 
pie in flfle<^n minutes, and his finter only 
two, how docs this show that women ought 
not to vote ? 

A teacher askrd a little girl who was the 
first mant She said she did not know. 
He then asked an Irish gitl, who, looking 
very proud at being able to give the an- 
swer said, "Adam, sir." "You need not 
look so grand about it," said the 6ret 
scholar, " he wasn't au Irishman." 

A twelve-year old student of philosophy 
and theology in a good pastor's household 
thus reasoned wilh his parents, who were 
aliarply reproving a child: "Papa, didn't 
that baby inherit Adnin's sin, and isn't there 
a greater pressure to the 5qiiaro inch on 
such a little body, and so is he much to 
blame for not resisting ? " 

A lady at a hotel, whose unruly children 
annoyed everybody in the house, the other 
day faid to a noted teacher, sitting near her 
at the table : " Professor, do you believe in 
the use of the rod in tho management of 
children?" The professor glared at her 
annoying children, and grimly replied: 
"Sometimes, madam; but there are cases 
when I should prefer a revolver." 

" Say, sis/' remarked a High-school girl's 
brother, " you ought to see a new chap 
we've got at the store ; he don't know 
beans." "Can I never teach you to use 
proper language!" inquired the High- 
school girl, severely. " You should not aay, 
' He dou't know beans,' but ' he is not suf- 
ficiently versed in botany to recognize the 


of . 

Standard and Complete. 

Ou the occasion of delivering an educa- 
tional address. President Garfield very aptly 
designated the Spencerian as "that syetein 
of penmanship which has become the pride 
of our country and model of our schools." 

Its latest complete American edition of 
Standard Practii-al Penmanship, prepared 
for the JouUNAL by the Spencerian Broth- 
ers, is a relinble and popular publication fur 

It is not sold to the book -trade, but mailed 
direct to students, acoouutanle, merchants, 
bankers, lawyers, and professional men gen- 
erally, on receipt of $1. 

Tho work embraces a comprehensive 
course, in plain styles of writing, and gives 
their direct application in busineatt forms, 
correspondence, book-keeping, etc., etc. 

If not found superior to other styled aelf- 
instructors in writing, the purchase price will 
be refimded. 

Remember, you can get the Journal 
one year, and a 75-cent book free, for $1 ; 
or a $1 book and the Joornal for $l.2o. 
Do your frienda a favor by telling them. 

Witness My Hand and SeaL 

In Ihe year 800 after Christ, what was 
the B'ate of Europe? The Goths, the 
VaiidiiN. tlio Franks, the HniiH, tho Nor- 
mans, the Turks, aud other barbarian 
hordoa had invaded and overthrown the 
Roman empire, and had established various 
kingdoms on its ruins. In the then so- 
called Christian nations, there existed no 
science worlliy of the name, no schools 
whatever. Rfadiug, writing and ciphering 
were separate and distinct trades. The 
majscp, tho nobility, tho poor, and the rich, 
were wholly unncquainted wilh the mya- 
torica of tho iilphnbet and the pen. A few 
men, known as clerka, who geuerally be- 
longed to tho priesthood, monopolized 
them as a special class of artists. Thoy 
taught tluir business only to their seminar- 
is's, apprentices; and beyond themselves 
and their few pupils no one kuew how to 
read and write; nor was it expected of tho 
generality, any more than it would be uow- 
adnys that everybody should bo a shoemaker 
or a liiwycr. Kings did not even know 
how to >ign their luuncs, so that when thoy 
wnuted to subscribe to a written contract, 
law, or treaty, which some clerk had drawn 
up fur thcni, they would smear their right 
hand with ink and ship it down on the 
pavchmcnt, saying. " Witness my hand." 
At a liitrr diy some genius devised the 
substitute of the seal, which was impressed 
instead of the hnod, but nfienrr besides tlie 
lian<l. Every gont'cinan had a eeal with & 
peculiar device thereon. Hence the sacra- 
infiital words now in use, "Witness my 
hand and seal,'' affixed to modern deeds, at 
least servo tho purpose of reminding us of 
the ignorance of tho Middle Ages. — Seh 

In the Dead-letter Office. 

Cbisp BAMc-ntLLS that have no Owner 


When I WHS in the "Dead-Letter" De- 
partment tho other day one of the clerks 
engaged in opening letters— at a table near 
by— called to the gcutleman who was eu- 
terlainlng me. He went to him and im- 
mediately beckoned for me to follow. 

" Now, what can bo done in this case?" 
ho says. "Here is a letter, this instant 
opened, and you see what it contains." 

Tlierc is a clean, new twenty-dollar bill, 
neatly folded and wrapped iu a piece of 
ptrfeclly blank brown paper — not a mark 
of pen or pencil to show from whom it was 
sent. The letter had been advertised as 
unclaimed and was dead, and the examina- 
tion of its contents made it more completely 
dead than befoie 

"We have nothing but the postmark 
aud even that is almost obliterated, but our 
expert m ill take hold of it aud do the best 
he can with it. There's a pretty slim 
chance in this case. I guess Uncle Sam will 
get that money. This reminds mc of somo- 
lliing in my own experience. A few years 
ago, when I was opening letters, I found 
<me j'ist like this, except that the amount 
was thirty dolhirs, and on the paper wrap- 
per around it was M"titteu iu pencil, 'A 
friend, Matthew vi. 3.' I looked that up, 
aud found it to be: 'But when thou doest 
ahns, let not thy left hand know what thy 
right Land doeth.' Thcletter was addressed 
to ji woman, anil it was clearly a case of 
charily. I really felt bad that we could nut 
succeed in finding either party, and that 
money is iu tho Treasury to-day." 

The number of letters opened last year 
containing currency, checks, drafts and no- 
gotiablo pnror was over 34,000. The 
auiouiit of actual cash taken from letters 
waa nearly $39,000, and tho value of 
checks, etc., renrcscuting money, about 
$1,000,000. During the last year the miin- 
her of jtieccs of mail matter that reached the 
Deiul-h-tter Oilico was nearly fuiir aud a 
half millious! The exact nuuibir was 4,- 
440,8^2. Tliia is about 14 500 for .*vory 
day.— Cor. Cleveland Uerald. 

Opportuuily, sooner or later, 
all who work and wish. 

AH I J<)UK,\.vn. 

^^'P^ff^ ^'S^K^S^ ''^*I^ 


To the Coming Rulers. 


Ihtebesting Pacts About the Obigin 


The reported dipcoverj in lliia State of a 
Icdpo or f]t]arry of the peculiar stone used 
hy lithographers has drawn soine atteulion 
to tlie siihjcct, both from nn nrtistje and 
lMi»ines3 Btaiidpoint, and it is proposed to 
give a few facts, crdlated from tnistivorthy 
sources as well as from personal interview, 

other was added that owes their origin to 
chance. Senefeldcr patented his iovealiim 
in several of the German States, and in 
1802 perfected the process in Vienna. The 
new style of printing and engraving mot 
with favor everywhere, especially in 
France, where it became fashionable for 
the nobility t? design on stone. It is said 
the Duchess do Berri was skillful in the art; 
that the Duke de Bordeaux pulled proofs, 
and the Duke of Orleans illustrated " Gul- 
liver's Travels." Lemercier cultivated the 
art with the most dialinguislud and loug- 
continued snccees, and in the great exhibi- 
tion at Paris in 1855 the medal of honor 
was awarded him. He was theu conducting 
a largo eatabishment nontaining more than 
100 presses and employing about 200 worlt- 
meu. The best etnnes employed in litho- 
graphy are slabs of a light colored, elaty, 
argillaceous limestone, found iu very exten- 
sive beds at Solenhofon, near Poppeuheim, 
Bavaria, on the Danube. Tlieee were the 
first and only cues used by Sencfolder. 
The rock belongs to the upper oolite, and 
occurs in sheets and slabs of various thtck- 
uesses. It is exceedingly fine grained, 
formed evidently of the finest sediments; 

spread. It is in demand, whoiher it bo for 
the delicate lines or tracery of a bank check 
or for cbromo-lithography, now so much 
used by theatrical and other show people, 
and which makes every dead wall and 
boardinii in our principal cities a sort of 
tlorid picture gallery. All the stones used 
in tliis country are brought from Germany, 
and to give some idea of the importanco of 
the trade it may be stat<d that the impor- 
tations are at the rate of thirteen and three- 
quarler tons per day. the value of the same 
for the yodr l^eiog $4 892 J3D. On the av- 
erage 13,100 cubic yards of this stone are 
quanii'd auuuallyin Bavaria at a cost of 
$1,000,000. The largo proportion of this 
product taken by the United States shows 
how generally lithography is used in this 
country. — 5an Francisco Call 

Mail Statistics of the World. 

The stati-iics of tlip Universal Postal 
Union for the year 1881, collected and 
published by tho Intcrualional Bureau at 
Berne, shows that iu number of post offices 
the Quitcd StHtes ranks first, with 42,512 

080,800; Franco third, with 320,l88,(i;J(); 
and Great Britain fourth, with I40,78!),100. 
In respect to tho amount of gro^s postal 
revenues. Germany takes tho lead with 
205,324,215 francs ; the United States next, 
with 1*11630,444 francs; Great Britain 
ihird. with 175,690,000 francs, and Franco 
fourth, with l52iH;8 5(iO francs. Great 
Britain, Germany ami France had a net 
revenue in 1881 ranging from 08,525,100 
francs to 19,900,440 francs, but tho United 
States, RnsMa and Japan had a deficiency 
iu revenue in the same year, ranging from 
14,418,075 to l,320,84t! francs. 

A Colored Man'8 Eloquence. — The 
mnet thoroughly eloiinent and effective 
speeches ever made iu the Legislature of 
Texas were pronounced hy two negroes, and 
both of much the same general import. 
Both recounted the story of negro devo- 
tion to "old mar<?teraQd inisBliEs." When 
one of these natural oratorp, himself an old 
man, extended his black horny hands and 
said, "There can be no great race enmity 
between us. This cannot come while my 
marster and misstiss live. No, nor while 

llu State Female formal School, Trenton, y, J. 

that may prove intcresiing. The Chinese 
publishers, it was found, were already 
making inquiries in regard to tho new dis- 
covery, as most of their printing is done hy 
means of lithographic stone ; but it is to 
be presumed that sioce Fong has got into 
trouhlo with his countrymen on account of 
his testimony in connection with tho work- 
ing of the Exclusion Act, further iuvesti- 
giition may be staid until he or some other 
Chinese editor of tho lo al paper be in fa- 
It is generally conceded that tire art of 
piiuiiog un stone was dis"0vercd hy a poor 
Bavarian named Aloys Seuefelder. some- 
where UHir tho close of the cen- 
tury. An accident led to it. Souefelder, it 
appears, had a talent for writing, but bting 
too poor to publish his works, was contin- 
ually experimenting with a view to dis- 
cover some cheap method by which he could 
print tliem himself. One day, as the story 
goe-3, he casuiiUy mado for his mother a 
memorandum of clothes to bo sent to tho 
washerwoman by writing upon a slab of 
stone, wliich he intended to copy. As it 
lay before bim, he thought to iry the effect 
of applying piluiers ink in procuring an 
impression lie succeeded, and thus to the 
many useful inventions in this world aa- 

its fossils arc, many of them, of tho most 
delicate character, among them being found 
insects intermixed with other animal re- 
mains of a marine class. The quarries had 
long been worked to furnish flo ring slabs 
before this more valuable application of the 
stone was discovered. Eliseo Reclus, in 
his " Earth and its Iuhabitant3,"a standard 
work constantly quoted, speaking of the 
quarries at Solenhofen, says they "present 
tho appearance of a glaring white town 
within tho midst of a forest." Other coun- 
tries have also furnished lithographic stones, 
as those from tho cretaceous formation of 
Belbeze, Haut • Garonno, in the French 
Pyrenees, claimed by some to ho harder 
aud better than the Bavarian ; but the jury 
of the French Exposition of 1855 set this 
claim at rest, as well as those from Algeria, 
Italy, Portugal, Frauce and Canada, hy 
awarding tho superiority in the aggregate 
of good qualities to the Bavarian stone. 
Until within a very short time no discovery 
of lithographic stono had been mado in the 
United States. Tho lilhognxphic art was 
introduced itto America in 1821, aud was 
first practiced iu New York. It is in gen- 
eral USD at the present day, and though no 
special boasi can bo mado of any works of 
merit iu the ait, Its luofulucss is wldo- 

officps ; and Great Britain next, with 14,9 1 8 
offices. Japan is far iu advance of Russia, 
British India, Austria, Tialy, and Spain in 
the number of her post-offices, having 
5,094. Switzeriand ranks first in the rela- 
tive proportion between ihe number of post- 
offices and tho population, having au aver- 
age of 985 inhabitants to each post-offico; 
the United States has 1,126; Norway has 
5,024; and Great Britain, 2,362 inluibitauts 
for each QfTice. In the number of letters 
conveyed by mail Great Britain ranks first, 
with 1,229,355,800; the United States 
next, with 1,046,107.348; then Germany 
with 5U3,225,700,and Franco with 535,341,- 
373. The Argeutine Republic stands at 
the bottom of tho list. The United States 
conveyed more pnstal - cards than other 
couuiry; Germany came nest, followed by 
Great Britain and Austria. In respect to 
the number of letters and postal-cards to 
each iuh .bitant, tho countries ranked as 
follows: Groat Britain, 38.7; the United 
States, 27 3; Switzerland, 19 9; Germany, 
15.8. The United States had 91,571 miles 
of railroad; Germany had 20,.578; Franco, 
16,822, and Russia 14,439 miles. In num- 
ber of newspapers conveyed in domestic 
mails, the United States ranks first, with 
852,180,792; Germany second, with 439,- 

their children and mine survive. They 
were kind and g. nerous to me. I knew 
no want of lo-daj or care for the morrow 
when I was their jroperty. Look at these 
wrinkled, rough hands. They tell the tale. 
They tell how I toih d for them. And the 
story is not ended. They are old and help- 
less now, and live as I once did, in a little 
cabin, and I still toil for them. I send 
them half of every dollar I draw from the 
State Treasury, and when their daughter, 
a beautiful and good girl, whom I used to 
carry when she was a child in these strong 
arms, was married not long ag'o, I sent her 
a check for $1,000. Have I not the right 
to ask you, gentlemen of the majority, to 
deal generously with my racet" — Sel. 

A cubic inch of gold is worih $210, a 
foot, $363,380; a cubic yard, $9,797,76".^. 
This is valuing it at $18 an ounce. At the 
commencement of tho Curistian ern there 
was in the world $427,000,000, when it be- 
gan to increase. Now the amount of gold 
is estimated to be $6,0011,000,000. Should 
Vanderbilt convert his $100,000,000 into a 
shaft two feet square at its base, he could 
stand upon its pointed summit arid view 
lerresliial ihings al a. height vt 137^ feet. 


UntesB we accustom our-olves IiaUtually 
to the tieo of the ppu it is Bometiiiies a. 
(lilficult matter to bring one's self to the 
actual task of writing a letter. Not but 
that there is ooinethiug to eay, but tlie put- 
tine the thouglit into language, and lliia 
language upon paper, is not tlie easy thiug 
which at tirsr sight it may appear to be. 
And all too frequently absent fricnda are 
neglected from the a 
son who ought to ee 

Yet who that ha; 

and fretted a 


tidings from i 
id worried beet 
a appreciate the 

be the 

and lb< 

before mca^ks: "How shall I write an en- 
tertaining letter?" You might aa well ask, 
" How shall I be an entertaiuing talkort" 
The good talker, or the good letter-writer, 
is, like the poet, born, not made. There 
are but few rules for compfisitiou which may 
be given and followed: Never try to write 
a bnig letter — never allow yourself, indeed, 
to write one unless you have so much to eay 
that you cannot help it. A long-winded 
letter ia only le^s endurable than a prosy, 
long-winded talker, because you can skip 
the letter, and the talker won't let you skip 
him. Say what you have to say as briefly 
with paying it clearly, 
d alike long worda and long sen- 
S:iiy what you have to say, and be 
d to stop when it is said. If you 

Spider i.ifF, WoNDEns — The lecture 
in the Li.w.ll Insli ntc course by Professor 
Wood dralt with tho phenomenn of spider 
life. lie began with a liuinorous account 
of tho courtship of tho spidcri, The fo- 
mnlo is fiercer and much larger than the 
male. There is peril to the latter in paying 
his addr.^Pacs. ''Lovo ine or I die" is not n 
pbriisc of poetry or Bcntimcnt with tho male 
spider, but often is a literjil statement of 
tho tragical fact, and his usual i 
is that he loses sonio of his legs 
buir^ which he receives. In ot 
spiders llio female i-* I '100 tii 
tlian the male. Accordirgly, sa 

or I 

|.i,lor I. 

ilk— n 


a liltle 


.rt of 


B IllilO! 


lay lip 

wnv.'U < 




i<l, nut 

it is in 

.ro Kl 

S9y flMl 





uf Iho 


iini. lii'i 


<.f a 


rii c(fl< 

r. Ano 


nMic eiit 



red en 

iifiU of it IWr 

lie «oii 


of a 


uf cluthcs for Luuis 


vague coDjeoturings. 

In these <lay8 of chea] 
postage and ready maiU 
it is generally not fron 
lack of opportunity t-\ 
iving that distant on«- 


regards the lives and well 
being of those dear t- 
thein. And iu no way ex 
cept by frequent and uiiu 
ute deecriplious by mean- 
of letter-writing can thr 
bonds of sympathy b'- 
well - cemented between 
absent ones and those left 
behind. lutercatsand feel- 
ings always prove to seek 
the present, and tangible 
rather than the distant and 
vague will so absorb one' it 

very dear ones far away 
will receive but small 
share of even the thought 
they would were their 
daily lives made clear one 
to the other by means of 
frequent letter- writing. 

There is a power in 
letters for iulluencinir 
other minds, which few 
overrate and most think 
only toil lightly of. Words 
which from ihe manner in 
which they may be spoken 
can fall lightly on the ear 
of tho lieteoei 
new meauiugs when clear- 
ly penned in black and 
while. The mother's ad- 
vice in a letter, reaching 
her absent boy, 
with it an urgency which 
her spoken words may 
not always convey. The 
brother, sister, the friend 
show themselves doubly 


Yet evil as well 


Complicated Cipher Codes. — The 
tnost copious cipher codes r.f ilic present 
dny are the Euglisli cable ciphers. They 
dinary structures, one of them 
ipriaing 3U DOU words. Others are 
made up of syllables selected from living 
and dead languages, couibiuod so as to 
make eupbouy. These express nearly 
everything, and besides effectuiiUy servo the 
purposes of absolutely in- 
TiolHble secrecy. All of 
these ciphers arc con- 
structed by persons who 
study the business to 
which they arc adapted, 

point and also from actu- 

bors are generally well 
repaid, a copious cipher 

being considerrd worth 
from $500 to $1,0(10. The 
code large- 
ly used in tho grain busi- 
ness iu this city has ac- 
quired a comfortable c 
petenco from its sale. 
Several cipher-makers ia 
New York do a flourish- 
., and there 
are dealers in tho nice- 
teentli century jargons in 
New Orleans who thrive 
from their work.— CAi- 
cago Inter- Ocean. 


upon the paper, and if the good seem 
intensified by the written word, so too, 
will the evil obtain added force by being 
penned. Once sent, the letter cannot be 
recalled, and after epistles can hardly seem 
to efface the effect of written words which 
had best never have been written. Greater 
care should be taken for this reason in tbe 
aelection of Inuguage in letters than in 
speech, and there is a world-wide difference 
between a good letter and a bad one. Neith- 
er blot or erasure should be tolerated, ex- 

and a 


ispellod Wo 

d is an 
cuse, in 

these days of 



ucatiou anc 

universal dictionariea. 

frW DO 


owing how 

to spell 



iting shou 

Id be a 

regular and 

legible as 

possible, e 

tirely (r 

e from flour- 



t good a 

d clear 




nuch pract 

ce. Th 

re is no royal 



nor yet i 

there any royal road 

to th 



^ a clev 

r letter. 


a of 

the letters 

of inquiry which are 

have not the good fortune to be witty, or 
brilliant, or original in your way of looking 
at things, sli^l your letter may be clever; 
and if not, you at least can be prompt, brief 
and courteous. AM letters, of whatever na- 
ture, save to the people who are so closely 
allied to us that we can think aloud to them, 
should be written with a certain amount of 
consideration. It is one thing to make a 
careless speech, and quite another to put 
the aame thought into the cool permanence 
of pen and ii.k. 

Then let the miesives fly— letters of joy 
and hope and sorrowful tidings may pass, 
but that they might never bo the bearers of 
evil thought rather l^t them be messengers 
of right on good deeds intent. — Ex. 

"Tbe Guide" (iu paper) la no^t offered 
free as a premium to every person remit- 
ting $i for one year's BubacripUon to the 
Journal. Or, handsomely bound iu cloth, 
for 25 uuut« addiliotuki. 

numeroblo small threads. One of these 
small threads has been estimated to bo 
ono two-millionth of tho thickness of a 
hair. Tho spider spina three kinds of 
thread. Ono kind is of great strength, and 
of this tho radiating or spoko-liues of the 
tho web aro made. 

Tho cross-liocs, or what a sailor might 
c^U the ratliups, are fiuer and are tenacious ; 
that is, they have upon them little specks 
or gbtbulea of a very sticky gum. These 
specks arc put on with even interspaces. 
They are set quite thickly along the lino, 
and are what, in tho first instance, catch 
and hold tho log^ or wings of the fly. 
Once caught in this fashion tho prey ia held 
secure by threads flung over it somewhat 
in tho manner of a lasso. Tho third kind 
of silk ia that which the spider throws out 
in a mass or flood, by which it suddenly 
envelopes any prey of which it ia somewhat 
afi'aid, as for example, a wasp. A scien- 
tific experimenter once drew out from tho 
body ul a single spider :t,480 yards of thread 

are peddlersin autographs, 
clerks in tlop-shop s 
and young Hebrt 
tent on money from in- 
fancy, who have heard 
that there i 

ey " to be made in auto- 
graphs and that they cost 
nothing, and who, there- 
fore, while underlings or 
them by mail. 

The use these auto- 
graphs are afterward put 
to is liltle short of forgery. 
A patent medicine man recently used them 
for his almanac. A " precocious boy," as his 
parents described him, having gotten them 
from various people, by letters awakening 
their encouragement or sympathy, auto- 
graphic bits of sentiment, recently published 
them in a newspaper, as proof of the 
" precocity " of th© hoy, he probably sup- 
posing, like actors who study a part, that he 
wrote the piece. A gentleman, to give 
this young Nimrod ot autographs respect- 
able philosophy of life, wrote for him: 
" There can be happiness without success " 
— meaning that the mind and doty and die- 
interestedness gave more joy than vulgar 
prosperity. This Samaritan found himself 
speedily credited M'ith the sentiment: 
"There can bono happiness without suc- 
cess." He, at least, sends no more auto- 
graphs. The goose is killed that laid those 
cabalistic eggs. 

Gen. Spinner's autograph is said to look 
liko a ChincBO iirescriplioufor the chUla. 



PabUnhed Monthly at »1 r><.r Y. 

Si>*clniBD ooplM ftinilibail to Agmta tn*. 



approved of by tbe people who are reepon- 
sible for the good coDduct of the schools, 
their occupatioo would be gone. Consider- 
iog, however, that the schools do not exist 
for the benefit and profit of this or that set 
of teachfr" or alleged teachers, or for the 
benefit and profit of inakerH of tert-booUs, 
their npiniona in the matter should not be 
permitted for a monieut to stand in the way." 

of the line of 

:e and just 

I certainly 


I copy ot "CoDgduo't 

a iuued u ntarly u poutble o 




New York, Flbrua 

, 1884. 

Teaching Writing. 

We clip from the New York 'Iribune the 
following item respecting the proper meth- 
ods of teaching wxiling: 

" Penuiamhip is taught in the Philadel- 
phia schools after a fashion which obliges 

the pupils to commit t 
cite rules < 

also obliged to 
papers. 2he 
.mplaining of 
d energy, 

I rules they 

Philadtlphia Telegraph, 
this needless waste of 
makes some cmtneuts in whith there'"L 
more or less good sense. The manner of 
holding the pen it declares ' is a very secon- 
dary matter.' Let good copy be insisted 
upon to as groat an extent as practicable 
and couimon-aeusihle, considering the ages 
and experience of the children under iuetnic- 
tiou, and the best and most agreeable 
method o( holding the writing insirument 
will be discovered by each child for itself. 
This is the beginning and middle and end 
of good penmaneliip instruction, and it is 
moreover, a system which any intelligent 
teacher who is at all fit for his or her poM- 
imn can follow withmt tbe alightesi diffi- 
culty. It is of course a system which 
professional wriling-niaslors and the makers 

nship text-books do not approve, I correction of all faultat It would 

for if they approve of it, and i 

As a rule, those who go oui 
their experience or specialty 
criticism do ho only to beeou 
olijfcts of a criticism more se 
than that which they prouou 
Those who have devoted Ic 
observation to any specialty 
t!ie most competent to judge of all things 
respecting that specialty. The maker or 
contriver of any ingenious and complicated 
mechanism is its greatest master, and is 
most competent to criticise or advise others 
who may undertake any similar work. 
And yet how frequently a mere bystander, 
observing his methods and not understand- 
ing their distinct purpose, would be tempted 
to offer advice or criticism which, in the 
light of experience would be most absurd, 
and which, if heeded, would work disaster! 
So, when our average editor, wriiiug 
usually with a lead- pencil {the position, or 
manner of liolding, which is quite immate- 
rlrtl), or, if with a pen. in characters of un- 
questioned originality, but of doubtful 
intent, volunteers advice and criiieisrn such 
as we find in the above article respecting the 
teaching of writing, the very manner ot 
his remarks betrays him as a mere bystan- 
der criticising methods which he has never 
tried, and whose purpose he does not un- 
Let U8 briefly consider what he says. 
First, respecting counting and memoriz- 
ing rules, which he characterizes as a need- 
less waste of lime and energy The 
practice by count, in large and well-graded 
classes, has been vindicated over and over 
by good results; through its aid a much 
more uniform and effective cft'ort is secured, 
(in the part of large classes of pupils, than 
can otherwise be obtained ; while proper 
rules memorized ar sist the learner materially 
to acquire a correct idea of the forms of 
letters, their proper proportions, spacing, 
and all the other requisites of good writing, 
and are, therefore, of the highest import- 
ance. It should be borne in miod that the 
pen and hand are only the servants of the 
mind, and as such can never excel its ideal 
of writing. This ideal is largely formed 
through rules learned, criticisms and sug- 
gestions by the teacher. 

The manner of holding the pen is de- 
clared to be "a very secondary matter"; 
the best and most agreeable method of 
doing which "will he discovered by the 
child." Let him do as he pleases, and ho 
will find the best way. The wisdom and 
efficacy of this new plan will at once be 
apparent to all those teachers who have 
taxed to the utmost their ingenuity to assist 
llie child in his first lessons in writing, and 
who have witnessed the veri/ graceful posi- 
tions of hand, pen and body he naturally 
assumed, and observed his dextrous move- 
ments, iu which the mouth, tongue, head, 
and often the entire body, appeared to 
move together in sympathetic harmony with 
the pen iu its struggles with straight lines 
and curves. Such teachers will, no doubt, 
suffer a pang of regret for so much time and 
labor lust, and uiay, possibly, indulge in some 
vague speculations respecting the average 
period ol time in which the pupil will fall 
naturally into the best positions, manner of 
holding his pen, etc., but, of course, there 
will he no doubt U9 to its ultimate certainty, 
iJut why end this new plan with the teach- 
ing and practice of writing f Why not 
apply it (o every department of the educa- 
tion and training of the child? Why not 
let him creep until he can, without assist- 
ance, walkf Why not leave to his own 
discovery the correct pronune-atiou and 
orthography of words t Why um leave to 
of all discovery and the 

would not only dispense with the writing- 
masters, but all other masters. But to be 
serious if we can, respecting such absurdity ; 
every teacher of writing, and every pereon 
who writes a respectable hand with a two- 
nibbed pen, can but appreciate tbe utter 
absnrdity of the claim that the manner of 
holdiug the pen is of " a very secondary 
matter." First. If the nibs are not placed 
properly upon the paper, viz., so that both 

^ill be under abo 


there cannot be the easy gliding 
of the pen, or smoothness of line essential 
to good writing. Second. If the pen is so 
held as to cramp the fingers and ban>1, there 
cannot be the freedom of action necessary 
the long and rapid practice of wriiiug. 


,of c 
that his 

mausliip text-boot 

these he mi?ht b; 

person who ever taught writing 

a respectable hand 

ree, right in his ap- 
a "system" with 
ind makers of pen- 
11 disagree — and to 
safely added, every 

Report of the Convention. 

A full verbatim report of the proceedings 
of the Convention held in June last at Wash- 
ington, D. C., by the Association of Busi- 
ness Educators and Penmen of America, 
has been issued. The proceedings were re- 
ported in shorthand by C. E. Cady, of this 
city, and make a compactly printed pamph- 
let of J47 pages. It is on good paper, in 
clear type, and in all respects unexception- 
able. Tbe subject-matter is of more than 
the usual degree of interest to all connected 


<al edu 

The following is a table of its contents : 
Secretary's Report: Executive Commiltee's 
Report; President's Addre88; Management of 
BueiiiesB Schools; Methods of Marking Stu- 
dents in Fenmauahip; Pftaonalily of Hnnd- 
writing, and Expert Examinaiioiis; Evening 
Reception ; How to Teach the Making of Fig- 
ures ; Teaching Businees Writing; Property 
and Progrese; Methodo of Teacliing BusineBS 
Avithmetic; The Fundamental Theory of Ac- 
counts; Taste in the Writing of Books and 
BusiuesB Papers; The Averaging Machine; 
The EugHsh Language iu Business Colleges ; 
Eloculion : Its Relaliou to BusiaeBB and Social 
Life ; Phonography ; Teaching Penmanship in 
Public Schools and Colleges; Size, Spacing. 
andSimplicity of Writing; Our Decimal Sys- 
tem; Equaiion of Accoimts; Necessaiy and 
Utility of the Businees College ; Classification 
of Accouuis; Excursion to Mount Vernon; 
Relation of Business EducatorB to the Law; 
BusinesB Practice; The Spencer Memorial; 
Letters; ResoIuiiouB; Place of Meeting, 1^84; 
Election of Officers; Misoellanoua BnsiuesB; 
Visit to tbe While House; Officers, 1883-84; 
Financial Slalemeut ; Conslitution. 

A Good Handwriting 

The high value attached to a good hand- 
writing, on the part of the municipal 
authorities of New York, is cleariy shown 
by the schedule of branches chosen and the 
importance attached to each, for the guid- 
ance of the Board of Civil Service Exam- 
iners for New York, in the examination of 
all future candidates for positions in any of 
the city departments. 

It will be seen by the list given below 
that handwriting rates 3, which is one 
higher than any other in which a candidate 
is to be examined. 

The relative " weight" given to the ohli- 
eatory aubjfcts in making up the average 
standing will be as follows; Handwriiing, 
3; copying from dictation, 1 ; English spell- 
ing, 2 ; arithmetic, 2 ; digesting returns. I ; 
New York city data, L Total, JO. Each 
subject will be marked upon a scale of 100, 
which represents the highest possible altain- 
meot. The general average standing of a 
candidate is, of course, ascertained by divid- 
ing the product of standing and weight by 
the sum of weights. The following exam- 
ple will illustrate the metliod much more 
clearly than a long explanation. 
Result op Esamixation op A. Rodeuts. 

the JouRN 


ill be I 

ailed, from the office of 
eceipi of the price, 50 

ens of Good ^V^iting in 
Public Schools. 

C. W. Slocum, special foaoher of writing 
in the city schools of Chillicothe, 0,, has 
sent to this office two pages of manuscript 
work by each of twelve pupils under the 
age of hiurteen years— all members of one 
class uuder his tuition. We have rarely 
seen an equal number of specimens from a 
eiogle class of the age mentioned which 
evinced as high a degree of excellence as do 
these. Judged thereby, Prof. Slocum is 
certainly doing efficient service in bis de- 
p^tment of the schools of Chillicothe. 

I great saving of labor and trouble ; it 

Hannibal Hamlin's method of writing, 
whil«in the Senate, is graphically described. 
He spent four or five hours every day in 
writing letters, and it was his buasl that he 
answered every letter he received. It was 
painful to see him write. He squeezed his 
pen as though it contained money, and his 
hand, arm and body were all so unnaturally 
distorted that it seemed a shame that he did 
not employ a secretary; but he worked 
away, hour by hour, until be bad got 
through with his mail. 

The King Club 

For the past nmnth numbers one hundred 
and Ji/hj-four, and is sent from the Gold- 
smith ( Bryant & Straltou ) Business Uni- 
versity, Dflroit, Mich., by W. E. Hall, one 
of the instructors in the penmanship depart- 
ment of that institution. The letter of Mr. 
Hall, which accompanied the list of names, 
was one of the Bue*i specimens of epistolary 
writing we have ever examined. Mr.H. is not 
only a master of good writing, but, evident- 
ly, Irom the number of his club, the master 
of the confidence and essteein of his pupils. 
The Queen Club numbers sixlt/seven, 
and was sent by H. C. Carver, of the La 
Crosse (Wis.) Butiuess College. 

One, numbering sixty five, comes from 
J. H. Bryant, penman at the Spenceiian 
Business College, Washington, D. C. Clubs 
numbering sixty-four each come from the 
Hinman Business College, Worcester, 
Mass., and Fols.ini'a Business College, 
Albany, N. Y., the latter sent by C. E. 
Carhart. Clubs of fifty-fire each oome 
from A. N. Palmer, of the Cedar Rapids 
(Iowa) Business College, ami R. H. Mar- 
ing, of the Columbus (Ohio) Busiaesa 
College, and J. T. McCleary, penman at the 
State Normal School at Mankato, Minn. 
A club oi fifty-one, by T. J. Risinger, pen- 
man at the Spencerian Business College, 
Detroit, Mich. A club of fifty comes from 
Faddis's St. Paul ( Minu. ) Busiuess College, 
and was sent by C. L. Stubhs. penman in 
that institution. I. M. Poacher, of the 
Poucher Business College, Iowa, Mich., 
sends a club of thirty. W. E. Boaty sends 
H club of ttventy-fioe from his Institute of 
Peumansliip at La Grange, Ind. 
Smaller clubs have been quite too nunier- 

OU8 to mention, and 
previous experience si 
the Journal, while 
have been proportion? 
all who have thus c 

entirely beyoud any 
ce tbe publication of 
single subscriptions 
tely numerous. To 
ntrihuted to extend 

our subscription-list w 
and promise to do our 
i>y furnishing them a 
excel leuoe. 

e return our thanks, 
heat to reciprocate, 
paper of increasing 



au average of between fifteen 

e oflice of the Journal each 
some of Uiese should, from 
il to roach their intended des- 
iiost certain. Yet from the 
impatient and sometimes impArtineot com- 
plaintfi we receive when a paper or other 
looked-for missive has failed of receipt, aa 
per expectation, we should iraacine that 
complainants suppose that we should he 
not only iofallible, but also supervise and 
see that no delay or mishap occurred during 
traustiiissioD through the uiail. Could some 
of our impatient friends have the responsi- 
ble charge of the corresp indence and labor 
iDcident to the haodling of such a mail for 



tend to render more charitable and 
tlieir complaiuts. We, of course, have re- 
spect for, and sympathize with, a subscriber 
who feels bereaved aud lonesome when de- 
prived for a single month of the pletisant 
and, we trust, profitable companionship of 
the JuuunAl. ludeed, we cannot conceive 
how he could feel otlierwise. But when, 

he case, the bereaved as- 
tbe special and intended 

iriee, aud writes, milking 
demaodiug his 
paper or bis money instanter, we are, in- 
deed, surprised ; for could anyone believe us 
to be so little and knavish 
ally withhold hia paper! 
flection should show him hon 
short-sighted aud foolish such a c 
our part, would be. Above ov 
after having secured a subscribei 
sire his continuance aud goodwill; and, if 
thus cheated, there could be no hope of 
retaining either. 

Every subscriber can be assured that it is 
our most earnest iutentioa to mail a paper 
to each as promptly as possible after publi- 
cation each mouth ; end if any one frtiling 
to receive the same on or before the first of 
the month following will give notice, a du- 
plicate copy will bo at once mailed free. 
And we shall spare no pains to discover and 
correct any fault through which a paper has 
miscarried. The Journal will be mailed 
goon after the middle of each month. Pre- 
miums and other stamped mail matter will 


oftea be 

receircd t 

TO or 



in ad- 

vance o 

papers, a 




daily, w 

hile papers 


r tha 




edition ar 


cd < 

nl, on 



and Saturd 

lys t 


id the 


of traDSpurtiug act 


at the 


office sm 

all bundles 


Have Patience. 

One of the greatest difficulties encoun- 
tered by the teacher in a writing-class is 
the impatience of the pupils. By impatience 
we mean the desire to hurry over a copy 
or page as if it was the amount of paper 
written over that was to determiue the 
amount of their improvement. Many times 
the copy is repeated over and over, and an 
entire page covered by the pupil without 
even a stop to study and compare his work 
with the copy. Improvement means the 
Correction of faults as well as the acquisi- 
tion of new ideas and new power. Now, 
my dear learner, did you ever know an un- 
known or undiscovered fault to he corrected ? 
And, pray, how ere you to discover them 
except by a study of your copy and its 
comparison with your own writing t Hav- 
ing discovered a fault, you can tlien make 
an iotelligeut effort lor its correction. Af- 
ter having written your copy once you 
should review and criticise your writing 
before writing it again. The eye and judg- 
ment muBt be educated at the same time 
that the band acquires accuracy aud facility 
of movement. Many practice as if in the 
belief that good writing was entirely an 
emanation of the hand, aud that practice 
alone was necessary for its acquisition. It 
has been said that "practice makes per- 
fect," but, to be true, the practice must be 
iDtelligeot And thoughtful. No amount of 

practice ran enable the hand to produt 
writing better than tlio ideal of the rain 
which controls aud directs its operation. 

A New Premium. 

We now have nearly ready for the press a 
new work, entitled, "Ames's Guide to Self- 
Instruction io Practical and Artistic Peo- 
mauahip.*' It will consist of sixty-four 
pages — about one-balf of which will be 
devoted to iustruction and copies for the ac- 
quisition of a good practical handwritinc ; 
the last thirty pages will be the same as the 
present Hand-book. This new book will be 
a prize to any teacher or pupil of writing, 
and although it will have twice as many 
pages as did the Hand-book, it will be 
given on the same terms, free, in paper 
covers, to every subscriber who remits SI 
for one year's subscription to the Jouunal, 
and nicely bound in cloth for $1.25. Reg- 
ular price by mail — in paper, ?.'> cents; in 
cloth, $]. 

The Business Educators' and 
Penmen's Convention. 

President Cady, of the BuainessEducators' 
Association of America, and Messrs. S. S. 
Williams, G. W. Brown, and A. H. Hin- 
man, the Executivo Committee, met in 
Rochester, N. Y., Saturday, Feb. 2d, l88d, 
and spent the day aud evening in arrauging 
plaus for the next meeting of business edu- 
cators and penmen The Association will 
meet at Rochester, Thursday, July Kith, 
continue till the eveniug of the lOlh, and 
close with a Grand Association Banquet at 
Power's Hall. On Saturday, a steamboat ex- 
cursion among the Thousand Island* of the 
St. Lawrence is coulemplated ; to return on 
Sunday night. On the evening before the 
meeting of the CmvontioD, the Annual 
Reunion of Messrs. Williams and Rogers's 
Business Univerhitywill be held, and ad- 
dresses delivered b> Senator Warner Miller, 
President While, of C<)rneU University, and 
other distinguished speakers. The work of 
the Convention will be divided into six sec- 
tions. Each section will be under the lead- 
ership of a superintendent who shall each 
day, at a certain hour, open a general dis- 
cussion upon his appointed topic. The 
next hour another topic will be presented, 
and so on througliout each day. Section 
No. 1 will comprise Book-keeping, or the 
Science of Accounts. Section No. 2, Pen- 
manship. Section No. 3, Commercial Cal- 
culations. Section No. 4, Business Corres- 
pondence and Practical Grammar. Section 
No. 5, Commercial Law, Civil Law, and 
Political Economy. Section No. (i, Busi- 
ness Practice. lu addition to the daily 
presentation of the above topics, the follow- 
ing miscellaneous topics will be presented 
by superintendents for the discussion at 
the evening sessions : ( 1 ) Business College 
Discipline; (2) The Relation of Business 
Colleges to Public Schools; (3) The rela- 
tions of Business Colleges to Agriculture, 
Manufacturing, and the Professions; (4) 
Phonography and Type-writing; (5) Mor- 
als and Manners. As an aid to securing 
to each member an opportunity of present- 
ing his views upon any of the various topics 
for discussion, the Executive Committee 
corflially invite a free and early correspond- 
ence with business college principals, teach- 
ers, penmen, nnd all friends of practioal ed- 
ucation, and request that each one shall 
choose and name the particular subject or 
sabjeetB he will aid in discu8i>ing. That 
penmen and penuianahip may have due 
recognition, it was voted as follows; "That 
as much time as is given to any other sec- 
tion will be given by the Business Educa- 
tors' Association to ])ract'cal penmanship, 
aud ample opportunity will bo given to 
penmen to hold other meetings as often and 
as long as they desire." 

A. H. HiNBtAN, 

Single copies of the JoUR 
leoeipt of price, 10 oeata. 

Exchange Items. 

The Chirographic Quarterli/, published 
by II. W. Kibbe, of Utioa, N. Y.. has 
reached its third number. It, in handsomely 
printed aud contains tine illuxlrations. It 
is mailed one year for twenty-four cents. 
Mr. Kibbe announces that he will mail a 
apeoimr>u free to all applicants during this 

The Chirographer, by E. K. Isaaca, of 
Valparaiso, Ind., for February is well filled 
with valuable information to pupils of pen- 
manship. Price, $1.00 per year. 

The Iowa Penman and Book-keeper, 
published by Messrs. Goodyear &. Palmer, 
is a uprightly (our-page<l paper, devoted, 
as its title would indicate, to writing and 
book-keeping. It has a fine appearance 
and is well edited, and is well worth the 
low price of tifty cents — the subscription for 

The Agent's Herald, published by L. 
Lum Smith, Philadelphia, Pa., publishes 
nearly two columns of names aud addresses 
of persons and aliases of persons who have 
been denied the use of the Uuited Stittes 
mails on account of the fraudulent ohar- 
aoter of the business they conducted. 

The Business College Record {of Jack- 
sonville, 111 ) for February, copies, without 
comment, the article entitled, " Practioal vs. 
Artistic Penmanship," that a|)peared in the 
January number of the Journal. We are 
glad to see this, as we had come to fear that 
the kickiug propensity of Brother Brown 
had become so far chronic as to be involun- 
tary. Let us congratulate you, Brother B. 

The Penman's Ga3ette is devoting itself 
with great assiduity of late to "reminis- 
cences." There seems to be a sharp com- 
petition in this most delightful of mortal 
employments between " Mary Ann " and 
" Jeretniab Jones," with chances of longest 
wind in favor of "Jeremiah." It is bad 
enough to slander the living, but, when 
Brother "Jeremiah" pitches into poor old 
dead Jno. D. Williams about his decalco- 
mania lessons and the two hundred dollars, 
it is "the most unkiadesl cut of all." We 
admit that there is a certain moral atmos- 
phere hovering around Brother "Jeremi- 
ah's" name, but, uotwilhstanding this, il 
he did not help "Jno D." fleece the New 
ark boys for a .^haro of the proceeds, then 
we are fooled on Brother "Jeremiah." 
He look the spoils, and let poor old "Jno, 
D." take the curses. Judging from the 
moral and intellectual key in which "Jere- 
miah Jones" has pitched his warblings, we 
should flay that he and the editor of *he 
Gazette had often crossed the " East River" 
on the same ferryboat. To be sure ibis is 
only our guess, and in it we are aware that 
we may be doing Brother "Jeremiah" a 
great injustice.— /uctsonuiHe (111-) Busi- 
ness College Record. 

At the beginning of the race we should 
have been iuclined to bet with Brother 
Brown on the "wind" of " Jereuiiab," but, 
according to report, "Brother Jeremiah'' 
has been "taken iu" respecting his own 
"capacity," and is now threatened with 
decalcomania, or some other mania, whicli, 
we thiuk, turns tlio chances in favor of 
" Mary Ann." However, we hope that 
"Jeremiah" may survive, and continue his 

Lccording to Dame Rumor, he 
siderably, by way of epice, to 
of the Gazette by relating the 
few of the joyous occa- 
sions on which he and its editor have 
celebrated together. 

New Special Premiums. 

The attention of our readers is invited to 
the advertisment, in the advertising col- 
muns, of a dictionary and a fountain pen, 
which from their merits we have been in- 
duced to offer to the patrons uf the Jour- 
nal as a premium for clubs, and also at 
A low cash price. Please read, and then, 
of course, accept our advice and raise the 
required club. 

Subscribers wishing to have their address 
changed, should be careful to give both the 
old and new address. 

which cas 
may add > 

Autograph Exchangers. 




ggestion II 

last numb' r, the following-named personii 
have siguiBed their willingne^^s or desire to 
exchange autographs, npon the Peircerian 
plau, as set forth in the August number of 
the Journal: 

G. C. Cortirao, Central Ill^h SoIiaoI, Pittaburgh. Ta. 

J. M Shepherd. Lm Omtign, Mo. 

C. J. WolMilt, Sbennu, N. Y. 

R. H. Mftring. Colombu* ( Ohio ) nutin^u Colleg*. 

Wllion M, Tjlur, Msnbatl Seminary. Eiuiton. N. V. 

J W. BroM. Kwkiik, lono. 

J, W.KUher, Hranswiok. Me. 

0. J Hill. Drfden, N. V. 

L. H -Shaver. CiiTO Springe. V«. 

3. H. W. York, Wooditock, Oolario. 
ChBiIe* HUlt, 2.'M lllhStmtf, PbllAdelphlo. 
W. B. Emit. Sherwood, Michigan. 

0. W. SWiim. ChilllootUe, Ohio. 

* CoUrg 

. Oom 

H-wtelier, Han 16:b, Sterllog, IU. 

Tallmnn, Hillsdale. Mich. 

I|ib Applebj, Jr., Summit Ave., JereojCltr, N.J 

W. L Maw, Mound City Comtncrolal Col., St, Loula, I 
E. P. Shaw. Plymomta. Mnu. 
O. S Comptoa, Pierce, Ohio. 

Myron Ryder, Sber 

n Bay ( Wla.) Btuineat College. 
Box ■-•e.-!, Hanf.'i-d. Conn, 
uhago County, Simon. Ool. 

About Changing Autographs. 

Editor of Journal : In the August, 1683, 
number of the Art Journal, Prof. C. H. 
Peirce, of Keokuk, Iowa, made a proposi- 
tion to the penmen of this country, to the 
eilect that he would Jeend, free of charge, 
his autograph for that of any other penman ; 
and in consideration whereof, there appeared 
in the October number of the Journal a 
suegestion by H. F. Vogel of St. Louis, Mo., 
appealing to all penmen who favored said 
proposition to send their name nnd address 
to the Art Journal for publication, there- 
by greatly facilitating the exchange of au- 
t.igraphs. When said suggestion was made, 
it was expected to meet the approval of all 
the profeesional penmen in the country; 
for, had not Prof. Peirce stated that the 
plan had been given the honorable mem- 
bers of the Business Educators' Association, 
and that the members of the c<mveution 
were in harmony with this idea? 

In response to said call, there appeared 
in the November number a list of sixteen 
names, aud iu the December number the 
yame with an addition of twelve — a grand 
total of twenty-eight names. 

Now, Mr. Editor, I hope you will excusfl 
me for taking the liberty of asking a few 

(J ) How many of those whose names 
appeared are members of the Business Edu- 
cators' Association t 

(2) Why is it that not one of the mem- 
bers ot the convention has shown his ap- 
proval of Prof Peirce's proposition by send- 
ing his name for publication ? 

(3) Is it for fear of being too much 
troubled by autograph hunters by giving 
their name publicity f 

(4 ) Or last, but by no means least, is it 
because they do not know how to appre- 
ciate such a good tiling as the liberal offer, 
made by the editor of the Art Journal, 
to assist those who love nothing better tbau 
to have a scrap of writing of their brother 

I have received a few letters of complaint 
from various penmen, in regard to the poor 
support the proposition received from the 
professional penmen; aud, consfquently, 
would ask Brother Peirce, who is sueh a 
brilliant writer, and who was the first to 
uialte the plan known public, to say a word. 

Sl Louis, Mo. 

Vi: 1 UOl KNAI. 

Spencer.— Died nt Baxicr Springe, 
KsuMB, January I9th, Mary Duty Sponcer, 
wife of Piatt K. SppDcer, in the 48lh year 
of her age. Mrs. Spender, was a Ia<ly of 
fine mental endowmenlB, Iiighly cultured, 
and poisewed "f rare social accoinpli^h- 
mentB Slie had been an invalid f..r sev- 
eral years, and on that account wa« 
Bpending eoine time in the genial climate of 
southern Kansao. During the week prior 
to her death her health was considered to 
be improving. Her death was, therefore, 
entirely unexpected, und a great shock to 
her family and a wide rirclo of relations and 
friendp. With the Borrowing hu^hund arc 
leU Ihree children : Lyman, aged l(i ; 
Harvey, j;J; and Mamie, II. The funeral 
took place in Cleveland, 0., Janiinry SSth 
-the Eolemn service of the Episcopal 
Church being conducted by Rev. Doctor 
Riilison. Robert C- Spencer, of Milwaukee ; 
Henry C. and Lyman P Spencer, of Wash- 
ingron; E. R. Felton, Mr. Jackson, and 
Mr. Twiggs, of Cleveland, were the pall- 
bearera. The remaina were placed in 
Lake View Cemetery. 

And School Items. 

W. F. Wilpy is having pood Buccees in 
teachtrg writing-classes at Aaron Rock, Mo. 

T. C. Strickland is conduciing the commer- 
cial department of Chamberlain luslitute, Ran- 
dolph. N. Y. 

E. C. Davis, a superior penman, is conduct- 
ing a curd and art store at 42 Westminster 
Street, Providence, R. I. 

Harrj Fox, lately a graduate from G. W. 
Michfll's Writing and Business Coilege. Ober- 
lin, O., has been employed to leach writing at 
the Miami BusinfBs College, Dayton, O. 

Mr. Frank Putnam, Harlfield, N. Y., saja: 
"I desire to lluiuk yoii for publishing such a 
beautiful aud iuteresling paper. Each number 
seems belter than tlie former. I have made 
great improvemeat since I began taking it." 

I.. Hill, Isle St. George. Ohio, writes a 
handsome letter and saya : " I could not do 
wiihout the JoUltXAl.. I have nse for it in 
school and out. Noi alone for this do I value 
it, but also for its educational and literary 

C. L. Slubba, Penman at Paddis'e St. Paul 
(Minn,) Business College, writes an elegant 
letter, in which he snys: "I find the Jourxal 
a great source of pleasure and profit. Its 
teachings are of inestimable value." (See 
specimen of Huuriehing oo another page.) 

G. B. Jones, formerly of Bergen, N. Y., and 
who has recently taken a course of instruction 
in practical writing at Flickiiiger's Writing 
Academy, Philadelpliia, has been engaged to 
teach writing in ihe public schools of Batavia, 
K. Y., and is, also, about to open a select writ- 
ing academy in that city. 

J. M, Kane, York, Pa., renews hie eubBcrip- 
tinn and SRys: "This is the third year siuce 1 
began taking the JoijuxaL, and the longer 1 
lake it llie better I am pleased. I have derived 
great benefit from the lessons l»y Prof. Spen- 
cer, and I look forward with great iuterest to 
those to be given by Prof. Hinman." 

Warren H. Lamson, author of Ihe " Lameon 
Series of Copy-books," published by Harper 
Bros., ia now director of drawing and writing 
in the public schools of Lynn, Maes; also, 
principal of the writing department of th» 
Boston Evening High Schools. Mr. Lamson 
has lately received letters patent for an im- 
provement, entitled. "Penstaff and Hand Sup- 
port." The object of this invention is to seeurw 
1 perfect position of the baud, fingers and peii- 


n-hile V 
of Ihe 

t beautiful specimens of writ- 
ing received during the montli ootnes (rom 
H. Falardeau, President of llie " D; La Salle 
Peomeu's Club" of Quebec, Canada— most of 
the members of which dub are subscribers to 
the JoriiNAi,. Mr. Fhlardeau, speaking in 

ilves." We regret that 
ly written to admit of 
should reproduce it in 



an integral part of 
hi* letter i^ too del 
photo- engmving, oi 

G. W. Elliott, of the Buriington (Iowa) 
Business College, is one of the live men of the 
West, and is at the head of one of its thriving 
institutions. The Dalit/ Gazette, of that cily. 
mentioning a late Annual Reunion ot the fac- 
ulty and students of the college, says: 

The Annual Sociables of Elliott's Business 
College has become one of llie marked features 
of social life in Burlington, and are looked for- 
ward to with pleasant anticipation fa 
student and citizen. The reunion last evening 
was no exception to the popularity of these 
gatherinps — Uiany hundreds of leading ciii- 
/ens, wiih their w'ives and suns and daughters, 
mingling with the xtudents until a late hour of 
evening. The large attendance and hearty 
greeiitig by our bettt citizens was a epiendid 
iHdursement of the (frit aad energy Mr. Elliott 
has shown in buildinj; up so succesf^ful a 
school, which now ranks ibird, in the number 
of students in attendance, itmong the business 
colleges of America. 

[Persons sending specimens for notice iu 
this column ehonld see that the packages con- 
taining the same are poi»tage paid in full at 
Utter rates. A large proportion of these pack- 
ages come short paid, for sums ranging front 
three cents upward, which, of course, we are 
obliged to pay. This is scarcely a desirable 
consideration for a gratuitous notice.] 

H. W. Kibbe, Utica, N. Y., a letter. 
J. M. HarkiiiB, Calhoun, Ga., cards. 
G. H. Mohler, Orestes, Ind., a letter. 
M. B. Moore, Cincinnati, O., a letter. 

C. A. French, Boston, Mass., a letter. 
G. K. Demary, Medina, N. Y., a letter. 
J, M. Fisher, Brunswick, Me., a letter. 
H. Blackwood, Halifax, N. S., a Utter. 
L P. Ketchum, Madison, Wis., a letter. 
H. W. Shaylor, Portland, Me., a letter 

D. McLachlau, Chatham, Out., u letter. 
Chae. C. Breed, St. Johns, 111., a letter. 

E. L. Wiley, St. Clairsville, O,, a letter. 

F. A. Appleton, Waltham, Mass., letter. 

G. W. Slusser, Inglewood, Va., a letter, 
S. M. Gibson, Greensboro, Ala,, a letter. 
S. C. Williams, Lockport, N. Y., a letter. 
Grace L. Catlin, Pittefield, Mass., a letter. 
H. E. Dickin^on, Hiawatha, Kaa., a letter. 
G. W. Ware. South West City, Mo., a letter. 
C. H. Krinming, Philadelphia, Pa., a letter. 
W. H. Lothrop, South Boston, Mass., a let- 

A. C. Webb, Nashville, Tenn., birds in a 

J. A. Hope. Pocahontas, Mo., bird 

1 M. Kent, penman, Monipelier, Vt.. 

D. J. ConUni, city clerk. Newburgh. N. Y., 
Elmer E. Jones, Commercial College, Mo., 

C. W. Lee, Baldwin, Kas., aged IG, a llou 
ished bird and quill. 

L. A. Martin, Counorsville, Ind., a lett 

F. A. Leddin, of the Memphis (Tenn.) Bui 
ness College, a leiltir, * 

Philadelphia, Pa., , 

J. A. Evans, Salt Lake City, a letter, and 
several card specimens. 

E. 1>. Westbrook. of the Mansfield (Pa.) 
tusiness College, a letter. 

S. A. V. Hahn, penman. Little Rock ( Ark.) 
Business College, a letter. 

W. W. Bennett, Spencerian Business Col- 
lege, Cleveland. O., a letter. 

R. E. Gallegher, of the Canada Bueinese 
College, Hamilton, Out., a letter. 

U. McICee, of the penmanship department of 
the Oberlin (O.) College, a letter. 

J. W. Westervelt, teacher of writing in the 
publio schools of Woodstock, Ont., a letter. 

I. S. Preeton, Brooklyn, N. Y., flourished 
birds, and several excellently- written cards. 

J. W. Swank, penman of United Slates 
TreasQpy Department, Washington, D. C, a 

C. A. Robertson, penman, Bradford Place, 
Boston, Mass., line card speoimenB and flour- 

J. H. Weathers, teacher of penmanship in 
the Smitbdeal Business College, Greensboro, 
N. C, a letter. 

A. C. Cooper, principal of Cooper Institute, 
Daleville, Miss., a letter, and Hat of subscrib- 
ers to the JouitXAL. 

D. E. Blake, student at Mueselmau's Gem 
City (Quincy, III.) Busiuess College, a letter 
and card specimens. 

II. F. Vogel, artist penman, St. Louis, Mo., 
two designs of birds — one very elaborate, and 
his portrait in peu-and-ink. 

A. N. Palmer, Cedar Rapids, Iowa, s letter; 
and, by one of his pupils, V. E. Vane, a speci- 
men of flourishing and drawiug. 

C. A. and F. H. Burdett, of the Burdett 
BuHinees College, an elegantly-written letter, 
and a club of twelve subscribers. 

A. J. Scarborough, penman at Gaskell's 
(Jersey City, N. J.) Business College, a letter, 
and several fine specimens of writing. 

D. H. Prtriey, principal of writing and book- 
keeping department of the New Jersey State 
Normal School, Trenton, N. J., a letter. 

W. S. Cunningham and L. O. Broadwell, 
students of G. W. Michael's School of Penman- 
ship, Oberlin, O., epecimens of flourished bird 

J. M. Holmes, Wilkin's Run, O., a letter 
a flourished stag, and cards. He Bays: "I am 
taking three penmen's papers— the JOURNAL 
is far superior to all others." 

W. A. Schell, of Clark's Commercial Col- 
lege, Titusville, Pa., a letter. He says: "The 
last number of the Jouiin'al was, if possible, 
better than any previous. Prof. Hinman's 
lesson is delightful." 

G. H. Schweinhart, St. Mary's Institute, 
Dayton, O., .a letter. He says: "The JOUR- 
NAL is a veritable vade meciiin. The ability 
with which it is oouducte i, its purity of tone 
and varied information render it, unexcep- 
tionally, the beat of penmeu's papers." 


In the January number of the JoURNAl, 
appeared a portrait and eketch of G- M. 
Smitbdeal, principal of tho Sinithdeal Busi- 
ness College, to which the address ( Greene- 
boro, N. C.,) was inadvertently omitted; 
and, also, in a notice, under " Specimens 
Received," Mr. C. M. Coble, a student of 
Mr. Smithdeal'a, was located at "Smith- 
field," instead of Smitbdeal College. 

A Man op Ideas— C. A. Burdett, of 
Burden's Business Collego, Boston, bhjb: 
"Tho lessons to bo given by Hinman, 
whom we consider the 'man of ideas' in 
the profession, we know will be of incal- 
culable value to penmen and eeekere for im- 
proved penmansbip. 

Complimentary on 
"Ames's New Compendii 

"Amea'i Kew Comp-ndimn" it by far th 

r rrat^tical nnd OrnnmeDUl 


— AViu York Eveniro 

renty plut^p ..ot.taioe.1 in it are reprints. A featur. trbio 
>tingalshM tbia work (Vum many otbsrs of ill kind : 



WAflu.XGTON, D. C., Feb. H, IBS' 

DearSir:-! hereby aoli now ledge tbe receiplofyov 
I1T Coinrendium. From coDreranlions Imd with yo 
(ore ill piiblioaliun I n-ii« ptepa-e<t lo see a great in 

Ihe great variely of vf ell-balanced and «iij.erbty-MMat«l 

aoqniring a thorough 

Orders Delayed. 

Owing to tho uoneual amount ol dark 
cloudy weather during the past month it has 
been quite iiiijjoasiblo to fill orders for pho- 
to-engraving within the customary time. 
We have also been greatly delayed in get- 
ting the desired engravings fur the present 
issue of the JouiiNAL. 

The Senior Class in tbe New York Col- 
legiate Institute show an average, in word- 
writing, on trial of speed and legibility, of 
three hundred and thirty strokes a minute. 
In exceptional instances five hundred and 
eighty strokes were made in a minute. 

Back Numbers of the "Journal." 

Every mail brings inquiries respecting 
back numbers. The following we can send, 
and no others: All numbers of 1878 but 
December; all for 1879, except January, 
May and November ; all numbers for 1880; 
all numbers fur 1881 ; all for 1882, except 
June; all for IScfS, but January. It will 
be noted that while Mr. Spencer's writing- 
leesons began with May, the second lesson 
was in ttir July number. Only a lew copies 
of several of the numbers mentioned above 
remain, eo that persons desiring all or any 
part of them should order quickly. All the 
51 numbers, back of 1883. will be mailed 
for $1, or any of the numbers at 10 cents 

Tor S2 the Journal will be mailed one 
year; also, a copy each of the "Standard 
Practical Penmanship" and the "Guide 
to Self-Instruction in Artistic Penmanship" 
( in paper covers; 25 centa extra in cloth ). 
Price each, separate, $1. 

A Business Hand. 

Just what constitutes a " buaiuesH hand" 
it would perhaps be hanl to dcDno to the 
Batisfaotion of every one. From tbo bold, 
round liand so comnion in certain quarter-s a 
generation ago, and even now occasionally 
met in the epistolary cfiurt8 of gpntlemen 
of the old school, to the neat but exceed- 
ingly rapid, and withal very lejiiblc, style 
affected by teb grapbers and tlio transcrib- 
ers of stenographic notes of the present 
day, tliere is a wide range of choice. Few 
would prefer the former for rcauliir business 
use when the Ijihor of writing :it]d the neo 
essary slowness of (he style is considered, 
while the greatest objection that can bo 
raised to what has sometimes been cjillcd 
the "telegrapher's stylo" is that it violatfs 
nearly every rule of tbo writiag-mastera, 
both as to llio formation of the letters and 
holding the pen. It i?, liowever, clean and 
neat, very legible, and in the tmuds of an 
expert far more rapid than one would think. 

on tlic 

' Chfl 

Haniiwriliug." by Prof. D.inicl T. Ames, a 
well-kuijwu author and expert, delivered a 
short time since before the Institute of Ac- 
countants and Book-keepers of the City of 
New York, some statements and compari- 
sons were made which aro of interest to 
business men, and ospecisilly to those who 
are forniiug habits of pcnmansbip. As an 
axiom, the speaker paid that that style was 
to be preferred which was easier of exeou- 

tlie most easily read. In aci'iiriug such a 
style be advised the use of a blunt jien, the 
absence of shade lines in the formation of 
letters, the choice of simple forms ami the 
absence uf nil superlluous Hues, and the 
employment of arm movements as far as 
possible instead of finger movoments. One 
of the illustrations of the gain of speed re- 
sulting from the proper application of these 
principles was based upon a CHpital B. 
Tlii?, the speaker showed, when made in a 
style very common in the cipy books, with 
a flourish at the bottom of the initial stem, 
and another at the top commencing the 
main body of the letter, with a third termi- 
nating this part at the base, required eleven 
motions, while th"? same letter made io an- 
other way, the strokes composing it being 
made without lifting the pen, required 
only four movements. Here, very evident- 
ly, was a gain of nearly 75 per ceat. by the 
omission of what, the Professor pointed out, 
tended to obscure legibility, and what in 
many cases wore the crowning agonies of a 
slonchy hand. Other similar comparisons 
were made, all to the same purpose, and all, 
we took it, demonstrating conclusively that 
small, unshaded, unfinished and simply con- 
structed writing was the most desirable for 
general use. 

As a practical application of the princi- 
ples to which he had directed attention, and 
iu conclusion. Professor Ames exhibited a 
letter received by Iiim from one of the de- 
partments at Washington a slmrt time be- 
fore, which was written in what, iu some 
directions at least, is considered a very gnod 
style for the purpose. The handwriting 
was neither round nor square, but a combi- 
uation of both, while the individual letters 
were much longer than aro ordinarily seen 
in the best bnsineas epistles. The capitals 
were carefully made and rather conspicuous. 
The loops in letters extending above the 
line were long and full, and the same feat- 
ure characterized the loops and stems below 
the line. The letters throughout were very 
uniform, and in all particulars the epistle 
was the cnuntvrpart of many official doeu- 
ment9 we have inepected. A transcript of 
a portion of the letter was shown in com- 

The aliove cut rppreBeols the lillt-page of a new bouk which w^ bar*" iiuw in presB, which will be, oh ii« title imiicales, a guide to aelf- 
mstruction, and, also, to good melhude for imparling inetruotion in writing. It will contain aixly-four pag«H. oame cize as those of the " Hand- 
book"; and although it has twice Ihe number of pages it will be given frae, in paper ( nicely hound in cloth cover?, 25 ccuie extra ), to each 
Bubecriber who sends §1 for a year's Bubacription to the JouHXAr.. TImb book ii to take the place of the " Hand-book,' which are all sold and 
no more will be printed. The new hook contains all that was in the " Hand-book," and thiriy-two pages more, all devoted to inBtrucliwn and 
copies for practical writing. Price, by mail, in paper covers. 75 cents ; nicely bound in cloth, $1. Ii will contain more for the money than any 

oilier book i 

1 penmanship publiahed. 

pen tracing a line only seventeen feet ; 
length. This great difference war a su 
prise to many experienced penmen wli 
were present, and we doubt not will I 
equally new to our readers. 




speaker had been recommcmling for busi- 
ness purpofos. By calculation it was dem- 
onstrated that to write a page of the letter 
iu the style it was received from Washing- 
ton it was nocoBSflry f^r ihe pen to trace a 
line fifty feet in letgtb, while tlie same 
words could be written in a baod considera- 
bly more legible than^^tho former by the 


A lady wrote to her husband, "I write 
because I havQ nothing to say." 

HanpiQCss consists not in possessing 
much, but iu being content with what we 

The visiting-cards of Marwood. the late 
Englisli hangmau, are offered for sale in 
England as curiosities.— Cr<)/er's Stationer. 

A fortune awaits the man who will in- 
vent a penholder that you can't stick into 
the mucilage bottle, and a mucilage brush 
that won't go into the inkstand.— Boston 

Webster said that the word mould, in 
Rufus Clioate's handwriting, resembled a 
small gridiron struck by lightning. We 
judge that it must have been a near relative 
of some of our modern autographs. 

A colored man compromised a suit with 
a white man. " Put tho agreement down 
in writing," said the judge. '■ That is im. 
necessary," said one of the lawyers, point- 
ing to the litigants; "it is already in black 
and white." 

A Telling Phaver. — An old negro 
woman praying for a slanderer said: ''0 
Lord, won't you be kind enough tt) take the 
door of bis mouth off, and when you put it 
on again just hang it on the Gospel hinges 
of peace on earth and goodwill to menT" 
— Exchange. 

A London lawyer wrote three hands — 
one of nliich no one could read but himself; 
another, his clerk could read, and he could 
not) and a third, which nobody could read. 
Tho latter hand seeiLS to have been gener- 
ally adopted, and handed down as the pre- 
vailing hand of his fraternity. 

An Efficient Home-made Fountain 
Pen. — Take two ordinary steel pens of the 
same pattern and insert ihcm in the com- 
mon lioldcr. Tho inner pen will ho the 
writing pen. Between this and tho outer 
pen will be hebl a supply of iuk, when 
they aro ouco dipped into the iukstniid, that 
will last to write several pages of manu- 
script. It is not necessary that tho points 
of tho two pens ehuuld bo very near 

together, but if the flow of ink is not rapid 
enough the points may bo brought nearei 
by a bit of thread or a minute rubber band. 
— Scientific A: 

A Plumber's Private Book 
journeyman plumber's private note-book, 
recently picked up in the snow, contained 
tho following charges for repairing to h'u 
employer: Fixing up Smith's busted pipes, 
to wit: Going to sec the job, $1.00 ; com- 
ing ba-jk for tools and help, $2 00 ; finding 
the leak, *1 50; sending f.>r more help, 
$1.25; going back for solder forgoi 
$1 50; bringing the solder, $1 OU; bu 
my fiugor, $2.00; lost my tobacco, fifty 
cents; getliug to work, $2.50; fixing tho 
pipe, twenty-five cents; going homo, $2 50; 
time, solder, wear and tear on tools, over- 
alls and other clothing, $.VO0; total, 
$23.50.— Pitisburgh Chronicle. 

An E.\traordinary Memory. — A 
teacher of mathematics named William 
Lawson, who died at Edinburgh in Novem- 
ber, 1757, on one occasion to win a wager 
made by his patron undertook to multiply 
regularly in succession tlie numbers from 1 
to 40, without other aid than his memory. 
He began tho task at 7 o'clock in the morn- 
ing and finished at 9 o'clock iu the evening, 
wlien he reported the produ t, which was 
tested on paper and found to be correct. It 
made a line of forty eight figures, and a fair 
copy of it occupied a place on tho wall of 
his patron's dining room, for which it was 
framed and glazed. It may bo added that 
in tho course of tho day on which tho men- 
tal calculation was made Mr. Lawson re- 
ceived his pupils as usual and gave them 
their lessims iu Latin. — Exchange. 

Prooress in Gunnery.- The progresa 
in guunery was well illustrated by the latest 
Of periment at Sboebiirynees, Eng. A target, 
forty feet tliick, was set up composed of an 
outer coating of granite blocks a foot and a 
half in thickness, and a solid interior of 
concrete and brick. Against this at one 
trial was hurled a shell weighing 750 
pounds, with a charge of 450 pounds of 
powder, the gun staLding at a distance of 
200 yards. The initial velocity of the shell 
was over 500 yards a second. Tho blow 
completely destroyed the facing of the tar- 
get by dislodging several of ttie granite 
blocks and deranging most of the others, 
while tho shot buried itself several feet deep 
in the brick-concrete filling. At auother I 
time a ball was driven through a target 
consisting of eighteen inohea of rolled-irou | 


ment for lif*. 
tended to produ 
shall ppend the 
senms. Even a 
Waldo Emersot 
latious of the a 
lent that we ran 

plate and eighi inches <if teak. 

shell was forced for eighteen ft.. 

solid gr-inite wall forty feet thick. 

A Living Dog is Better Than a 
Dead Lion.— We are glad to see that 
Charles Franci* Adams. Jr., has been at- 
tacking the system prevaient in colleges of 
making Litin and Greek the foundation of 
what is called a libi-ral education. The 
study of th'ise languages has olten been 
oom-nended on account ..f the discipline 
they give the mind, but mathematics pro- 
vide quite as good a discipline, if nut a 
better, and the acquisition of French and 
Geiman in colleges instead of Latin and 
Greek furnishes at least a practical equip- 
College studies are not in- 
ce classical bookworms who 
ir time in libraries and mu- 
i scholar like the late Ralph 
1 points out that the trans- 

I get ahmg very comfortably 
without beiug able to read the originals. 
And all thiii is true without disparagement 
of geniuses who spoke tongues now dead. 
After Eleven Years. — Some sixty 
years since a Bank of England £o note 
was paid into a Liverpool merchant's office 
in tho ordinary course of business. On 
holding it up to the light to tost its genu- 
ineness, tho cashier saw some faint red 
marks upon it. Examining them closely, 
he traced some half-eflaced words between 
the printed lines and upon tho margin of 
S written apparently in blood. 
After a long aLd minute scrutiny, he made 
out the words: ''If this note should fall 
tbo hands of John Dean, of L'.nghill, 
Carlisle, he will learn I ere by that his 
brother is languishing a prisoner in AI- 
iers." Tho merchant immediately com- 
lunicated with Mr. Dean, and ho lost no 
me iu bringing the matter before the Gov- 
■umcnt. Inquiries wore set on foot and 
the unfortunate man was discovered and ran- 
somed. Ho had been a slave to the Dey of 
iers for eleven years, when the message 
had traced with a splinter of wood 
dipped iu his own blood reached the Liver- 
p.-ol couutiug-honsc. — Panama Herald. 

Each number is illustrated with beautiful 
and practical engravings, and the Jour- 
nal has come to be recognized as the fore- 
most publication of its class iu the world. — 
The Ottawa ( III.) Globe. 

Aur fJoruNAi. 


A Qota of the Bank of EsKland, wbeo 
twietoi), can eustain a pull of 320 poDoda 
without paliDj?. 

"Wliydo you always come after teat" 
said a young lady. " I came after T," was 
the respouse, iu order to bo 

Some men are born great, some achieve 
greatness, and some wriie ]2,S7(i .')47,t*2I,- 
000 words on a poatal-CArd, and grasp fame 
right by the baok of the ueck. — Bismarvk 

A New York "eociety" young lady, who 
heard Matthew Arnold's first lecture, says 
she doesn't think much of his abilities as an 
orator, but she can recommend his writing- 
fluid. — Norristown Herald. 

Some one talked of challenging Choato's 
vole, 00 the ground that ho coulr 
" Better not,'' said a friend, " he 
will band in a speciuicn of his 
penmanship, and then chnllctige 
your vote on the ground that 
you cannot read.'* 

His Hope. — Having made 
his will, Mr. Baruum was lately 
asked if he thought lie would 
go to heaven when he dies. 
"Well, I don't see why 
not," was the character- 
istic reply of the great 
advertiser. " I think 
have the beet ehow o 
anybody on earth." 

A gentleman, who \vn 
an indifferent penman 
sent a letter to a friend 
" Out of respect, eir, '. 
write to you with my 
own band ; but to facil- 
itate reading, I send you a 
copy wbiob I have caused my 
amanuensis to make." We 
commend this plan to some 
of the correspondents of the 

A modest bachelur says all 
be sliiinld ask iu a wife 
would be good temper, eound 
health, a good understanding, agreeable 
physiognomy, pretty figure, good 
tions, domestic habits, 
ment, good spirits, conversational talents, 
oleg;tut manners, and plenty of money. 
Modest, indeed ! 

A boy was going up Sycamore - street 
yesterday witb a glass inkstand to fill. 
Every few steps be would toss it into the 
air and eatob it again. He did 
fully until the lust time, when it landed 
gracefully on the pavement in a thousand 
pieces. Ho looked at it about a minute, 
and then said: "It serves the old 
right. I told him before I started that I 
couldn't carry that thing up street." — Oil 
City Derrick. 

A correspondent of I7ie Manchester Ex- 
aminer says that he once received from 
Dean Stanley the most ioscrutable epistle 
be ever beheld. It was written upon poor 
blue paper and iu two kinds of ink, the lat- 
ter portion iu black, and the former in ink 
about the color of brown vinegar. The 
writing bad a thiu, timid, scratchy look, and 
suggested the thought that it had been 
written with an old pen with only one 
prong, or with the point of an old stocking 
needle. There wore no distinct letters as 
such, but a aeries of nervous pecks at the 
paper with Bomething smeared with ink. 
"I tried over and over agiin for several 
days," says the correspondent, " to decipher 
the missive, but to no purpose. I procured 
a magnifying glass, and was simply dis- 
mayed at the result. I held it up to a 
strong eaMight, and tried to read the front 
through the back and the back through tlie 
front. I tried to read it perpendicularly, 
horizontally, and from each of the four cor- 
ners diagonally, and at last flung myself 
full length upon the hearthrug, spread the 
tantalizing document upon the fender, and 
Sought a friendly revelation from the glow 

king; and the thirstiest one, drio-king; and 
the slyest, win-king; and the most garrul- 
ous one, tal-kiog. And there is the bac- 
king, whose trade's a perfect mine; the 
dark-skinned monarch blac-king, who outs 
the greatest shine ; not to speak of ran-king, 
whose title's out of the question; or fa- 
-uler, ba-king, of good finance diges- 

HoNEST Because it is Right.— We 
frequently hear of honest people who pick 
up money in the streets, and then seek out 
The only occa- 
upon which these little acts of probity 
find their way into the papers are when the 
finder is merely rewarded with a " thank 
you " or something almost as unsubstantial ; 
and then there is a sneer, deserved or tttber- 

, at the liberality of the do! 
one day last week there was a varintion 
upon the conventional story. A poor lad 
found a pocket-book containing 
ler of checks and consid- 
erable money. In it was a card 
which enabled him to find the 
owner. He went to him and 

Pleased with the boy's 
the gentlei 

very handsome reward, which 
was declined with the 
remark that he did not 
want to he paid for do- 
ing whatisrigbt. "But," 
urged the other, " this is 
to pay you for your trou- 
ble and your loss of time, 
and not for your hon- 
esty." The boy, how- 

young, replied: '*If a 
gentleman returned your 
pocketbook, would you offer 
him a reward!" The elder 
was both surprised and puzz- 
led by the c 
had taken, 

No; I should thank 

It wUl be observed that the ab',vc of a bird is composed of capital stems, and . 
shoio the very intimate relation ensting between the lines and curves employed 
in both plain cmd artistic penmanship. 

of the fire, but in vain. As a last resource 
I took it to a clever schoolmaster, who, after 
looking carefully over it from beginning to 
end, somewhat discouraged me by asking 
me who it was from and what it was about. 
He labored at it more or less for five -weeks, 
aud then gravely assured me that the man 
who could read such writing was not yet 

Up to the Sticking Point. -"One 
eveuin' as I was a-sittin' by Hetty, and had 
worked myself up to the sticking-pint, aez 
I, * Hetty, if a feller was to ask you to marry 
him, what wud you say f ' Then she laughed, 
aud sez she, 'That would depend on who 
asked me.' Thon sez I, 'Suppose it was 
Ned Willist' Sez she, ' I'd tell Ned Willis, 
but not you.' That kinder staggered me; 
but I was too cute to lose the opportunity, 
aud so sez I agen, 'Suppose it was met' 
And then you orter see her pout her lip, 
and eez she, ' I don't take no supposes.' 
Well, now, you see thete was nothin' for 
me to do but to touch the gun off. So bang 
it went. Sez I, 'Lor, Hetty, it's me.' Won't 

you say yesf And then there -was such a 
huUahalloo in my head' I don't know 'xactly 
what tuk place, but I thought I heerd a 
'yes' whiaperin' somewhere out of the 
&^\tTa\9\\."— Exchange. 


O ■tern, hnnl-fea lured, cold Neceuily \ 

Men have grown grent hy dn-elHng long ivilh the«. 

Unpilyiojr aod mereUeM «l Uwrt. 

In thee no bcfti.ty and no grace we (lu.l 

Unlil one day ire stuurt od aoiiie Ligh plww, 

Kings. — The most powerful king on 
earth is wor-king. The laziest king, lur- 
king. The meanest king, shir-king. And 
the most dLsgustiog, smir-king. The most 
popular, smo-king. And the most disre- 
putable, jo-kiug; and the leanest one, thin- 

answer with which the youngster departed, 
the boy took a proper 
of the affair. Any really sensitive na- 
would be wounded by the offer of pay- 
ment for exercising common honesty.— 
Sunday Evening Gazette. 

Tell your friends, and tell them to toll 
everybody, that if they are in any way in- 
terested in good writing the best investment 
they can make is to send $1 and get the 
Penman's Art Journal one year and a 
splendid "Guide to Self- Instruction in Prac- 
tical aud Artistic Penmanship," worth $1 
as a premium, fre 

Who should Subscribe for the 

Every lady or gentleman who would 
make an eftuit for the improvement of their 
writing at homo or iu their place of busi- 

Every teacher and pupil of writing in our 

Every parent who has sons or daughters 
whom ho would have become more inter- 
ested or efficient in their writing. 

Every school- officer who would be fa- 
miliar with the liighest standards of writing 
and best methods for its instruction. 

Every admirer of good practical or artis- 
tic penmanship. 

The January number of the Penman's 
Art Journal sustains the enviable repu- 
tation of this handsome monthly. Its con- 
tents are both entertaining aud iustruolive, 
and full of valuable suggeelions to those 
who seek information pertaining to the 
penman's art. It should be in tbo hands of 
every teacher of penmanship, ard read by 
all who wish to improve in the art of writ- 
ing.— TAe Ladies Floral Cabinet. 







/ /. 

~a>^ TIlISlSYlIi;<'II^i.u^;M^v?^)lto^^Il;TII0l>5:vls^f^^ j^^ 



College CuRRENcy — Under the stringent laws and rulings of llie United Slates Treasury officials, respciting the stylo and elinracter of Collpec Curreuey tliat was per- 
missiljle, it has hecn very difficult to arrange designs that would bo in tlieir viow unobjectionable, and at the same time be at all acceptable in schools as currency: but this, we 
believe, we have now accomplished, and above wo present two of the designs upon a plan which is fully approved by the proper authorities. 

It will bo observed that the same designs are used for both large and small currency. It will be presented in sheets having for the large the foUowlug denominations in the 

proper proportion for convenience, viz.: 1, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 500, 1000 i small, 1, 5, 10, U5, 50. 

Both kinds will bo kept in slock, and orders tilled, by return of mail or express, upon the following terms: 

-eprttsentiug $ti:i,:i:tU capital 

OR Dollar Currency. 

$7.tJ0 I Fractional Currency, per 100 iiotei 

. laOO " " ■■ MO ■■ 

20.00 ■■ " "1,000 ■• 

Duplicate relief-plates, which can be used in printing circulars, catalogues, papers, etc., furnished— of large, $3 ; of small, $2 each. 

ffie above cuts are photo-engraved from 2ien-and-mk copy executed at tJte oj/ice of the ■'Journal/' and are given as sjicciniena of commercial work. 
Orders for similar work received and promptly/ filled. Eitimatei given on request 

A|{ r V/OlHtXAlJ 

Anecdote of Webster. 

Daok-1 W.'bHtor'f* flnancimog is the Btil.- 
jfct uf many aueoi^les nt WashiDgt.m, and 
one of thoiii thus (h'srribcs boiv lio mio rl;iy 
ai-i'ted his friend Riifua Clioate. Choato 
needed $500 and he applied to Mr. Web- 
ster. " Five hundred dollars! " says Web 
ster. "No, I haven't that nmouiit, but I 
will get it for you, Choate." The Utler 
was glad to hear it, and would «-ait- 
"Draiv your note," snid Webster, "I'll 
sign it and bring yoii the money. While 
yim arc about it make the note for a thou- 
8.ind ; a thrtn^ADd is as easy to get as fix'e 
hundred." Mr. Chonte said that five hun- 
dr.;d was all ho needed. " I'll take the 
..Iher five hundred." said Webster. Tbe 
imte was drawn and Mr. Webster, taking 
his cane, went iuto the avenue. "Good 
morning, Mr. Corcoran, good morning," 
said lie as be entered the gnat banking' 
house which waa the fiscal agent of the 
G vernment. ''Good morning, Mr. Secre- 
tary," said the great banker in the hlaodeat 
manner. " What is it I cnu do for you this 
morning. Mr. Secretary?" Mr. Webster 
wa» Secretary of State at the time. "A 
little favor for my friend Choate. He 
wants a little money and I tol<l him I 
thought I could get it for him. A ihou- 
eand, I believe he made his note for," )>hss- 
iiig the paper to the banker. There wa« no 
euch thing as hesitating, much less declin- 
ing, and 80 the banker was only too happv 
to a<'comm(idato the head <.f Mr. Fillmore's 
a'tmlnistralion. The gold vas laid out iq 
two iiiles and Mr. Webster put one iuto his 
porltK and liauded the other to, Mr. Clioato. 
When Mr.C- rcoran's estate passed into tbe 
hands of executors Mr. Webster's note w«8 
one of its 

A Wit's Wit. 

IJefore 1 conc'.nde or forget let me tell 
you a few stories of Douglas Jermld that 
1 have heard, and wliirli arc well worth 
preservation. Frank Stoue, a very nice 
ffll..M\ is very disputatious it seems; so 
Doiij,'las has dubbea him " The Diflfereu- 
tial Calculus." Is not that good? One 
niglU at a supper party, a gentleman came 
in, fresh from the opera, and full of enthu- 
siasm, especially about a certain air which 
had quite ravished him. '' In fact," said he, 
"ii quite carries me away." Jerrold said, 
" Is there no quo who can whistle it?" 

He once composed an epitaph for Charles 
Kuight (by anticipation ) which he declared 
the briefest on record, "Good Night" 
( Knight). Well, Lord Nugcut, it seems, a 
great friend of Jorridd's, bad pirated this 
j.ike, as ho was used to do with many 
others, and it was repeated afterward as 
Lord Nugcnt's in Jerrold's heaiing. At 
the theatrical party recently held at Sir 
Edward Bulwer'a, Lord Nugent's illness 
was talked of, and some one said, " He is a 

fine, honest fellow ia Lord N ." 

"Yes," said Jein-ld, "you may trust bim 

with your untold jokes." A Mr. H , 

a young coxcomb, one day hearing people 
speak of age and appearance, said, "Jer- 
rold. don't you think I look inucti younger 
tlian I ami" The reply was, "It is not 
your looks, my boy, it is youi 

The Centennial Picture of 

When wo announced, a short time since, 
the exhaustion of our supply of those pic- 
tures, of a size that could be afforded free 
as a premium, it was not our intention to 
to ro-publisb the work, but so frequent and 
earnest has been the demand fur copies 
that wo decided to have new plates made 
(22x28 inches), and shall hereafter maU 
copies free to all who may desire them as a 
premium. The new plates are very much 
superior to the old ones, and hence the new 
priuts will bo much more desirable than 
those formerly mailed. Large prints, 28x 
■1(1. will continue to be mailed for 25 cents 




• tl.aud liUoDlybyc 

TL. Cu\Ti>ffraplitr aud 

f. K. ISAACS, Editor and Publisher, 



dre'i.. o( over 1 200 luilips and Kenllemen wbo wish to 
Oi.iTMpond (or th. object of muiual imptov.m.Di. L>d 


Writing and IVIeasuring Ruler. 



DARE DUSIMBSS CHANCE! From «:i.OCO(o %c,.(jm 

400 +, "Zm, tt"b*°°,, "'""' ^^"^ '''"'■ 


Barcher's Assorted Colored Inks, 

Exprfljjiy prepared for the use of Penmen and 



Gold, Silver, and White, separate, l>y maTi, 50 cents each. 

mplojeit <1uring Ibe puai ihreeyear 

Penmanship and Art Depaiiment 


Bvislinell, lU. 

'encnen-i ebon (22x28) coniiat* ol exetcbM, prSn- 
elplea, flRure*, alpbnbets, oomblDaKuna, biui- 
DM« writing, bird*, oanl- tr riling, letlerinif, «to. 

!oune io orayon. pMlel, India Ink and nster-cnlor : 
oil paintiDg, landicape, marine, portrait, 

C. N. CRANDLE, Manager. 



h pabinet-xi/e pbotosraphB of Ibe 

Z Sn° 

peeltneD» ol a 

a«ury'DepI , WaBhio^on, D. C. 





Learn to Write. 

1 Peoni.n.bli,; dMigiie.! upecialiy f< 
oomprttag a grmii Y«n.Cy of Pus- IVOI 
lOIs of tba b«al styles^ iouluding t 
8 LKITEK, .even.! sty! 

r. Slaal Spaoiag, Shadiog, etc, and If rigbtly 
im bi inolosed in oniauiaDlal esse. Sample 





\/lSITINa Card, writlea s 
V lowing ratee; Speuoeriau 




111. fo 


S Broad 





o'oufflily taught b7 mail, .r prts.^i 

O. OHATS-EEr'oirww, n! 7 

Shading T Square. 

raried, by turning a Ihtimh.orew. from zero 
LVdMii^^ln" "' or m te'ri °"' '"'"'* borUontally or upon 

tank Not* Co., N. T. 

'. Ames. 'E&n.—Dt 

a applied il. Very 
D. Appleton Sl Oo. 

f truly, M. J. Gold 


$5 TO $20 

3Pei- Dj13-| 



KATEO Bent Poal-ig© Ftio to anyCifj/. 
nr ;r<i».lr( oil CotiUneiil. Clrcilnni ninlled 


At the Ute ATjmml Dinner of the 
EoglaTi.l Socifty, of this city, Gen, I 

in." He kept his beare 
ul novel obaerratioiis < 

by severul novel obaerratioiis on the sub- 

" Thi3 toast," obserwd Genertil Porter, 
" 18 geuorally put last on tbe ItBt, bo that 
man uiny, once in n while, have the last 
word. We first hear of woman in ihe 
GnriloB of Eden, and it is curious that her 
appearance shouM have suggested ' Para- 
dise Lost' to Milton. She was created out 
of one of Adani'8 ribs while he was asleep, 
and that circumstance has led evil-minded 
per3"U8 to say that man's first sleep waB his 
last repose. That fact ehould teach us 
to Consider, when woman's perveraeness 
passeth our umieratanding, that she was 
created out of the crookedest part of man. 
The rabbins have a different theory, how- 
ever, of the creation of woman, which takes 
the view ihat men were once monkeys, and 
that when they lost their tails those caudal 
appendages were changed iuto women — a 
theory that ohtaioB some snppoit from the 
caudle lectures slill admiuistered by women. 
Some color is also given to this theory by 
tbe disposition of some iiieo to leave iheir 
wives bchiod them. Well, the first woman, 
not fiudiog another man iu Eden, took to 
Hirting with the devil, and a sice state ot 
affairs reaullcd. The race would bave been 
spared one of its troubles if the Garden of 
Eden had been situated in some tranquil 
land, such as Ireland, in which there are no 
snakes. The natural inquisitiveness ol 
wuman was shown in her cross-examination 
of the serpent, who was doubled up, so to 
ppeak, hy her questions, and has served as 
an interrogation-mark crer since. After 
our first parents had to leave Eilen they had 
to change their whole manner of liviug. a 
fact that is sadly brought home to us when- 
ever the dressmaker or the tailor presents a 
bill. I believe that women originated the 
Fenian organization. At all events they 
first started the wearing of the green. One 
of Eve's suns was killed with a club, and 
women have had a horror of clubs over 
siuce. The first woman discovered that 
Caiu raised the cluh, but the modern wo- 
man finds that tbe club raises Cain. I rec- 
ognize some faces before me — faces of 
married men— which are to be seen with 
n-ises fla'tened against the club windows in 
Fifth Avenue on Sundays, more intent than 
was ever a government commission on tak- 
ing observations of the transit of Venus. 
Woman in five minutes will calculate the 
heliocentric parallax; in ten minutes ehe 
will find the latitude by lunar culmination ; 
but in an hour and a half she will not find 
the pocket in lier drees. Woman is adored 
by man. He is willing to give her every- 
thing he possesses, except his seat in the 

America's Florence NiaiiTisaALE. 

"There have been at all times heroines 
as well heroes. Florence Nightingale was 
the idol of the British army, and the anblicrs 
kisned the hem of her garment. We bad 
our Florence Nightingale, and her name 
was Dr. Mary Walker, but the soldiers 
didn't kiss the hem of her girmeut, because 
it wasn't that kind of a garment. 

" We are told," said General Porter in 
conclusion, " tbat the mormons came from 
Vermont and New Hampshire. In those 
States a man drives his wives tandem. In 
Utah he drives them abreast." 

How to Remit Money. 

The best and safest way is by Post-office 
Order, or a bank draft, on New York j next, 
by registered letter. For fractional parte of 
a dollar, aoud postage-stamps. Do not etnd 
personal checks, especially for small sums, 
nor Canadian postage- stamps. 

Journal, and begi 
Prof. Hinman's lesE 

3 to subscribe for the 
I with the new year and 
ons IB practical writing. 

A $1 Book and the " Joun^al " one year for $1,50. 

We linvo made nrranKOineDls l»y wliioli we can mail tiio f.iltowing (Icacribcd book, 
with the JoiIBNAl. one year, for ilM. Or wo will mail the IjooU, free, to anyone send- 
ing us a rhil> of tlirce subscribers and $;). 






The Best Fountain Pen Made ! 



(TOR the convenience of iho 
' who may wish to try them, 


containing OQ Jiflerent styles of pens, with price-list of all the SPENCERIAN 

SPECIALTIES, will be sent, for trial, on receipt of 10 cents. 
CF'When you order, call for Sample Card No, 11, and give the name of this paper 


753 and 755 BROADWAY, NEW YORK. 


OPPOItTUSITY. I offer for Bale my B 

fge. l.i.mwd in BiirllngloD. Vf, for lew 111 
wlml il t» norll. Fitly Mod^nU now b 



Bngiwiiing, card nritini?, anil all kinds ot peiiwork to 
ixhed In colon M. 40.'and m obuIb pt^r A»^>-u tl'pigliial 

iog )-uur orders. ClMiilsn Una. S»Dd i orul atumiw. 
2 II. aii Elm Street, Uilcft, N, Y. 

A. E. Pahbokb, Oulinnbiu J uDOild 



O Hriou, •!. tlluKira'ted Cir«iiliLn free. An uletrut 
flourUlisd Stag, lUe S>xVi ioDbM, lor 10 osali. 



\iapted for use with or without Text-Book, 

and the only Bet recommended to 



Bryant & Stratton 

Counting-House-BooU keeping," 





J5D 121 William .Strkit, Nbw York. 


American Popular Dictionary 



"pinni^ij ".....' ..."... "'"'.°... K 00 

CoorioD'. NomiU Leneriag md PwirUuiV. "»i 

50 oeDls; Iwlli 75 

Staodard Practical Penmanihip, by the Spencer 

Family R<,ci„L KrS ° I ;::::: l OO 

Marriage Cenilloiite, l^xia 100 

Jk,mii,,gi'^.i^xy!.^^\'.\\\\\\'^\\\\V.\\\\". SO 

ongical and anuUo, per pack or 50 30 

1000 ■■ 14 SO i by expreu 4 00 

Live agenU can, acd do, make money, by taking lab. 

■onben lor Uie JOCR-HAi^ and aelllng (be above worka. 
Send Atr onr Special Ratee to Ageou. 

D. T. AMES, 
7-t.I. 205 Broadwsy, New York. 

Shorthand Writing 


TboTOOgb in.lroelion In ih. bal .jil.a, ; lenaelci 
Yonog men li.ive only to mailer Sborthand lo make U 

H>-S.nd .lamp lor .,«ln„n ot .rtling end olroular. 





Recommended and oied by more tItan one-ttaif of 

Ihe penmen in the United Stalee. 



Am .louK.vvi. 

FREE/ ^^^^ 


Giving: list of Subjects, Testi- 
monials, and other Infor- 

During tlin yettr IS6A the magnzlne will con- 
iniii aerial artJulea un ti.ipicft important iu cum- 
mercial practice. Tli« articlea on "Public 
Moa#ye and Accounts," wliiclj 
in llie November nuuiber, w 

Ic aiul duties ot such public 

, mid will bi> found v») 
able and eugg^Bltve to all pereona holding ollic 
or in any way esi'viiig the public wliere, 
• liMcharging ilit-ir riutifs, t^iihvr a thorough i 
clt-menlarr kTii)wli>dge of public finances wuu: 
i.rove BPrviceable. 

II be oommenced exliauB- 
irti tr«Alipe8 on lh« suhjecta of banking and 
iianufacturing in relatiuii to ihe departmeuls 
if commercial i>rHCtice anil buBineaa economy, 
heir funrtiuna in the commercial World, aud 
heir 8iK-c>-4*iriil inaungemen' 


tetXtc iiatiacaa Ui.iveraity, Roch 

onnd parlkuliiTly valuable. 
Sample Copies, 20 cente. Addresa, 

"American Counting-room.' 

Penmen's and Artists* Supplies. 

Blaok Can) bonr 
Black Caids'. ytti 

i, by exprcu 3 00««,15Ka0..t.lo |1 20 

SlxUO.. .3) 3 75 
2ilx<0.. .I'S 7 CO 






" by 






For Sale 'ty all Stationers and Booksellers. 

The Esterbrook Steel Pen Co., 


26 John Street, New York. 

OiUott'i 3U3 6ie«I Pftil, pet grow ' , . .' 

81... 1 

Inih. one yard wide, ftny 

eogtb per 


16 III 

he, wide, pe 

yuo, .lated 

both .Idea 

i 25 

Id., p^ntiJI 


s'o good! e 

olbyoul D 

iM been r« 













prlOM. Qoloomb 2'ubUaliUu Uo- < 




e uiBcloQea iDTnliiable a 

'aiily operated upou and trained. 

r York City, and tU« best inBu at Imol 

large and amall alpbabeta, although only 

iog p«aaiaiuhip, a 

ir al<Taya leialot lb« lv 

Price, 81 each; ST.'-iO l»er tlo/.pn; One hundred mnclilncs for 960. 

(51 PARK Pr,.\CE, XKW N'ORK. 

The Famous^ Card-writer, 

TT/w ts well known in all parts of the country, wishes to call your attention to thc/ollotc 
ing price-list of written cards, which will he found amotnj the very finest obtainable : 


Style A. PIrtin White nristol. Ktmd qnallly 8 .a3 " 8^5 

ngllrbt..! 2B .50 

U. Bevel Gold-edgs 

D. Fen-flniiTiibfd. 12 de»i 

F. Gill-edge, latent tilyleo 

H. Satiu Bevel-«diie, very 


rumbhed and addreued fur SO cei 
Your BtlentloD ie especially oi 

Klegant ftauplct of the above cards tent lor I 
! B (Peo-llourisbed). The deaigns are original and entirely new t 
I lo (tive me your orders, for. by «o doing, you will be snra of gelling 

,t by an) 

AVTOGU APHS. For 35 oenta I will i 

SKTS <»F eAI'lTALS.'*^°E«p"oledl 
J, per ■«!, 25 oeut«; two seta, diirereot ntylea 


l-t of 15 ceali: i^-V down "si'-is! 

OAKIn's card ink I; 

irpaeied style node 

irge variety of the must popular ityles 
r autograph nritleo io twelve difTereu 
mot fall to pleaie all who reoeive tbon 

WoRCESTElt, January ^Uth, 1834. 
/ caniidtr L. Aladaratz one of the mott tkitl- 
fill card-ioritert in the eouittry. Specimen- eardi 
from k'a pen etrtainly turpatt in tmvothntat, 
•jrar.e and artittU: ffcct any that I have ever 
'«»■ A. H. HlN.MAN. 

le above notice from Prof. Hinman, whose 
se of leBsona ie now running in the co!- 
s of tliia p«per, is one of the many that are 
I received from penm-'n ihroughout the 
try. who all agree that L. Madarnpz alanda 
e head iu hia line. 

yt^uii NA^rE \vei.i,. 

Upon receipt of 36 cents your name will be 
written in assorted alylei. by the moat graceful 
penman of America. Mouey returned if any 
other card-wiiler eqnala ihem for you, or if 
you are not more than pleased. SlGXA 


On receipt of gl and ten 1-ceul stampa, the 
fi.llowing BpecimeuB, etc., will be eenl promptly, 
prepaid, viz.: 

Two Seta of Capitals, different . worth, 3 .50 
Two Specimens of FloiiiiBhinK. . ■' .50 

Bevel-edge Carda, or plain ..." .00 
Brilliant Black Ink Recipe ..." .30 

Total worth . , . $1.S0 

The havdfomesl work sent out bii any penmati. 

. h. w. puckinoku, ] 


MS Collfge. Cincinnati, Ohio, eoys; "Prof A. W. Dakin has got his plain 

ni.r^- „ i„ ..uiiui '— PKOI', A, N. I'ALMEil. Updar llftplds. lowH. ^^"* 

iiiudelphia. I'u., suys : " A, W. DaKin'a writing Is most oxoellent." 

PROF. A. W. DAKIN, Tully, New York. 

Your attention ia reiiuested lo the aeta of 
capitals (price, '25 cents; two sete, different, 
45 cents ) which have won the honor of being 
superior to the work of any other penman io 
ihe world. Meuiion if yon desire plain or 

Specimens of Flourishing same rate. 

Poor writing mafle yond, and GOOD writing 
iti:iTicR, by the use of ihe Patent Oblique 
Penholdeu, which will be Bent lo any address 
for 21 cents, carefully packed. Steel Pens, 
specially adapted for linu card- work and hand- 
some b«8in"»B-wriling. two grades, 40 aud 50 



L. MADARASZ. Penman, 

ai5 E. 50th St., New Y 

Jllr. Madarax: dors mart eard-toork than any 
other penman, and I hope he will receive a UL- 
cral patronaye. Uia card-teork ia excellent. 
D. T. AME8, Editor. 

^"Sample cards, showing a wonderful c 
niand of the pen, 12 centa. Circulara I 
UeoUoa tnia paper. 



Vol. VIII.— No. 3. 

Lessons in Practical Writing. 

Nl-mher III. 
By a. H. Hinman. 

Copyrighlod by A. H. UiiimnD. 

It will be our aim in these lesaons to di- 
rect atteutioD to what seem to ub false uo- 
tioiv. oonoecning penmanship, and to pre- 
sent such novel, but practical, niothods of 
viewing writiug as shall encourage broad 
and liberal ideas respecting the art. The 
capital 0, the stem, and the Capital Fold, 
are by some considered — principles. . Yet 
the capital must be altered in size and 
proportions to be made a part of any other 
letter. The stem is not found nor used 
complete but in throe letters, and the Fold 
is also altered when used in a number of 
letters. The following cut shows how the 
stem must be altered to serve in letters. 
The dotted lines show the missing portion : 

As the six following fixed forms seed no 
altering in foiTning letters we regard them 
as principles : 


In this lesson R will mean right ourve, 
L wUl mean left cnire, and S wUl mean 
straight line, and the numhers will indicate 
the principles. The small alphabets helow 
may he analyzed as follows : a is 4-1 ; & is 
5-R-E ; c is R-4-1 ; d is 4-S-l ; J is El ; 
/is5S-E; sis4-6; ftis5-3; tisE-land 
dot; J is 11-6 and dot ; tisS-L-R-l; i is 
5-R; m is 2-2 3 ; n is 2-3 ; o is 4 ; j) is E- 
S-3; 5 is 4 S-R-L ; r is E-L-l ; ( is R-S- 
1 and cross ; « is R-1-1 ; u is 2-R-R ; w is 
R-1-S-E-E; a;ia2-l; »i«3-6i jisZ-E-L. 


The letters, a, c, e, »n, n, o, «, w, w, x, 
extend one space above the base-line. Let- 
tors i, j, i, d, and p extend two spaces above 
the line. Looped letters extend either 
three spaces above or two below the base- 
line. Letters ^ and q extend one and a- 
balf spaces below. While, on account of 
the unreliability of the so-called capital 
principles, ww shall not see fit to use them 
as such, there is a form which affects tlie 
pleasing and effective construction of capi- 
tal letters— yes, aud nourishes more than 
all the variable capital principles ever in- 
vented. That form is the Oval, While it 
is the only unalterable part of capital prin- 
oiples it is the oouamon part of nearly every 

capital letter, no matter what the style. In 
truth, the key to the success of many of the 
ablest teachers of the past and present is 
duo to their teaching capitals by ovals, and 
curves instead of so-called capital principles. 
Oval means eggshape, aud in this lesson E 
will mean eggshape. As in cooking wd 
use eggs and parts of eggs, so In teaching 
forms, where a part is shaped like one-half, 
three-fourths, or a whole egg, it will be 
marked E. In the following letters to, 
complete the parts which are marked E, 
the R, right curve; L, left curve, and S, 
straight line, will be used. 


In forming capital letters it is well to 
keep their height and width within the 
bounds of one space (see Lesson I.), three 
measures in width and four in length. The 
letters JB, J, and Z will occupy less than 
one space in width, and TTand M will fill 
more than oue space in width. In shading 
letters it is in good taste to have the widest 
part of the shade at the center ol the curve 
or at the widest part of the oval. Prom the 
widest spot shades should taper quickly 
each way towards the ends of the curve, and 
the shorter and mon? nicely tapered the 
shade, tliu more pleasing the effect. Long 
shades can greatly injure what with short 
shades would be beautiful writing. In learn- 
ing to form capital letters it is very import- 
ant that one should make perfect the ovals 
they contain. An exceUcni way to master 
perfect capitals is by the use of a sharp 
pencil aud a rubber. First determine to 
make a perfect letter a certain number of 
times across a ])ngo. The first letter may 
have to be erased many tiuiesj but persevere 
till the task is completed. The bulldog 
wins by hanging on, aud so have many who 
have mastered writing done so by the bull- 
dog plan of sticking to and whipping a let- 
ter instead of giving up whipped. 

Writing is a gift, but those who have 
grit are the givers. In the city schools of 
Springfield, III., we once found the finest 
school-writing we ever saw. The toachors 
had lield their pupils for six weeks at writ- 
ing a word containing the six principles at 
the beginning of this lesson. After that 
drill upon principles their writhig appeared 
almost beyond criticism. While, in the 
early part of our lesson, we desire to have 
pupils confine their study and practice to 
acquiring the knowledge and ability to ex- 
ecute letters accurately, the following in 
regard to movements is presented for oc- 
casional use. To quickly destroy cramped 
writing and secure almost at once the 
light tocuh and easy movement of the 
hand and arm in writing, we recommend 
much practice in writing without touch- 
ing the fingers to the paper. By keep- 
ing the wrist up, and resting only upon 
the elbow and pen, the muscular move- 
ment will seem to come without special 
effort. After one can ^vrite with ease with 
the fingers raised, it will do to let them 
barely touch the pajter, and slide as light- 
ly aa the pen. This practice repeated as 
often as the hand and pen move with diffi- 
culty will be sure to break up the worst 
cramped writing. In writing words it is al- 
ways best tp swing the hand and strike the 
pen on the paper while the hand is in mo- 
tion, as it will aesist one in developing a 
free motion throughout words. We com- 
mend those who are following these lessons 
to re-read the first and second lesson occa- 
sionally, that ideas therein suggested may 
be kept in mind, both during study and 
practice. We also recommend concentrated 
practice as beneficial, and regard random 
practice as very detrimental. 

Replies to Questions. 
By A. H. Hinman, Worcester, Mass. 

T. H. 0.— To succeed in becoming a su- 
perior teacher of writing go to some suc- 
cessful teacher, like Musselman, or P. R. 
Spencer, or H. W. Fiickinger. Dou't be 
a blind leader of the blind, and expect to 
get there by self- teaching. Baek numbers 
of Journal contain abundant points for 
a lecture. 

F. M. H. and Others.— The left-band 
question nmst be decided by common sense. 
Excellent front handwriting is accomplished 
with the left-band, though the movements 
are difficult to acquire. The back-hand style 
is best suited to those left-handed — the 
movements being more natural. We rec- 
ommend the back-hand style as being pro- 
ductive of bettor results than the front. 

"Newark." — The six horizontal lines 
presenting five spaces are called the scale 
of heigit. The letter « rests on the base 
line aud fills one space ; t fills two spaces 
to tho dot; loops aud capitals, three above 
and two below base Hue. Guide lines ai-e 
(lueatiimable aids to training pupils to write 
indeptjudent of them. Call again. 

H. K. W.— If you've come to a halt, and 
can't interest your pupils, give them some- 
thing fresh. There is no crime in teaoliing 

by any method, even with the copy-books 
yon use. New thoughts create enthusiastic 
tearhing, interest in pupils, and upward 

" Ohio." — Gripping the pen may be over- 
come by increasing the size of the holder 
with twine ( see Lesson No. I.); or by prac- 
tice in flourishing; or by not touchro^-the 
fingers to paper (see lesson in this number). 
Rubber pen-clasps are serviceable. 

B. F. L. — In your mixed school use two 
or three grades of copy-books— but use the 
blackboard freely in explaining the different 
copies, criticisms, etc. General talk may be 
made upon position and penholding; but 
while two grades of pupils are writing, one 
grade may witness blackboard illustrations. 
In teaching, aim at your worst writers, and 
the good ones will hear enough. 

A. N. E. — You will find the Spencerian 
copy-slips the most accurate. They cost 
one dollar of Mr. Ames. The '* Spencerian 
New Compendium" presents the greatest 
and richest feast of accurate and beautiful 
writing ever presented to penmen, and may 
be studied with advantage in connection 
with our lessons. 

Some New Definitions. 
By J. B. McArthur. 

What is writing f Writing is the process 
by which we are enabled to inform the com- 
ing generations that the United States was 
once blessed with an unlickable pugilist 
named Sullivan. 

Into how many grades is writing classed t 
Five : being good, bad, worse, unreadable, 
and Philadelphia. 

What is flourishingt Flourishing is 
writing run over with a spring tooth- 

What is letter-writing? Letter-writing 
is the means by which the young man com- 
munes with his sweetheart, whose father 
keeps a bulldog, a shotgun, and wears No. 
10 box-toed boots. 

What is a pent A pen is a sharp- 
pointed slab of metal, which has quickened 
more good than the sword, more evil than 
a smiling fortune. 

What is a penholder T A penholder is a 
dealer who buys thirty-two dollars worth of 
pens, and endeavors to sell them at two 
hundred per cent, profit. 

What is an autograph -album T An au- 
tograph album is a book by which we are 
reminded of the fact that Mrs. Henderson 
was Miss Smith two years ago. 

What is a compendium t A compendium 
is a book, published to aid the young Am- 
erican who is ambitious to sow a patch of 
wild oats, and desires to " harrow " tbem in. 

What is a professional penman t A pro- 

I of I 


who makes a living by wielding , 
Ue is tall, has light, curiy hair, wears a 
spike-tail coat, and a No. 11 shoe. Through 
excessive twitching and puckering of the 
mouth, while executing ditficuk exercises, 
it now has a slight inclination toward 
Widow Baxters. He believes that the 
whole world shouM stand back when ha 
desires to draw a bird in a nest. 

The Great Pigwacket-Center 

School Rebellion. 

A Yankbk Schoolmaster's Adventure. 

The advent of Master Langdon U> Pig- 
wacket Center created a much more lively 
geosaiioQ thau liad attended that of either 
of his predecessors. Looks go a good ways 
all the world over, and though tliere were 
several good looking people iu the place, 
and Major Bush was what the natives of 
the town called a "hahnsonio mahn," that 
is, big, fat, and red, yet the sight of a really 
elegant youog fellow, with the n.Htural air 
which grows up with carefully bred young 
persons, was a novelty. The Brahmin 
blood which came from his grandfather, as 
well as from his mother, a direct descend- 
ant of the old Flynt family, well known by 
the famous tutor, Henery Flynt (see Cat. 
Harv. Anno 1693,) had been enlivened and 
enriched by that of the Wentworlhs, which 
had had a good deal of ripe old Madeira 
and other generous elements mingled with 
it, 80 that it ran to gout sometimes in the 
old folks, and to high spirit, warm com- 
plexion, and curly hair iu some of the 
young ones. The soft curling hair Mr. 
Bernard had inherited — something, per- 
haps, of the high spirit ; hut that we shall 
have a chance of finding out by-and-by. 
But the long sermous and frugal board of 
his Brahmin ancestry, with his own habits 
of study, had told upon his color, which 
was subdued to something more of delicacy 
than one would care to see in a young fel- 
low with rough work before him. This, 
however, made him look more interesting, 
or, as the young ladies at Major Bush's 
said, more " interestin'." 

When Mr. Bernard showed himself at 
meeting, on the tirst Sunday after his ar- 
rival, it may be supposed that a good many 
eyes were turned upon the young school- 
master. There was something heroic in his 
coming forward so readily to take a place 
which called for a strong hand, and a 
prompt, steady will to guide it In fact, his 
position was that of a military chieftain on 
the eve of battle. Everybody knew every- 
thing iu Pigwacket Center, and it was an 
understood thing that the young rebels 
meant to put down the new maater if they 

It was natural that the two prettiest girls 
in the village, called, in the local dialect, as 
nearly as our limited alphabet will represent 
U, Almiuy Culterr and Arvilly Braowne, 
should feel and express ;in Inliir^l In the 
good-looking strangi'i, ml ili.ii v\liiii their 
flattering comments \\<v ii|m ,ih..|, in the 
heariog of their iudigenuus aiiiiuinis, aimmg 
whom were some of the older "boys" of 
the school, it would not add to the amiable 
disposition of the turbulent youth. 

Monday came, and the new schoolmaster 
was in his chair on the raised platform at 
the upper cud of the sohoolhouse. The 
rustics looked at his handsome face, 
thoughtful, peaceful, pleasant, cheerful, but 
sharply cut round the lips and proudly 
lighted about the eyes. The ringleader of 
the mischief-makers, a young butcher, 
looked at him stealthily, whenever he got a 
chitnce to study him unobserved j for iu 
truth he felt uncomfortable whenever he 
found the large, dark eyes fixed on his own 
little sharp, deep-set, gray ones. But he 
found means to study him pretty well — 
first his face, then his neck and shoulders, 
the set of his arms, the narrowing at the 
loins, the make of his legs, and the way lie 
moved. Iu short, ho examined him as he 
would have examined a steer, to see what 
he could do and how far he would out up. 
If he could only have gone to him and felt 
of his muscles, lie would have been entirely 
satisfied. He was not a very wise youth, 
but he did ItTiow well enough that, though 
big arms and legs are very good things, 
there is something besides size that goes to 
lan; and he had heard stories of a 
man, called "The Spider," from 
hia attenuated proportions, who was yet a 
terrible hitter in the ring, and had whipped 
many a big-Umbed feUow in and out of the 
roped arena. 


Nothing could bo smoother than the way 
in which everything went on for the first 
day or two. The new master was so kind 
and cimrteous, he seemed to take ov< 
in such a natural, easy way that tli 
DO chaii >e to pick a quarrel wHh him. He, 
in the meantime, thought it beat to watch 
the boys and young men for a day or two 
with as little show of authority as possible. 
It was easy enough to see that he would 
have occasion for it before long 

The Bchoolhouse whs a grim, old, red, 
one Btory building, perched on a bare rook 
on the top of a hill— partly because it was a 
conspicuous site for the temple of learning, 
and partly because laud is cheap where 
there is no chance for rye or buckwheat, 
and the very sheeji find nothing to nibble. 
About the little porch were carved initials 
and dates, at various heights, from the stat- 
ure of nine to that of eighteen. luside were 
were old unpainted desks — uupainted, but 
browned by the umber of human contact — 
and hacked by innumerable jack-knives. 
It was long since tlie walls had been white- 
washed, as might be conjectured by the va- 
rious traces left upon thora, wherever idle 
hands or sleepy heads could reach them. 
A curious appearauce was noticeable on 
various higher parts of the wall, namely, a 
wart-like eruption, one would be tempted 
to call it. being, in reality, a crop of soft 
mlssilea before mentioned, which, adhering 
in considerable numbers, and hardening af- 
ter the usual fashion of papier macJie, 
formed at least permanent ornaments of the 

The young master's quick eye soon no 
ticed that a particular part of the wall was 
most favored with these ornamcutal appen- 
dages. Their position pointed sufficiently 
clear to the part of the room they came 
from. In fact, there was a nest of young 
mutineers just there, which must be broken 
up by coup d'etat. This was easily eS'ected 
by a redistribution of the seats aud arrang- 
ing the scholars according to classes, so that 
a mischievous fellow, charged full of the 
rebellious imponderable, should find him- 
self between two non-conductors, in the 
shape of small boys of studious habits. It 
was managed quietly enough, in such a 
plausible sort of way that its motive was 
not thought of. But its effects were soon 
feltj and then began a system of corres- 
pondence by signs, and the throwing of lit- 
tle scrawls done up in pellets, and an- 
nounced by preliminary a'h'ms! to call the 
attention of the distant youth addressed, 
Some of these were incendiary documents, 
devoting the schoolmaster to the lower di- 
vinities, as '■ a stuck up dandy," as "a 

purse proud aristocrat," as " a sight 

too big for his," etc., aud holding him up in 
a variety of equally forcible phrases to the 
indignation of the youthful community of 
School District No. 1, Plgwacket Ceuter. 

Presently the draughtsman of the school 
set a caricature in circulation, labeled, to 
prevent mistakes, with the schoolmaster's 
name. An immense bell-crowned hat, and 
a long, pointed, swallow-tailed coat showed 
that the artist had in his mind the conven- 
tional dandy as shown iu prints thirty or 
forty years ago, rather than any actual 
human aspect of the time. Hut it was 
passed round among the boya and made its 
laugh, helping, of course, to undermine the 
master's authority, as Punch or the Chari- 
vari takes the dignity out of an obnoxious 
minister. One morning, on going to the 
schoolroom, Master Langdon found au en- 
larged copy of this sketch, with its label, 
pinned ou the door. He took it down, 
smiled a little, put it into his pocket, and 
entered the schoolroom. An inaidious si- 
lence prevailed, which looked as if some 
plot were brewing. The hoys were ripe for 
mischief, but afraid. They had really no 
fault to find with the master, except that 
he wai dressed like a gentleman, which a 
certain cla.-'S of fellows always consider a 
personal iusult to themselves. But the older 
ones wtre evidently plotting, and mure than 
once the warning o'A'm.' was heard, and a 
dirtj little scrap of paper roUed into a wad 

shot from one seat to another. One of these 
happened to strike the Hti>ve- funnel, aud 
lodged <m the master's desk. He was cool 
enough not to seem to notice it. He secured 
it without being observed by the boys. It 
required no imtntdiate notice. 

Ho who should have enjoyed the privilege 
of looking upon Mr. Bernard Langdon the 
next morning, when his toilet was about 
half finished, would have Iiad a very pleas- 
ant gratuitous exhibition. First he buckled 
the strap of his trousers pretty tightly. 
Then he took up a pair of heavy dumb- 
bells, and swung them for a few minutes, 
then two great " Indian clubs," with which 
he enacted all sorts of impossible-looking 
feats. His limbs were not very large, nor 
his shoulders remarkably broad ; but-nf you 
knew as much of the muscles as all persona 
who look at statues and pictures with a 
critical eye ought to have learned — if you 
knew the trapezius, lying diam udshaped 
over the back and shoulders like a monk's 
cowl— or the deltoid, which caps the slioul- 
ders like an epaulette —or the triceps, which 
furniehos the ca^of the upper arm— or the 
hard-knotted biceps — any of the great 
sculptural landmarks, in fact — you would 
have said tlieie was a pretty show of llicm 
beneath the white satiny skin of Mr. Bern- 
ard Langdon. And if you had seen him, 
when he had laid down the Imlian clubs, 
catch hold of a leather strap that hung from 
the beam of the old-fashioned ceiling, and 
lift and loner himself over and over again 
by his left hand alone, you might have 
thought it a very simple and easy thing to 
do, uutil you tried to do it yourself. 

Mr. Bernard looked at himself with the 
eye of an expert. " Pretty well ! " he said ; 
"not so much fallen off as I expected." 
Theu he set up his bolster in a very know- 
ing sort of way, and delivered two or three 
blows straight as rulers and swift as winks. 
"That will do," he said. Then, as if to 
make a certainty of his condition, he took a 
dynamometer from one of liis drawers in his 
old veneered bureau. First he squeezed it 
with hia two hands. Then he placed it on 
the fioor and lifted steadily, strongly. The 
springs creaked and cracked ; the index 
swept with a great stride far far up into the 
high figures of the scale; it was a good lift. 
He was satisfied. He sat down on the edge 
of his bed and looked at his cleanly- shaped 
arms. "If! strike one of those boobies, I 
am afraid I shall spoil him," he said. Yet 
this young man, when weighed with his 
class at college, could barely turo one hun- 
dred and forty-two pounds iu the scale — not 
a heavy weight, surely ; but some of the 
middle weights, as the present English 
champion, for instance, seem to be of a far 
finer (luality of muscle than the bulkier 

The master took his breakfast with a 
good appetite that morning, but was, per- 
haps, rather more quiet than usual. After 
breakfast, he went up-stairs and put on a 
light frock, instead of his usual dress-coal, 
which was a close fitting and rather stylish 
one. On bis way to school ho met Alininy 
Cutterr, who happened to be walking in the 
other direction. " Good moruing, Miss Cut- 
terr," he said, for she and another young 
lady liiid been introduced to him on a for- 
mer occasion, in the usual phrase of polite 
society In presenting ladies to gentlemen — 
"Mr. Langdou, let mo make y' acquainted 
with Miss Braowne." So he said, "Good 
morning," to which the rejdicd, "Good 
moruiu', Mr. Langdon, haow's your haalthf" 
The answer to this question ought naturally 
to have been the end of the talk, but Al- 
miny Cutterr lingered and looked as if she 
had something more on her iiiiiid. 

A young fellow does not require a great 
deal of experience to read a simple country 
girl's face as if it were a sign-board. Alminy 
was a good soul, with red cheeks and bright 
eyes, kind-hearted as she could bo, and it 
was out of the question for her to hide her 
thoughts or feelings like a fine lady. Her 
bright eyes were moist and her cheeks paler 
than they were wont, as she said with her 
lips quivering— "Oh, Mr. Langdon, them 

boys "U be the death of yo, if ye don't take 

"Why, what's the matter, my dear?" 
said Mr. Bernard. Don't think there was 
anything very odd in that " my dear," at 
the second interview with a village belle; 
some of those women-tHmerB call a girl 
" my dear" after five minutes' acqnaiLtanco, 
aud it seems all right as thty say it. But 
you had not belter try it at a venture. 

It rounded all right to Almiuy as Mr. 
Bernard said it. "I'll tell ye what's the 
mahtterr," she said, in a frightened voice. 
"Ahbnor's go'n' to car* his dog, 'n' he'll set 
him on yeV, sure 'z'r' alive. 'T's the same 
cretur that haalf eat up Eben Squire's little 
Jo, a year come nex' Faast-day." 

Now, this last statement was undoubtedly 
over colored, as little Jo Squires was run- 
ning about the villiage— with an ugly scar 
on his arm, it is true, where the beast had 
cauglit him with his teeth, on the occasion 
of the child's taking liberties with him, as 
he had been accustomed to do with a good- 
tempered Newfoundlanil dog, who seemed 
to like being pulled and hauled round by 
children. After this the creature was com- 
monly muzzled, and as he was fed on raw 
meat chiefly, was always ready for a fight, 
which be was occasionally indulged in when 
anything stout enough to match bim could 
be found in any of the neighboring villages. 

Tiger, or more briefly Tige, the property 
of Abner Briggs, junior, belonged to a spe- 
cies not distinctly marked in scientific books 
but well known to our country folks uuder 
the name of " Yallati .log." They do not 
use this expression as they would say black 
dog or white dog, but with as definite a 
meaning as when they speak of a terrier or 
a spaniel. A "yallah dog" is a large eaniue 
brute, with a dingy old-Hunnel color, of no 
particular breed except his own, who hangs 
round a tavern or a butcher's shop, or trots 
alongside a team, looking as if he were dis- 
gusted with the world and the world with 
him. Our inland population, while they 
tolerate him, sjieak of him with ccmtempt. 

Old , of Meredith Bridge, used to twit 

the sun for not shining on cloudy days, 
swearing that if he hung up his "yallah 
dog" he would make a better show of day- 
light. A country fellow, abusing a horse of 
Ms neighbor's, vowed that, "if he had such 
a hoss, he'd swap him for a 'yallah dog,' 
aud then shoot the dog." 

Tige was an ill-conditioned brute by na- 
ture, and art bad not improved him by crop- 
ping bis ears and tail, aud investing him 
with a spiked collar. He bore on his per- 
son, also, various not ornamental scars, 
marks of old battles ; for Tige had fight iu 
him, as was said before, aud as might be 
guessed by a certain bluntness about the 
muzzle with a projection of the lower jaw, 
which looked as if thi're might be a bull- 
dog stripe among the numerous bar-sinistera 
of his lineage. 

It was hardly fair, however, to leave Al- 
miny Cutterr waiting while this piece of 
natural liistory was telling. As she spoke 
of little Jo, who had been "haalf eat up" 
by Tige, she could not contain her sympa- 
thies, and began to cry. 

"Why, my dear little aoul," said Mr. 
Bernard, " what are you worried aboutf I 
u-ed to play with a bear when I was a boy; 
and the bear used to hug me, and I used to 
kiss him, so I " 

It was too bad of Mr. Bernard, only the 
second time ho had seen Alminy; but her 
kind feelings had touched him, and that 
seemed the most natural way of expressing 
his gratitude. Alminy looked round to see 
if anybody was near; she sjiw nobody; but 
a stout young fellow, leading a yellow dog, 
muzzled, saw her through a crack iu a 
picket fence, not a great way off the road. 
Many a year ho had been " hangiu' 'raoun' " 
Alminy, and never did he see any encourag- 
ing look, or hear any, " Behave naow t " or 
"Come naow, a'n't ye 'shamed?" or other 
forbidding phrases of acquiescence, sucli as 
village belles understand aa well as ever did 
tlie nymph who fled to the willows in the 
clogue we all remember. 


No wouder ho was furious wlien lu> eaw 
tlip Bchnolmastcr, who had never eeen the 
girl till within a week, Mnchiiig with his 
Iip8 those rosy cheelis which ho had never 
dared approach. But that was all; it was 
a sudden impulse; and the master turned 
away from the young girl, laughing, and 
telling hor not to fret herself about him— he* 
would take care of himself. 

So Master Langdon walked on toward Iiis 
ftdinolbouse, not displefljied, perhaps, with 
his little a<lveuture, uor iinnieusely elated 
l>y it; for ho was one of the natural class of 
the aox-suhduers, and had had manyn smile, 
without asking, which had been denied to 
tliB feeble youth who try to win favor by 
pleading their passion in rhyme, and even 
to the more formidable approaches of young 
officers in volunteer companies, considered 
by many to be quite irresistible to the fair 
who have once beheld them from their win- 
dows in the epaulettes and plumes and 
sashes of the " Pigwacket Invincibles," or 
the "Hackmatack Rangers." 

MHsier Laugdon took his seat, and began 
the exercises of hia school, The smaller 
Li.ys recited their lessons well enough, but 
some of the larger ones were negligent and 
surly. He noticed one or two of ihem look- 
ing towards the door, as if expecting some- 
,bo(Iy or something in that direction. At 
half-past nine o'clock Abner Briggs, 
junior, who had not yet shown him- 
self, ma'ie his appearance. Ho was 
follon-ed by his "yallah dog," with- 
out his muzzle, who squatted doTu 
very grimly near the door, and gave 
a wolfish look round the room, as if 
he were considering which was the 
jilumpest hoy to begin with. The 
youug butcher, meanwliile, went to 
his seat, looking somewhat fliislied, 
except rouQd the lipa, which were 
hardly as red as common, and set 
pretty sharply. 

" Put out that dog, Abner Briggs! " 
The master spoke as the captain 
speaks to the helmsman when there 
arc rocks foaming at ihe lips, right 
utidpr his lee. 

Abner Briggs answered as the 
helmsmao answers when lie knows 
he has a mutinous crew round him 
that mean to run the ship ou the reef, 
and is one of the mutineers himself: 
"Put him aout y'rself, 'f ye a'n't afeared 
on him!" 

The master stepped into the aisle. The 
great cur showed his teeth, and the devilish 
mslincts of his old woIf-ancestry looked out 
of Iiis eyes, and flashed from his sharp 
tusks, and yawned in his wide mouth and 
deep red gullet. 

The movements of animals are so much 
quicker than those of human beings com- 
monly are that they avoid blows as easily as 
one of U8 steps out of the way of an ox-cart. 
It muat be a very stupid dog that lets him- 
self be run over by a fast driver in his gig; 
be ciiii jump out of the wheel's way after 
the tire has already touched him. So, while 
one 13 lifting a stick to strike, or drawing 
back his foot to kick, the beast makes a 
spring, and the blow or kick cornea too late. 
It was not 80 this time. The master was 
a fencer and aometliing of a boxer; he had 
played at single stick, and was used to 
watching an adversary's eye, and coming 
down upon him without any of those pre- 
momiory symptoms by which uiipracticed 
persons show long beforehand what mis- 
chiff they meditate. 

"Out with you!" he said fiercely,— and 
explained what he meant by a sudden flash 
of his hoot that clashed the yellow dog's 
white teeth togetlier like the springing of 
a bear-trap The cur knew ho had found 
iiis master at the first word and glance, as 
law animals ou four legs, or a smaller num- 
ber, always do; and the blow took him no 
much by surprise that it curied him up in 
an inalant, and he went bundling out of the 
open schoolhouse door, with a most pitiable 
yelp, and his stump of a tail shut down as 
close as his owner ever shut the short, 
stubbed blade of Iub jack-knife. 

It wa 

> for the other cur to find who 

" Follow your dog, Abner Briggsl" said 
Master Langdon. 

The stout butcher youth looked round, 
but the rebels were all cowed and sat still. 

"I'll go when I'm ready," he said — '"n I 
gueas I won't go afyro Pm ready." 

" You're ready now," said Master Lang- 
don, turning up his cuffs so that the little 
boys noticed the yellow gleam of a pair of 
gold sleeve-buttons, once worn by C(doiiel 
Percy Weutworth, famous in the old French 

Abner Briggs, junior, did not, apparently, 
think he was ready, at any rate; for he rose 
in his place and stood with clenched fisls, 
defiant, as the master strode towards him. 
The master knew the fellow was really 
frightened, for all his looks, and that he 
must have Do time to rally. So he caught 
him suddenly by the collar, and with one 
great pull had him out over his desk and on 
the open flooi. He gave him a sharp fling 
backwards, and stood looking at liim. 

The rough and tumble fighters all clinch, 
as everybody knows ; and Abner liriggs, 
junior, was one of that kind. He remem- 
bered how ho hud floored Master Weeks, 
and he had just " spunk enough left in him 
to try to repeat his former successful exper- 

can scarce be recognized by its originator! 
Surely our ancestors must have been pos- 
sessed of one trial which they did not be- 
queath unimpaired to their descendants, 
namely, the ability to repeat a story at least 
with tolerable accuracy. 

It was not until a. d. 1085 tliat the 
manufacture of modern paper was invented, 
and almost four hundred years more passed 
Gutenburg invented the art of print- 

aighty a 

ugh all 

agent in the progress 
)u these two factors 
To trace the art of 
t stages, from 

iug. How 
of modern 

printing thi 

A. D. 1455 to the present time, and to note 
its effect upon the history of the world, 
would be an interesting task ; but in this 
brief Paper it will be better for us to con- 
fine ourselves to that branch of the art 
whicli has given ua the modern newspaper. 
The newspaper is a prominent feature in 
this nineteenth century, and wields an in- 
fluence for good and evil not possessed by 
any other one thing. But while we recog- 
nise its advantages and usefulness, we 
would do well to ask ourselves what are 
some of its disadvantages, and how large 
a proportion of our time should be devoted 
to reading it. One caunot help wondering 
if the great Italian painter, Leonardo di 
Vinci, coidd have been an accomplished 

perusal t ISomt 
sible to take 
paragraph just 
word with 01 

The above cut wot pkoUi-engraved from oi-iginal pen-and-ink copy executed by Uriah MeEee, 
principal of the Commercial Department of the Oberlin ( 0.) CoUeije. 

able , 

iment on the new master. He sprang at 
him, open-handed, to clutch him. So the 
master had to strike, — once, but very hard, 
and just in the place to tell. No doubt the 
authority that doth hedge a schoolmaster 
added to the efiect of the blow; but the 
blow was itself a neat one, and did not re- 
quire to be repeated. 

"Now go homo," said the master, "and 
don't let me see you or your dog here 
again." And he turned his cuft's down again 
over the gold sleeve buttons. 

This finished the great Pigwackot-Ccoter 
School Rebellion. What could be done with 
a master who was so pleasant as long as 
the hoys behaved decently, and such a ter- 
rible fellow when ho got "riled," as they 
called it ! In a week's time, everything was 
reduced to order and the school committee 
were delighted.— Ohuw WendtllUolmes, in 
"Elsie Venner." 

Something about Newspapers. 

By Peter Practilicus. 
Think of a world without a newspaper I 
One can scarcely fancy a condition of affairs 
so lamentable! The daily newspaper has 
become a necessity, and, as such, is eagerly 
looked for at well-nigh every breakfast 
table throughout the length and brcadtli of 
the land. And yet for thousands of years 
the inhabitants of this round worid lived 
and died without a newspaper; they were, 
perforce, content with the scraps of news 
that came to them, slowly passing from one 
to another, by word of mouth. Can we 
wonder that truth was so mixed with fiction 
in tlie eariier history of the race when we 
reflect how easy it is even now for a story 
to grow until, after only a few repetitions, it 

architect, sculptor, paintei 
gineer, and improviaatore, had he lived in 
the nineteenth instead of the fifteenth cen- 
tury. It is uo wonder this is an age of 
specialists, for life is so much more crowded 
now than it was four liundred years ago 
that we have not time to study many tilings 
deeply; and who can tell how much of the 
hurry and bustle of to-day may be attribu- 
ted to the newspaper t 

A few statistics regarding the enormous 
increase in the publication of newspapers 
during the last one hundred years will 
startle us, and' lead us to inquire what an- 
other century of such rapid growth will 
bring forth. The first paper printed in 
Kugland appeared in 1588; the first in 
Scotland, in 1(J52; and the first in Ireland, 
in 1700. In 185ii, in Great Britain and 
Ireland, there were only 551 newspapers; 
to-day there are nearly four times that 
number, or about 2000. In 1771 there 
were, in the United States, twenty-five 
newspapers; in 18S'-i they numbered over 
12,000. Lamarline's prediction may yot he 
fulfilled. He said: "Before thia century 
ahall have run out, journalism will be the 
whole press, the whole of human thought. 
Thought will not have had time to ripen to 
accouunodate itself into the form of a book. 
The book will arrive too late. The only 
book possible loou will be a newspaper." 
The average intelligence of the masses is, 
of course, promoted iu uo email degree by 
meana of the daily newspaper, which cornea 
within the reach of all, when a journal like 
the New York Times can bo purchased for 
the trifling sum of two cents. 

But newspaper reading robs us of much 
valuable time, and sadly interferes with 
profounder study : deep learning is not ac- 

cessible through the oolomns of a news- 
paper. Moreover, one who reads them 
assiduously will most likely injure the 
memory thereby : for the great variety of 
information they contain cannot possibly be 
retained, and, not being digested with 
thoughtful consideration, passes from the 
mind almost as soon as read. Again : is it 
not possible that the small type used in 
most printing-oHices in so far affecting the 
eyes that syucopy is becoming more com- 
mon than not, and weak eyes are the rule, 
not the exception. It is also a question 
whether crime is not increased, as well as 
knowledge disseminated, by means of the 
daily press. How often do we remark that 
oflencea of the aatne nature repeat them- 
selves in quick succession in different parts 
of the country, which might never have oc- 
curred at all had not the newspapers in 
the first place expatiated upon the wrong- 
doing more than was necessary. 

It appears, then, that the newspaper of to- 
day is not an unmixed good. Nevertheless, 
wo would make a grave mistake not to read 
the papers at all ; and the question remains, 
How much time ought we to spend in their 
has said that it is pos- 
t a glance, a whole 
it as wo now read the longest 
spelling it out first. Happy 
se who have acquired so valu- 
1 accomplishment. Most as- 
suredly but a small proportion of our 
time should be devoted to the daily 
paper, and our reading of it must be 
reduced to a system 
have leisure for othei 
portant reading. Would it not be 
well for us to confine ourselves to 
one or two good reliable newspapers, 
and learn to scan them in such a way 
that not more than one hour a day, 
or less if possible, shall be consumed 
in the task? The following para- 
graph, written by Phillip G. Ham- 
merton for the Chautauqua, may 
help us to acquire the art : 

" The art of reading is to skip ju- 
diciously. Whole libraries may he 
skipped in these days, when we have 
the results of them in our modern 
culture without going over the ground 
again. And even of the books we 
decide to read there are almost always 
large portions which do not concern us, and 
which we are sure to forget the day after 
we have read them. The art is to skip all 
that does not concern us, whilst missing 
nothing that we really need. No external 
guidance can teach us this, for nobody but 
ourselves can guess what the needs of our 
intellect may be. But let us select with 
decisive firmness, independently of other 
people's advice, independently of the 
authority of custom. In every newspaper 
that comes to baud there is a little bit tiat 
we ought to read; the art is, to find that 
little bit, and waste no time over the rest." 

I expect to 

Writinq and Readimo.— A story used 
to be told of a clerk at the Custom House 
in former days whose duty it was to write 
cocketfl, or warrants as they are now called. 
He was so bad a penman that what ha 
wrote was only read with the greatest diffi- 
culty. A day came when one of his docu- 
ments was altogether illegible. No one 
could make out a single word of it. It was 
taken to him and he was asked to explain 
wtiat it was he had written. He gazed at 
bis own paper helplessly for some time, 
held it in different lights, but could make 
nothing of it. "Sir," said he at last, "I 
am the oocket-writor and not tho oockot- 

How to Remit Money. 

The best and safest way is by Poat-offioe 
Order, or a bank draft, ou New York ; next, 
by registered letter. For fractional parts of 
a dollar, send postage -stamps. Do not send 
personal checks, especially for small sums, 
nor Canadian postage -stamps. 

The Art of Writing. 

By R. C. Spencer. 

The new poeition as merchant's clerk, in 
which the filture teacher and author of pen- 
manjhip found himself at the age of tifteon 
years, and tlie ohanged conditions by wbiflh 
he was BUrrouuded, could not but exert an 
influence upon his handwriting and his 
TiewB of the art. The aensativeness of hie 
nature made him keenly alive to everything 
about him, and to every point of contact 
with life. He was an acute and appreciative 
observer of men and things. Such was the 
«>nBtitution of his mind that it absorbed 
quickly every useful suggeetion. These 
trait* of his character, combined with his 
passionate fondness for the art of writing 
uianifesl in early childhood, combined with 
the advantages of bis new duties and aaao- 
•iations, were the elements and forces acting 
within and upon him that were ultimately 
to result in the development of a model style 
and eyetem of busineae- writing. 

Here he was at an impressible age in 
the midst of business that linked the aifairs 
and life of an enterprising pioneer Yankee 
oommunity to the industries and iuteresta of 
the East through the strong ties of trade 
and commerce. BusiDesB intercourse brought 
under his constant observation the style rif 
writing then prevalent in business. He 
marked critically its excellencies and de- 
fects. His inventive mind sought out rem- 
edies for the latter, while bis good judgment 
preserved the former. Hia originality aud 
desiie for improvement were not blinded by 
egotism and vanity, but were coupled with 
a reverent regard for, and just appreciation 
of, the work of the past, which gives to true 
progress a noble spirit of conservatism. 
Had his views and feelings been different, 
he would have b^en too small a man for the 
w()rk that was before him in the important 
branch of art and education that he was 
destined to improve, systematize and ele- 

Pens and Pens. 
By Paul Pastnor. 
I «aw a little " Ode to a Stub Pen," the 
other day, which struck me as being sensi- 
ble as well as witty. For "mental lucu- 
bration," the bard declared its "truncated 
nib " to be a genuine inspiration. The ease 
aud smoothness of its motion he thought to 
be the nearest and most congenial thing to 
the ready flow of thought. Well, is he not 
very nearly rightt Are there not pins and 
penat The delicate instrument, whose fine 
yet flexible point is adapted to the require- 
ments of the artistic penman's skill, is not 
always the best pen for the literary man ; 
nor would the literary man's pen at all suit 
the trained fingers of the artistic penman. 
Here, as everywhere else, thtfe is room for 
fitneas. The literary style of handwriting 
is as clearly marked, and as beautiful, in ita 
way, I think, ae the ao-called "copy-book 
style." The great majority of literary men 
prefer a broad-nibbed pen. It has a posi- 
tive, honest, even stroke, wliich is a relief 
to the hand and a rest to the eye. No deli- 
cate lines are needed, for whose execution 
the mind must be relaxed ever ao little from 
the subject of thought. The beat language, 
Bays a writer, is that which least obtrudes 
itself upon the reader; which is simply 
transparent to the thought. If this ia true 
of language, may not the same be true of 
that which helps in framing language — the 
pent One's thought is very apt to be gov- 
erned, in a measure, by one's writing in- 
Btrument. The poet who writes with a quill 
will be annoyed by a diamond-puinted pen; 
and the scholar whose broad, honest chirog- 
raphy ia wedded to a soft, stub pen will 
have Bome trouble in framing good sen- 
tences with a hard, needle -pointed Ester- 
brook. These little tbinga, just like all 
other habits, come to have a wonderful sig- 
nificance in time; especially, in such a ner- 
TOUB matter a« composition, must they have 

their influence. Atmosphere ia everything 
in fine writing. Take a man out of his ac- 
cuslnuied hahilB, and you limit his power: 
writing, after all, is too much of a habit. 
Dickens had to have hia old familiaV pile of 
blue paper to write on. Sir Walter Scott 
wanted hia little short, broad-nibbed pen. 
How many beautiful thoughts might have 
been lost to the world, but for the mechan- 
ical conveniences which put the writer into 
a good humor. If one likes his pen, he is 
at ease with himself. He writes as he 
thinks, naturally and without effort. Half 
the labor of composition depends on that 
humble but wonderful instrument, the jieu. 
Another rule worka the other way, too. 
The penman cannot do himself justice with 
an instrument unequal to hia demands. Au 
organist cannot make good music on a me- 
ludeon — it lacks the capacities, the shades, 
llie variationa of tone, the power, the sweet- 
ness and smoothness of the nobler instru- 
ment. For fine writing, the penman must 
have a delicate instrument — an instrument 
capable of extending the finest hair-line 
into a firm, clear, unbroken, shaded line. 
He must have a pen-point sharp as a dia- 
mond, and smooth as oil! The gold pen 
will never do him ; it is not flexible enough. 
He must have the finest steel, and the best 
workmanship which the age can produce. 
There are steel pens made by machinery to- 
day, which are marvels of human skill — 
flexible, delicate, firm and durable — a pen- 
man's delight. The literary man would call 
one of them an abomination, a faint-mark- 
ing, scratchy, sputtering, tremulous, vex- 
atious thing. It ia not suited to his needs. 
There are pens and pens. He will thank 
you for a stub-pen, but will fling a box of 
fine-pointa into the fire. Fortunately, there 
will always be Jack Sprats'a wives, as well 
as Jack Sprats, in the world, to help lirk 
the old platter of human diflerences clean ! 

The Boys Do ? ? ? ? 

A Reply. 
By Georrie a. M. Manis. 

The question, Why do girls, from the 
age of ten to seventeen, as a general rule, 
write a better hand than boyst having 
come under my observation, I shall, in my 
feeble way, endeavor to reply. 

Now, / like buys — good boys, bad boys, 
lean boys, fat boys, young boys, and — well, 
old boys, too, I guess ; and being such an 
admirer of the dear creatures I shall not 
stand by ailently, if I am one of the weak-r 
vessels, and hear a great big, slim man, 
who was once a boy himself, talk so awfully 
ugly about them. What do girls and wo- 
men know by the side of hoya and great 
big ment Nothing f What are they able 
to accomplish f Nothing? What are 
they in this miserable world for f Nothing t 
yea ; to work and toil ; to have an aim 
in life; to accomplish it; to make every- 
body happy ; to dye before they are ready 
— then Bcold about the color of thinga. 

Now, what made you say that about the 
boysf Cause. Well, then you will have 
to lake it back, or there will be war in the 
camp. "Cause" belongs to the woman's 
vocabulary, and you have no right to use 
the term. 

This statement has been made by the 
majority of teachers in our land ; but the 
fact of the statement coming from the ma- 
jority does not prove it to be true ; far from 
it. The mass of people follow auit; there 
ia nothing particularly original in them. 
They hear an idea expressed by a superior 
person ; it seems reasonable to them ; they 
absorb it; repeat ita great many times — 
for want of something else to say — and in 
time it is a part of them ; and without hav- 
ing investigated the matter. They firmly 
believe certain thinga, because some one 
smarter than themselves has said so. 

I can see no reason why the average boy 
should not write as well as the average girl, 
nor why he should not be as neat in school- 
work, and indeed all work. 

Boys from infancy up are encouraged 
and even taught to be carelese and untidy. 

The mere fact of hia being a boy is suffi- 
cient grounds for all rudeness and careless- 
ness. Johnny cornea home from school, 
throws bis hat in one corner, his books in 
another. His loving mamma, who is al- 
ways more lenient to the boy, or terribly 
cross big sister, that's too particular for any 
earthly uae, gathers up Johnny's property 
with the remark, " Why can't that boy 
have some order or neatness about him T" 
But Johnny is never compelled to take care 
of his books, caps, etc., nor to be orderly 
in any respect. No, it is not neceasary. 
The boy goes to school the next morning ; 
exhibits the poor qualitiea ; if working an 
example, his figures are large and awkward 
looking ; if at the board, he sways from one 
side to the other, or leans with back against 
the board, or has an eraser in either pocket, 
exerting every effort to appear clowniah. 
The teacher threatens to give him a good, 
sound whipping ; doses out to him a scien- 
tific blessing, which the boy appreciates 
very much. So he goes on in the old path 
until he is large enough to bo disgusted ; 
then he reforms of his own free-will, if at 
all, and no one claims the honor. 

All these bad qualities are excused in the 
schoolboy upon the same ground that so 
many sins are excusable in boys and men. 
Encourage modesty, purity, and all the tiet- 
ter qualities in buys, as well as girls, and 
we will have less need of so many rigid 

A wrong is a wrong, be it committed by 
either sex ; and one or the other having 
committed it, neither lessens nor increases 
the sin. 

What, under the ahioing sun, are our 
public schools fort Should not morality, 
manners, proper principles, and all the 
good habits requisite to the making of a 
respectable man or woman be thoroughly 
instilled into the children f If the only 
object ia to cram the contents of books into 
the minds — which many of them do— it 
would be better were there no schools. If 
boys and girls were trained properly, from 
the primaries up, as they should be, there 
would be no need of a human cry againat 
either. I admit that in many schoula the 
girls display more taste in their work than 
the boys of the «ame grade. The home in- 
fluence of the giri is of the nature to en- 
courage order, neatness, and many other 
qualities essential to a nice little lady, who 

real good time, for ibat would not be mod- 
eat. She is learning all of these grand and 
noble traits, while the boy h running the 
streets, or standing on tlie corners, listening 
to the low talk of idle men. But leave the 
home and wander into the schoolroom, and 
all agree that the teacher'a influence, if he 
ia a true teacher, is greater than the home 
influence. Any teacher who discovers that 
his school is in this critical conditiou must 
admit his partial failure. If he has not 
awakened a pride or taste for good work he 
surely has failed in a very important part of 
bis business. There is no pupil who does 
not admire nice work, aud would gladly 
have his so, if he only knew how. Should 
it be expected that a child would be able to 
do anything correctly without being told 
how t He must have some pattern to go 
by, and many teachers are no embodiment 
of neatnesB. You must explain to pupils 
how to be orderly, would you have them so. 

I can say, honestly, that there ia no 
difference in the work of either, where a 
proper and systematic course of training 
has been pursued. I do not make a raah 
statement, but apeak that which I know. 
For over two years I bad the same pupils 
under my charge, when first taking the 
grade I found neatness displayed in all the 
different stages. I saw at once that a radi- 
cal change must take place before I could 
hope for resulle worthy of notice. At the 
end of the lime 1 saw that patient, untiring 
labor was always rewarded by good results. 
(The work of said pupils is in my posses- 
sion, should there be any doubt.) 

Teaobers, of judgment, may take different 
means of producing the desired alterations. 

The first two weeks were spent learning 
how to prepare lessons, and to outline the 
same on the board, slate or paper. For in- 
atance : the lesaou in geography is N. A. 
Would you make the cliildren learn or 
write the questions so T No. Do not 
teach by questions, but by topics. For the 
fir<it lesson the rivers might be given. 

paper, running the namea together in such 
a manner that it would take an experienced 
attorney to translate the hieroglyphics. 
His teacher examinee his work, and passes 
it without any corrections, or exclaims, iu 
savage tones, "Now, see, if you don't do 
better work to-morrow I'll settle you." 
The boy would gladly settle in a country 
where old schoolteachers and schools were 
never heard of. He would be willing to 
travel by way of a first-class cyclone : 
anything for a change. He has heard the 
old harangue from the time he entered 
school. Another will write down the slate. 
That one lesson is written in every imagin- 
able way. The teacher ie disgusted, and 
bates everything connected with school : he 
is teaching for money. Finally, he pro- 
n.u.iKTs it a hard school. " You know the 
children are of the lower class — nobody 
could teach them." But within those 
rough natures are bearta that throb in 
sympathy with any teacher who has enough 
humanity or common sense to touch the 
proper chord. 

Teacher, why did you not step to the 
board, draw the picture of a slate, write the 
names of the rivers — placing a dash after 
each — have each pupil arrange his work the 
same? Then make an examination, and 
see if the results were not more favorable. 
Teachers should place inodet lessons on the 
board, and let them remain until the idea 
of arrangement is established, and in time 
neatness is a second nature. 

Some big, wise apeoimeo of humanity 
has said that " we must cultivate individu- 
ality; let the child be natural." Well, if 
nature, in the rough, is so desirable, why 
have we so many colleges, schools and ways 
of assisting herf What is more offensive 
to a refined nature than a great verdant 
somebody who has not improved nature by 
cultivating the powers he is blessed with? 
If the natural handwriting is so beautiful, 
why strive to cultivate it? If the natural 
voice is preferable, why cultivate it? If 
the natural human being is so admirable, 
let the advocate of this theory visit the 
Hottcntota in their purity; if he is not 
swallowed up by the beauties of nature he 
will return a wiser and better man, and will 
ever prescribe the essence of cultivated na- 

The child who has spent ten or fifteen 
years in school, under rigid discipline, and 
has learned those habits of order, neatness, 
morality, and other qualities necessary to 
the making up of a good citizen, and has 
not learned anything from hooka, haa spent 
his time splendidly; and from the fact of 
hia learning to obey will make him a law- 
abiding citizen, which is preferable to a 
learned law-breaker. 

Writing, as all branches of education, 
must be taught in a scientific manner. 
Until that day dawns we cannot expect 
other than inferior resulte. A concert dull, 
occaaionally, is surely advisable, and may 
be made very pleasant and profitable, 
especially in figures. 

The want of proper and regular slant in 
writing is caused by improper position of 
body, paper, and pen, also failing to con- 
nect and space uniformly. 

It is not necessary to say anything about 
double desks, as they are a relic of harbar- 

Most all instruction in writing is individ- 
ual, and while very little should be said to 
the general class about position, an eye 
should be on eaoh pupil, giving him auoh 

lielp as is aeeiled to his particular case, aud, 
as he advances from day to day, the proper 
position will be acquired. 

Penmanship in Japan. 

BV L. J. N«)ltMA.N-. 

PenmaDahip among the Japanese is con- 
eidered the most important of studies. 
The future of the child is judged according 
to its writing. Nowhere else do children 
take aucb an interest in writing. A child 
who is able to write legibly is as proud of 
its attainments as Jay Gould is of being 
supposed to own the Legislature and Pres- 

New Year's time the Japanese have their 
great fete days. On the first or second those 
of the children who have been fortunate 
enough to learn to write, prepare as speci- 
mens of their penmanship, various inscrip- 
tions on pieces of paper. These pieces of 
paper are fastened to various colored catds, 
and placed before the god shelvee, with 
other paraphernalia. 

On January 15th, the children having 
previously built a large bonfire, the whole 
paraphernalia are gathered together and 
thrown into it- The children aDxioiisly 
watch to see whose specimens are blown 
from the fire, for the writer is thus informed 
that he will be an able penman. The slip 
that the wind blows highest informs those 
present that its owner will be the most emi- 
nent penmiiu. Sometimes a discussion arises 
as to the ownership of the slip blown high- 
est. In this case they follow the flight of the 
paper until it descends, and thue discover 
the name. 

On New Year's the Japanese call on 
each other the same as we do, with this eX' 
ception : they do not hang a basket on the 
door. The reaaou they do not do this is, 
probably, explained by the fact that all 
those who can afford it carry presents with 
them to those on whom they call, which 
signifies that the giver is desirous of receiv- 
ing good services during the coming year. 
Persons who have not time or money to 
spare in buying presents, send their cards 
by servants. 

So you see it is to their interest to stay at 
home and receive calls, as I do not believe 
they would trust to a basket outside the 
door to receive presents as well as cardR ; 
nor do I think that New Yorkers would, 
either. In fact, I think if we had the same 
practice in New York we would be more 

likely to advertise in all the daily papers 
that we are " at home on New Year's day." 

Another bad thing for New Yorkers, or 
some would call it a good thing, about the 
Japanese New Year is: a caller may call 
any time within two weeks after the 1st. If 
this was practiced in New York, I am a lit- 
tle luclined to think as long as there was any 
wine left the youn^ men would call every 
day until the two weeks had expired. 

The public officers in Japan are particu- 
larly careful to call upon their superiors; 
for you know ihese officials are much like 
their English brethren — they like to be 
toadied to. These officials now dress in 
European style. It is amusing to see them 
parading around in very long tail coats, 
jackets, cloth and silk vests of all the colore 
of the rainbow, gorgeous cravats, the old- 
fashioned stove-pipe hat — and, above all, 
gloves large enough to put their feet in. 
(This is not saying much for European 

When one or two men cannot afford to 
buy a suit of clothes, they form a syndicate 
or corporation, and buy a suit jointly, and 
then the fat and lean, the tall and small, 
take turns in displaying their elegant (?) 
toggery to those on whom they call. There 
is no watered stock, however, iu this corpor- 
ation, neither can you buy on margin. As 
long as the pants go below the knee, and 
the coat does not trail on the ground, the 
wearer considers himself eminently respeot- 

■Ways and Means of Payment. 

AiiT Journal by Miw Anna Streokensld, iloDogreplier. 

A very curious and interesting subject in 
commercial science is the ways and means 
of payment. Whenever ao obligatiou has 
been incurred, some way should be found by 
which to discharge it. In the world of bus- 
iness we are concerned with obligations of a 
pecuniary character. These obligations may 
be for services, or for property, or for both. 
In primitive society the general sense of ob- 
ligation was very feeble for the reason that 
at that time the moral sentiments wore un- 
developed J men knew little of their rights 
and of the obligations which are tlie out- 
growth of those rights, for every right has 
its corresponding obligation. Were there 
no rights there would be no obligations. 
The fact that the individual has the right to 
enjoy the fruits of his own labor carries with 

intelligence, th; 
the ways and meat 
course of trade, i 
rapidly and convi 
which they have t 
There was a tim 
backward in its ki 
that it knew nothii 
struoient — money, 
began to 

it the obligation to pay for those 
when used for the benefit of others. The 
moment that the right of an individual to 
work for his own benefit is denied, the mo- 
ment he is deprived of that right, he ceaaes 
to be free and becomes a slave ; the fruits of 
his toil are appropriated without compensa- 
tion by others. But as the man becomes 
free, and his right to himself, to hie labor, 
and to the products of his toil become rec- 
ognized, respected and protected, he de- 
mands compensation ; and whoever receives 
his services, whoever obtains from him the 
products of his labor, must pay for it the 
price agreed upon. There is no one thing 
connected with the operations of trade that 
has shown more advancement, that has 
Dgenuity, or finer 
the subject of payment — 
Lus by which, in the inter- 
men discharge honestly, 
veniently the obligations 
to one another. 
ne when the world was so 
[nowledee of this subject 
of that wonderful in- 
Iradually, however, it 
s inventive ingenuity 
with reference to finding the best ways of 
effecting exchanges, and in making its pay- 
ments it resorted to many rude and clumsy 
devices. It used shells gathered from the 
sea; it employed cattle, Hnd it used the 
coarser metals and other things for this 
purpose, until gradually, by experience, it 
learned the inconvenieuces of these things 
for such a purpose. Finally it came to a 
point where the precious metals were 
brought into use. Gold and silver were 
found to possess the qualities requisite for 
money; something that would 
ues and that would be taken as ai 
lent; something that would be 
everywhere and by everybody in 
for services or for property. 

But by degrees the world discoi 
the precious metals, convenient and suita- 
ble as they were, did not meet fully the re- 
quirements of society in making the pay- 
ments which were necessary in the discharge 
of obligatitma arising out of trade and com- 
merce. The introduction of the art of writ- 
ing among the more enlightened and ad- 
vanced communities enabled men to give 
form and expression to their oblig^ions in 
the shape of bills of exchange. This little 
instrument of writing introduced into the 
world at an early period in mercantile his- 
tory, iu the history of commeroial inter- 

tred that 

course, became the most important agency 
in effecting payments, and has remained so 
up to the present time. It is called the 

does the great work of effecting payments 
necessary to be made in connection with the 
exchanges of property which are constantly 
taking place. 

Were no property exchanged, if e 
man kept what he produced and did no 
transfer it to others, or others did not trans 
ferto him, then money would not be neces 
sary, then other ways and means of pay 
ment would not be required. But men d« 
not find it to their interest to keep what 
they have; but better to part with much 
they produce in order to obtain things which 
they want. In this way they supply their 

If every person having anything to part 
with could readily find another person or 
other persons having just the things that 
he want*, who also wanted the things which 
he has to part with, then exchanges could 
be effected without the intervention of 
money or other means of payment. Prop- 
erty would pay for property. But since i 
seldom happens that exohanges can conven 
iently be made in this way, but must be ef 
fected through the agency of a class of mid 
die men, known as merchants, who bu; 
our surplus and sell to us as we require, 
money becomes indispensable to this kind 
of social intercourse. Not only is money 
necessary, but these other instruments which 
I have spoken of, the draft being the most 
important representative. In your transac- 
tions here, you have much to do with this 
instrument; you learn something of its na- 
ture, of its utility, and of the rules of law 
which govern it as the obligations of the 
parties and of the rights of those through 
whose hands it may pass. 

There is one way in which payments are 
effected which is very interesting, and, I 
think, quite simple, t>f which, perhaps, you 
have not thought, and yet it is one which is 
perfectly familiar to you. You have in your 
daily work exemplifications of this method 
of payment: it is by the use of money on 
account. Not by the actual iJelivery of coins, 
or hank bills, or anything that i» tangible, 
but by the siuiple setting of values against 
values arranged in the form of debtor and 
creditor in your books of account. As. for 
ex imple, you open an account with John 
Dot, and through the year you have current 
dealings with him, charging him on one 
aide of the account with the value of every- 

thing tbat yoa transfer to him, and rreditiog 
him with all values which he transferB to 
yoii; you have here in this statement o( 
yonr dealings used money of account, in 
giving erpreasion to the values which yoo 
have parted with and which you have re- 
ceived from John Doe. At the end of the 
year you offset one eide tif the account 
against the other, thus effecting a settlement 
by money of ac4;ount whieh gives expression 
to the values exchanged between you. Had 
you used coins to pay for everything ex- 
chauged between you, aconsiderable amount 
would have beou required for this purpose. 
I need not remind you that gold and silver 
coins are inad^oul of suhatancee, the supply 
of which in tlio earth is limited, and these 
substances are only obtained by hard labor; 
that hence, in perfecting the ways and means 
of payment, any thing that will economize 
or pave this vast expenditure, will promote 
the general good. 

The illustration which I have just given 
you of one way in which payments are 
effected through the instrumentality of 
money of account will show you how we 
economize in the transactions of trade. Now 
every account wliirrh appears in your hooks 
is conducted on this principle, which I have 
tried to explain to yuu. Looking at your 
ledgers in the light of this illustration, I 
think that the accounts which stand there as 
representations of the dealiugs which you 
have had will rise into dignity and interest 
which they before have not had. You see 
in them a greater use than you ever saw be- 
fore, and at this point I had belter leave the 
subject to your reflection, promisiug you 
that next Tuesday I will resume the sub- 
ject, and show you how some other ways 
and means of paj'ment have come into use 
and how they work practically. 

Educational Notes. 

[CommunicatiouB for ihis D^(>tirlmt"nt mai 
IP addressed to B. F. KEr,LEV,'^Or> Broadway 
Iww York. Brief educational items solicited. 

Harvard College received $173,000 fron 
erm bills alone last year. 

There are 6,G00 American students ic 
lerman Universities. — Ex. 

The recent rowdyism and paper-wad bat- 
tles at Columbia College have been well 
telegraphed over the country. It was Co- 
lumbia College, wasn't it, which decided not 
to admit womeu-students, on the ground 
that it would lower the intellectual staad- 
arJ?— JV««J York World. 

Russia has a population of 98,700,000— 



are eighty America 
ersity of Berlin this \ 

I of Cornell has rep- 
»sia, Spain, Brazil, 
iiany, Australia and 

'J'he highest honors at Yale last year were 
borne away by representatives of Minnesota 
and Colorado. — Ex. 

The Columbia School of Arts numbers 
290 this year. Columbia's grand total la 
1,520.— College Journal 

The Freshman Ciai 
resentativee from Ri 
Central America, Ge 
Canada. — Ex. 

The Uuiversity of Texas has an endow- 
ment of $5,250,000 and 1,000,000 acres of 
land. The co-educatiouai system has been 

adopted, and there will he no military. 


Mexico.— Compulsory education is en- 
forced at Matamoras. Children found on the 
streets during school-hours are arrested; if 
the parents cannot give a reasonable excuse 
thoy are compelled to pay a fine which goes 
into the school-fund. 

In the Salem (Mass.) Normal School 
there is a class of girls learning carpentry. 
Their teacher is the principal .»f the school, 
Mr. Hagar. Last year a Maine girl, a grad- 
uate of Vassar, re-shingled her father's 
house and built a porch, just for the fun of 
a.— New York World. 

Speaking of the Harvard Annex again, 
the girl studentirthcre take especially to the 
languages, living and dead. Of the forty- 
eight jou/g women in the eighty Universi- 
ty courses open to the sex, thirty-five are 
taking Greek. Two Texas girls sold their 
lands in the Lone Star State to pay for their 
edaoation. One lady, who received the Har- 
vard diploma, baa established a classical 
school in Montaua— JVtfw) York World. 

write. Great Britain and Ireland has a pop- 
ulation of 35,2.50,000— forty-six per cent, 
can neither read nor write. China has a 
population ot 410,000,000 — twenty-three 
per cent, can neither read nor write. United 
States has a population of 50,200,000 — 
twenty per cent, can neither read nor write. 
Japan baa a population of 3U,;J00,000— six- 
teen per cent, can neither read nor write. 
Germany has a population of 45,194,000 — 
twelve per cent, can neither read nor writo. 

Educational Fancies. 

[In every instance where the eouro 

A medical writer says children neod more 
wraps than adults. They naturally get 

Prof.: "Now, gentlemen, we will rep- 
resent the earth by this hat, which — " 
Voice from the corner : "Is it inhabited?" 

Corporal punishment has been abolished 
in the Toledo schools, and there ia a sud- 
denly increased demand for bent pins. — 
Weekly Call 

"How do you define black as your batf " 
said a schoolmaster to one of his pupils. 
" Darkness that may be felt," replied the 
youthful wit. 

The High-sehool girl severely reprimand- 
ed her brother for using the phrase "Not to 
be sneezed at." She says he ought to say 
"Occasioning no sternutatory convulsions." 

Paler ; " Well, my hoy, and bow do you 
like college T Alma Mater has turned out 
some-good men." Young Hoptjul : " Ya — 
as — she's just turned me out.'"' He had been 

" Johnny," said the editor to his hopeful, 
"are you in the first class at schoolf" 
"No," replied the youngster, who bad been 
studying the paternal sheet, " I am regis- 
tered as second-class male matter." 

' objection 

President Robinson, of Brov 
ty, remarks: "I should Lave 
to opening Brown University 
except tha* it would be harder to manage 
than before." He seems to be well posted 
touching the feminine nature. 

Nine American colleges have adopted the 
Oxford cap. This is well. Heretofore, the 
only thing that distinguished a college stu- 
dent from other people has been the had 
spelling in his letters home asking for mon- 
ey to "buy books."— Bi^rrfeHe. 

When a Freshman d 
the professor's question. 

' plainly 

I, professor, but I 
Tbe Sophomore 
repeat your ques- 

dued tone: "Pardon 
didn't understand yo 
says: "Will you pie; 
tion?" The Junior 
The Senior says : " Huh I " 

A teacher asked one of her class what was 
the first line of the piece of poetry which 
described Daniel's feelings on being cast 
into tbe lion's den. The youngster was 
posed. The teacher said: "Come, come." 
Thereat the boy exclaimed, hurriedly: "I 
know, miss; it was 'good- by, sweetheart, 

School committee {examining scholars): 
"Where is the north pole\" "I don't 
know, sir." "Don't know I Are you not 
ashamed that you don't know where the 
north pole is?" "Why, sir, if Sir John 
Franklin, and Dr. Kane, and Captain De- 
Long OBuldn't find it, bow should I know 
where it ist" 

The two-ce 
Government i 

Educational Value of Drawing. 

In common schools drawing was once 
entirely neglected, because it was not 
thought to be the province of a public 
school to teach a child to become an artist. 
But the practical benefit it was to pupils 
who learned it kept tbe subject before the 
public, and it is now recognized tbat draw- 
ing should be taught, just as much as 

No study develops so keenly the powers 
of observation ; the eye is constantly busy 
comparing or contrasting forms ; tbe mind 
is called on for judgment; thus the child 
Qiiconscioualy accjuires the habit of prompt 
decision ; the fingers are guided into regular 
ways of working, and order follows; the 
power of syatematic arrangement grows 
and becomes habitual; neatness, however 
unattainable for some, will, nevertheless, 
recommend itself as possible to every child 

and natural products — poioer of observation, 
method in doing, and neatness. If it can 
thus succeed at once in training the mind, 
the eye and the hajid, is it not valuable? 
Drawing will help the teacher to teach 
arithmetic. It will help also iu all the 
other lessons, not only by relief from 
change of work, but by opening up to tbe 
teacher new avenues of approach to the 
child's mind. 

" Rut I can't draw ! I can't draw even a 
horse!" said one teacher wheu the above 
truths were stated. 

" Why don't you learn to draw a cart, 
then f It will be easier, and just as useful." 
"No; I shall leave drawing horses, and 
carts, too, to a drawing teacher — that is 
entirely his business." 
"Are you sure it is? " 
Drawing is now taught only as a part of 
the general plan to bring all the child's 
powers into play ; not to make an artist. 
This is the very work on which the oppo- 
nents of this study have split. The just 
end <»f teaching drawing to youug children 
ia educational in the broadest sense ; it is to 
acquaint them first with fundamental prin- 
ciples, with simple geometric forms, so that 
they will not merely observe, hut, also, by 
contrasted observations, learn to know 
why ; learn to think a figure even before 
they draw it. You must first set the mind 
in motion, then through the eye the fingers 
will receive proportionate guidance. You 
should take a broader view of this matter. 
The special teacher is intended chiefly as 
your guide? He cannot, in the limited 
time allowed him, teach more than a few 
of the upper classes. His occa.«ional pres- 
ence in your room is but to stimulate you 
and your pupils ; upon you rests the respon- 
sibility of teaching drawing. 

" But how could I learn to do it?" 
" Learn to do by doing — that ia how you 
have learned to teach other subjects." 
" But wouldn't I have to be taught ? " 
" Then be taught. Study, and teach 
yourself. Go to work, but begin on right 
principles. Do not begiu with picture- 
making. In teaching music you insist on 
scale practice first, not ou pieces. In all 
building the foundation must be must care- 
fully attended to. In teaching drawing 
begin with geometrical forms, the triangle, 
the square, the hexagon, etc., on which you 
may easily base your succeeding work as it 
advances. "You write well. How did 
you learn that ? " 

" By constant practice." 
"Will you believe me that there are no 
lines in any drawing more difficult than 
these that you make when writing? Take 
the egg-oval, or the capital stem. Hogarth 
called it the ' line of beauty.' Notice how 
accurately it is divided in this capital letter 
S ; and that, too, without any straight lines 
to guide you. Iu drawing you always have 
the advantage of guide lines to help you 
balance the parts of a figure, but here you 
have none. Hero is another letter made on 
the same principle, the capital stem. Thus 
you can bnild at least fifteen different letters. 
Now, in drawing, you must apply the same 
rule. Learn one principle and build upon 

it; thus you will gradually advance into it 
with the certainty of finding it much easier 
to Warn than penmanship, and of cnirae 
much easier to teach." 

" But is not drawing taught as an ac- 

- " It may be, and often is; as an accom- 
plishment it is oue well worth acquiring, 
but it reiiuires long and special training, 
and scarcely one out of three hundred ever 
acquire it. You are not expected so to 
teach drawing. In your hands the subject 
is to become an educational factor in a 
general sense." 

{Note.— The teacher acted on this ad- 
vice, and found that drawing was not only 
a valuable means of discipline by reason of 
the active interest it excited, hut also a 
powerful aid iu forming correct tasti; and 
inducing general habits of neatness and 
order.)— H. P. Smith in School Journal. 

Pai'yrus Paper.— The manufacture and 
use of papyrus paper dates back to very an- 
cient times. In some form it was certainly 
used as eariy as 2 1(10 B. C. Specimens are 
at present in existence in a go id state ot 
preservation that date hack fully 3,000 
years. Its value was so highly appreciated 
that the official records of those conservative 
rulers, the Popes, were written upon it as 
late as the twelfth century. Frcun the Egyp- 
tians, the Greeks, Romans and other an- 
cient nations obtained this precious material, 
the manufacture and commerce in which 
formed one of the most important branches 
of the trade iu those times. The principal 
seat of the industry was Memphis. It is 
somewhat singular that, although the pa- 
pyrus paper does not exceed modern paper 
in point of durability, so much of it has 
been preserved. This is due rather to for- 
tunate accident than to any intrinsic superi- 
ority. Many have been found in the buried 
cities of Herculanjeum and Pompeii; but 
by far tbe greater number have been found 

apped with t 

I the c 


of Egypt, and preserved from destruction by 
the exclusion of the air and the antiseptic 
properties of the substances used in the em- 
balming of the dead.— Geyfr's Stationer. 

A Rare Chance.- Anyone sending us 
three names and $3 can have a copy of the 
Journal one year free. 

A Flood for Sahara. — The French 
are ambitious to obtain the commerce of 
Central Africa and the announcement of 
Count de Leseeps that he will soon begiu 
work on the $13,000,000 canal by which he 
hopes to pour water from the Mediterra- 
nean to flood the Desert of Sahara indicates 
that Frenchmen are solicitous lest England 
should obtain supremacy iu the trade which 
ere long must flow from the heart of Africa 
to Mediterranean ports. Should England 
restore the tranquility of the Soudan a rail- 
way will soon be built from Suakim on the 
Red Sea to the last cataract of the Nile, a 
distance of only 310 miles, and thus Eng- 
land will obtain the trade of 60,000,000 
Soudanese. By converting the Desert of 
a sea. Franco not only hopes 
d Algeria an insulai posi- 
make it possible for her 
?ctly to Soudanese porta, 
I railway from one 
of the projected ports of the artificial sea to 
the very heart of Africa would not be long 
postponed, should M. de Lesseps's scheme 
prove succ.6ssful. Unless El Mahdi estab- 
lishes himself as permanent ruler of the 
Soudan, civilization will make rapid pro- 
gress from the Mediterranean toward the 

If you want a good and durable pen of 
medium fineness, send thirty i-ents for one- 
fourth gross of " Ames's Penman's Favor- 
ite," No. 1. 

to give Tunis i 
tion, but also i 
ships to sail d 
and the 


Some Requests Complied With. 

Kn.m W. H. T., Troy, N. Y.— I have 
jn^i t('<-u reading jour editorial articles 
Mil hautlwriling iu TJte Metalworker of 
December first. They are good — very 
g))od, iDdeed — but may be bettered by your 
giving a facsimile reitreBentation of the 
telegraphic atyle. Please do so. I fauey 
that my style ia good. To write it, a [ler- 
sim ueeds a stylographic peu. Livernioro's 
is a good oue, but I think Caw's is belter. 
N-)W, allow me to ask, what ifiud of a pen 
do you, Mr. Editor, prefer and use when 
you can T Have you a special choice of 
ink— ditto pajiert Also any mode of hold- 
ing the paper, and how do you hold tlie 
pen T All these may seem unimportant 
trities, but the fact is, small things make the ot life, au.l The Metal-worker should 
wield the peu aright as well as the mallet. 
If you would give a fac-simih of your 
writing, and especially of your phiz, it 
would be tip top. 

Answer. — We are much flattered by our 
correspoudeut's recjuests, and being in all 
things extremely good-natured, it gives us 
the greatest pleasure to comply with them 
to the fullest exteut. 

Whether the seuior editor of Tlie Metal- 
worker writes a good hand or not depends 
upou how it is regarded. In his own iudg- 
ment it is "as clear as type," though not 
without Some peculiarities and eccentricities. 
Some people aftect to consider it difficult to 
read. Mr. Florence, in his character of 
Hon. Bardwell Slote, M. C, when asked, 
"Do you singf" replies, "Those who 
have heard me say I don't." We allude to 
our chirography with equal modesty, and 
without veotiiring to afBrm whether or not 
we write well, will answer; those who have 
to read it are not unanimous iu conceding 
that it ia the best thf y have ever seen. We 
lately wrote ' a long letter to a frieud in 
Albany, and in the course of a week got a 
reply to the effect that he had been able to 
read most of it. To show the entire iojus- 
lire of aoy such aspersions, we reproduce 
lierewith a page of the Editor's average 
"copy" — the kind be makes on Friday 
mornings, "just as we go lo press." It is 
perhaps a little unusual iu some respects, 
but no one who reads it will be able to con- 
ceal his surprise when we tell him that the 
priuters will persist in making mistakes in 
setting it up. We have always attributed 
this to inattention on their part, and a yield- 
ing to the almost irresistible tendency which 
besets printers to indulge iu the discussion 
of politics, base-ball and religious creeds 
during working hours. Our handwriting is 
BO nearly like that in which some of the 
dispatches sent us are written that it will 
serve for purposes of illustration of the tel- 
egraphers' style. In passing, we may say 
that whatever may be said of our writing, 
it is infinitely better than a good deal that 
comes to us. We have framed in our office 
a letter received about six mouths ago. It 
went the rounds of the otfice and then came 
hack to the editors. We wrestled with it 
until patience ceased to be a. virtue, and 
then we hung it ap, with the following 

Five dollars reward will be paid to the 
person who will read this letter. 

Ttn dollars reward will be paid for the 
tvrittr, dead or alive. 

As to pens, we are somewhat capricious 
iu our taste. We have used everything 
from a Gillott 303 to a marking-brush. 
We have to change once' or twice a week. 
Just now we are using stub-pointed steel 
pens. Last week we look a turn at goose- 
quills. Sometimes a chewed stick is rest to 
the weary muscles; occasionally we try a 
lead pencil. It makes very little difference, 
so long as we change often enough. 

Our correspondent asks for our portrait. 
We had modesily refrained from publishing 
it, but since it is asked for we yield to the 
long-felt want amd give it. The artist has 
selected a characteristic attitude. The 
Editor has found on his table an eight-page 
Dewepaper which has been sent him — not 

a regular exchange, but a copy specially 
mailed to him personally. The sender 
wants him to see something that is i 
but neglecta to mark the article. So he 
glances over it, and not finding anything of 
ifiterest he begins a laborious search by 
pages. Our illustration represents him t 
engaged. What he says when be dt 
tiud anything to repay the searh would 
usually he printed thus : 

The Story of "Blind Tom." 
Early Lira oi- the Musical Prodigy. 


A few days ago I accidentally learned 
that a lady, whose home is in New Orleans, 
but who is temporarily visiting in this city, 
(■ould tell me something about Blind Tom's 
early life, aod I accordingly went to see her. 
To the first question that would naturally 
be aslied, she replied: 

" Ves; I can tell you all about him. My 
father owned him. Blind Tom's father was 
foreman on my father's plantation in Geor- 
gia. A foreman, you will understand, is one 
who is placed over the other slaves on plan- 
tations where they do not have white over- 
seers. Tom's mother was our cook, and as 
such her room adjoined the kitchen. The 
slaves, as you know, have separate quarters 
and live a short distance from the house. 
The kitchen was close by, and Tom's moth- 
er, the cook, was frequently in the rear 
rooms of the house, and several of her chil- 
dren, of whom she had an extraordinary 
large number, would follow her around. Af- 
ter Tom had familiarized himself with his 
new surroundings, he became bold enough 
to creep from the kitchen out into the halls 
towards the parlor, where bis acute ears 
would catch the sound of the piano. His 
mother iu the kitchen would then miss him, 
and run to drag him back, each time ad- 
ministering a BeveTe beating. But the child 
went back, all the same, and listened. Af- 
ter a while father's attention was attracted 
to the child, aud told the mother to let him 
stay where he was. When we let him come 
into the parlor, the little imp went wild with 
delight Before he could stand alone, be 
would draw himself up aud commenced 
striking the keys." 

"How old was Tom when he began lo 
show his musical skill?" 

" Tom could play any ordinary music and 
a few more difficult compositions before he 
was four years old. Ho would creep to the 
piano and play before be was able to walk, 
and could siug .Scotch ballads before he 
could talk enough to ask for bread. All he 
needed was for some one to play so that he 
could hear and he would immediately play 
the piece without varying a particle. I re- 
member well, a few years after, when Tom 
became more proficient and had learned to 
talk, seeing Tom grope his way into the 
parlor, aud, approaching the piano, say to 
the lady who was then playing, 'I can play 
that better than you can. I'se a gen'us, I 
is.' And sure enough he did, although he 
had uever heard the music before." 

"Has he ever tried instruments other 
than the piano?" 

"Oh, yes. He can play on anything. 
The Hute is his special favorite. He has a 
beautiful silver fiule with silver keys, of 
which he is very proud. When he gets 
started he will sometimes play all nigiit— 
uutil the chickens crow in the morning. 
Next to the flute the piano is his favorite, 
hut he can execute music on any species of 
instrument he can get." 

"Has Blind Tom had or needed any as- 
sistance in his musical achievements?" 

" He has the very best kind of instruct 
ors, although it has beeu at times difficult 
to obtain a teacher who would not be less 
proficient than the pupil. All that Tom 
wants is some one to play now music for 
him, aud he only ueeds to hear it played 
once. Some years ago father took him to 
Paris to see if be oonld not be made to see. 

and no effort has been spared to give him 
a good education. The story that Blind 
Tom is an iiWot in everything but music is a 
popular error. His eccentricities when on 
the stage are mistaken for idiocy, when in 
fa(^t Tom is frantically delighted or be- 
witched, if you please, over the music he is 
making or hearing. Blind Tom is not only 
well educated, but refined. He does not use 
the negro dialeot, and can carry on an intel- 
ligent conversation with anybody. He is 
affectionate in disposition and is devoted to 
all the family, who are equally as fond of 
him. When my boy was born Tom was 
much afraid that his place in the family 
would he taken by another, and he felt very 
badly about it." 


Editors 0/ JoitliNAL. What can I say to 
pacify the troubled spirit of ambition which 
seeks the herculean task of collecting the 
autographs of a nation's chirographers? I 
have written to "Jeremiah," " Mary Ann," 
and Julia of Cheyenne, to assist me in this 
matter, but have received uo response. I 
promise now, in this public manner, that, if 
more liberal returns are not made, I will re- 
fer the whole matter lo Frank aod George 
Washington, when I meet them at Roches- 
ter. Be patient, friend Vogel ; the list is 
on the i(^ crease, and promises a healthy 

One reason, doubtless, that more do not 
support this scheme is that they do not de- 
sire to send out their work until due prac- 
tice has been given, and they are convinced 
that their efforts will meet the approval of 
competent judges. It might be wise ( par- 
don me, for I mean no offense ) that others 
should profit by the silent example, aud 
withhold their autographs until a more pro- 
Remember that this thing is in its in- 
fancy, and that it will not bear too much 
forcing. The members of the B. E. A. A. 
have not recovered from their sea voyage 
sufficiently to acquit themselves creditably. 
Wait yet a little longer. Everybody appre- 
ciates the efforts nf the Journal, and one 
by one they will respond to the original 


I have not forgotten my promise to { Ho ) 
zanna. Permit uie to announce the grand 
international autograph exchange that will 
take effect July HHh, at Rochester, N. Y. 
If you fail to go, never complain again. 
Until then rest in peace with all men. 

With malice toward none, and love for 
all, I remain, a friend to the entire profes- 
sion, C. H. Peiiice. 


Friend Atnes: I was amused, enter- 
tained, and delighted, but not profited, on 
reading the reports and discussions on the 
very important subject of "Business-writ- 
ing" at the late Convention of the Business 
College Managers of America, at Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

No good, or but little good, will result 
from these discussions, unless they are based 
on solid facts, and reasoned from right prem- 
ises. We all agree on this: good business 
penmanship, as we understand it, when ap- 
plied in conducting and recording the im- 
mense volumes of business in connection 
with the manufacturing, trading and carry- 
ing interests of the commercial world, con- 
sists iu legible, rapid, uniform writing, at 
an average speed of from thirty to forty-five 
words per minute. We differ, frst, as to 
what really is good business-writing after it 
is executed; and, second, as to the best 
methods of teaching it iu our business and 
other schools, so as to produce the desired 
results in the shortest possible time. This, 
also, gives rise to the question : Can good 
business- writing bo produced in the school- 
room? or is it only developed in the nature 
of things by practice aud experience after 
leaving the schoolroom, and entering upon 
the duties of business life? 

I do not propose, just now, to discuss any 
of those questions in detail; but to offer a 

suggestion, which, I think, would form a 
safe basis for future discussions. 

Let us have a contest at the Rochester 
Convention, next July, open to all who de- 
sire to compete, as follows: 

Each competing college to furnish twenty 
letters. Ten of these specimens to be spec- 
imens of writing at the time of leaving 
school, and ten after leaving, time unlimit- 
ed ; or make a limit, if dremed deairable— 
say, five years after leaving. The writers 
of these specimens should not be advised as 
to the object in securing them, but to be 
written as everyday business letters are, 
with no object of competitioii in view. The 
decision to be made by a committee consist- 
ing of three business c^dlege principals, who 
are not teachers of penmanship, three who 
are special teachers of penmanship, and five 
good busimeu men of experience, as follows: 

( 1 ) Which college produced the best ten 
specimens of good business-writing on leav- 
ing the schoolroom ; also the best ten after 
leaving. Also, which produced second and 
third best. A majority of the committee 

( 2 ) After the decision and report of the 
committee has been accepted by the con- 
vention, have the most successful competi- 
tor, or his teacher ef writing, explain bis 
method of teaching. 

(3) To be followed by an exposition of 
the method of the second and third success- 
ful competitors. 

( 4 ) Discussion of the report and meth- 
ods, by members of the Convention. 


Illegible Signatures.— It has been 
said by erne of those wise acres whose name 
has beeu unfortunately permitted to perish 
that an illegible handwriting is an indication 
of mental greatness. There have been 
great men who have written poor hands; 
tliere have been likewise millions of great 
idiots. There is not one man in a hundred 
who writes his signature so that people can 
read it. A gallant army officer, who was 
the swell of his regiment, used to consider 
it the thing to make two strokes in lieu of 
a signature — a little and a big flourish. He 
could afford it. His father was rich. But 
a poor man cannot afford to be an ass. He 
should be competent at least to sign his 
name in such a way that there could be no 
mistake about it. — New York Commercial. 

How TO Become A Housekeeper. — 
" Bread ! " exclaimed a Vassar College girl. 
"Bread! Well, I should say I can make 
bread. We studied that in our first year. 
You see, the yeast ferments, and the gas 
thus formed peruieatea everywhere and 
transforms the plajstic material and then — " 
"But what is the plastic material you 
speak of?" "Oh! that is commonly 
called the sponge." "But bow do you 
make the sponge?" "Why, you don't 
maki it; the cook always attends to that 
Then we test the sponge with the ther- 
mometer aud hydrometer and a lot of other 
instruments, the names ot which I don't 
remember, and then baud it back to the 
cook, and I don't know what she does with 
it then, but when it comes on the table it is 
just splendid." — Chicago Saturday Herald. 

Return if not Satisfactory. 

Remember, that if you order either our 
"New Compendium of Practical and Artis- 
tic Penmanship," or the "Guide to Self- 
instruction," and they are not satisfactory, 
you may return them, and we will refund 
the entire amount paid. 

For $2 the JoDRNAi. will be mailed on 
year; also, a copy each of the "Standard 
Practical Penmanship" and the " Goide 
to Self-Instruction in Artistic Penmanship 
( in paper covers'; 25 cents extra in cloth 
Price each, separate, $1. 


Published Monthly at »1 per Ye 

SpMlmm oofAm lonilihtd la A^oti fr»». 


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loolomn IM.OO' iw-OO* |120.ob $175.0 

lug matter, 50o. p«r liD«. 


W« hope lo rend« (beJotnWAL s.tfflMSDtly interMt. 
tog Bnd attmotive I., iwcuw. not only the patronage of 


To aU who remit H, we will maU the Jourkal odh 

5^' "ArtH™o^Penmanihi'p'^?*^r, for tl 25, a copy 
boQDd tn oIoUi. For #3, " Am«.'s Goicie to Self-lDatruo- 
Hod ■' in cloth, and Iba "SlBnrtartl Practical Peaman- 
■hlp," will both be mailed with the flnt copy o( the 


The CeDtennial Piotore of Progren SSjSS. 

•• Floaridbed Eagle 24x33. 

;■ BouBdinir Stag Mx^ 

■' Gaifleld Memori'aJ \9i^. 

" Marriage Certificat* - 18»aa, 

JOUHSAi. and premium one year, and forward, by return 
of mail to the wnder, a copy of "Congdoo'. Nunnal 
Syitem of Ploim.biDg." 
For three name, and 93 we will forward the.large Cen. 

prfc* 95. Or. a copy of •William* Si Packardi Geiig 
«t PeamaaBb^"; rei^I» for »5. 


The JOURNAL will be iMued aa nearly b* poMlhle on 




ptiona to the P 
any of our pub 











New Yore, 

March, 1884. 

Chirographic Cluhs. 

Id many of our cities and large villages 
are dow organized clubs, whose primary 
|iurpoee is to promote the v^auae of good 
writing. This is a very commeDdable idea. 
There is scarcely a village of five thousand 
iDhabitante in America which does uut con- 
tain a sufficient number of persons inter- 
ested in good writing, as teachers, learners, 

esting club. And why not let this interest 
serve as a basis for organization and asso- 
ciation as effective as base-hall, cricket, 
whist, and many other things of a far less 
utility, but which are honored with clubs in 
nearly every town and hamlet in the land. 
Not only may such clubs be made powerful 
incentives and aids to good writing, but 
they may also partalie of a social and liter 
ary character, and thus be the instrumen- 
talities of doing great good in many direc- 
tions to all their members. Nut only would 
such cluha be serviceable directly to their 
members, but indirectly to the whole com- 
munity ; for they tend to popularize good 
«^ting not alone for its utility, but aa an 
juDmplishmeut. A good and well-con- 
do«ted clnb, in all our large cities and vil- 
l^BB, would Boon create a popular eothusi- 

asm in favor of good writing that would 
reach our school-teachers with demands not 
to be passed unheeded for more effective in- 
Btruotione in writing. 

G-reat manual skill in any art is only the 
senuence of a preconceived ideal. Cunning 
handiwork is performed only at the behest 
of the more canning and skillful contriver 
— the mind. Thus, if the mind can be brought 
to conceive and think perfect ideals, the 
hand will be skillfully guided, and will tend 
always higher and higher toward their re- 

Now, the disoussioD and comparison of 
different systems and styles of writing in 
club-rooms will serve as one of the most ef- 
fective means for the cultivation of a correct 
taste, and the formation of high ideals of 
good writing, at the same time that the as- 
sociations will tend to enkindle and foster an 
enthusiasm and care in practice that will 
lead on to certain improvement in writing. 

We shall be pleased to extend any aid in 
our power to promote the organization and 
interest of chirographic clubs, and to pub- 
lish from time to time items of interest 
which they may furnish to the Journal. 
We believe that every special teacher of 
writing in public or private schools should 
at once initiate a movement for a olub. He 
may thus not only promote his own pro- 
fessional and social interest, but that of 
the canse of good writing. Certainly he can 
do nothing that would tend more to popu- 
larize and dignify his calling. We shall be 
glad to hear from the fraternity upon this 

Public School Penmanship. 

Editor of the Tribune: Sir, I am as 
patriotic as Alderman Duffy and quite aa 
indignant at the needless employment of 
foreign labor, but I wish to mention a small 
piece of personal experience. I have jui 
had occasion to have copied an important 
manuscript. I sent to several offices for 
specimens of handwriting, presumably from 
public-school graduates, though I did not 
stipulate for such. The penmanship was in 
every instance so unfit for the purpose of 
engrossing, that I was at last obliged to 
employ " a British subject," whose clear and 
elegant chirography made him the success- 
ful competitor. Alderman Duffy should 
look to it that the children in the public- 
schools are taught somethiug better than 
mere copy-hook "systems." If we are to 
exclude the Chinese and the " British sub- 
ject" from our industries, we mnst see that 
our youth are aa well trained. 

Youra respectfully, 

John Smith 
Orange, N. J., Feb. 14th, 1884. 

We clip the foregoing item from the 
daily JHhune for the purpose of comment. 
In it John Smith expresses u feeling shared 
extensively by all classes of patrons of our 
public schools, viz., that writing is very in- 
differently taught. A writer in a late num- 
ber of the Teacliers^ Institute says, and 
we believe truly, " If other branches of our 
English education were taught as poorly aa 
penmanship, the cry would go up cursed 
be the schools of our country." And why 
is it that writing, which is universally ad- 
mitted to he one ol the most useful of all 
attainments, is thus neglected? First and 
chiejly this is due to the indifference or in- 
competence (if Bchool officers and boards for 
examination of candidates for public school 
teachers ; by them good writing seems to 
be ridiculously viewed as a sort of a spec- 
ial gift. Blest be he who possesses it, and 
unfortunate but blameless he who dues not; 
for, not having the "gift," he is no more 
responsible for bis senseless scrawls than for 
the length of his nose or the color of his 
eyes and hair. Who ever knew a certificate 
to be withheld from a candidate for teaching 
from his bad writing or incompetouce to 
teach. Can teachers be expected to attach 
any very great importance to the result of 
their teaching in a branch, ao trivial in its 
importance as to be scarcely considered 
in determining their fitness to become a 
teacher? The general impression seems to 
be that having the gift, a pupit is bound ul- 
timately to become a good writer in spite of 
bad teaching; and not having it, good 

teaching is wasted. Why trouble ourselves 
about a thing the fates have already fixed T 
And were this ridiculous idea a known and 
demonstrated fact, many school-boards and 
teachers could scarcely give themselves less 
concern about writiog than they do now. 

In order that writing should be efficiently 
and successfully taught, school officers, 
teachers and parents must oome to the sen- 
aible and true conclusion that good writing 
depends no more upon a special gift than 
any other branch of education, and can as 
certainly be acquired aa can proficiency in 
any other branch; and would-be teachers 
must be held respouEible alike for their own 
bad writing and the poor results of their 
teaching. The chief talent for good writing, 
as in all other studies, is stick- to-it-ive-ness. 
Good copies must be carefully studied, and 
patiently practiced ; and with the proper 
attentitm to position and movement, no pu- 
pil having common sense and one good 
hand should fail to write a good hand. 

While we have thus taken Mr. John 
Smith for our text and become his advocate, 
we must not lose sight of one phase of his 
complaint, which we by no means desire to 
defend, viz., that our public schools should 
graduate engrossers ; also, his insinuation 
against the style of writing taught in the 
words " mere copy-book systems." First, 
that which is generally recognized as a good 
hand for engrossing is a specialty nearly as 
much as is the Chancery hand, the German 
text, or old English, and should be no mure 
taught in a public school. In the business 
and social world we often bear writing 
classed as businesf, corresponding, engros- 
ing, clerky, literary hands, etc. Now, the 
peculiarity of style which gives rise to 
those various designations grows out of ex- 
periences and occupations of after years, 
and are no more to be known or recognized 
in the class-room than are the various pro- 
pations into which the 

Now, as regards the copy-book system, 
that it might not be improved we do not 
say ; but that it is really excellent, and an 
immeasurable improvement over the old 
method, wherein each teacher placed be- 
fore the pupil the varying scrawls of their 
hands for copies, we do affirm. The first 
requisite fur successful teaching and practice 
of writing is good and uniform copies. In 
this respect, copy-books at present used in 
our schools are vastly superior to any writ- 
ten copies, and through their aid, with 
skillful illustrations and criticisms by a 
teacher with some enthusiasm upon the 
subject, no pupil need fail to acquire a good 
copy-book style of writing, which will be a 
good base for any of the different styles 
desired, and may soon be modified and 
adapted to any of the specific purposes. 

pupil may e 

How to Become Proficient 
Writers and Teachers. 

Who has not heard over and over the re- 
mark, iu connection with learning to write, 
that "practice makes perfect"? And 
what teacher has not suffered annoyance 
from endeavoring to teach pupils how to 
write, who could never be induced to do 
more than to thoughtlessly and carelessly 
practice, or, rather, repeat the copy placed 
before them I In which case the falsity of 
the assertion that " practice makes per- 
fect " was painfully manifest. 

Practice to end in success must be with 
studious care. The object of all practice 
should be to overcome faults aud to acquire 
facility of motion with the pen. Now, no 
fault can be corrected or overcome until it 
is first discovered and its exact character 
understood; and this can only be done by 
thoughtful criticism, a searching examina- 
tion of efforts previously made. The most 
effective method for this is to analyze one's 
writing according to prescribed rules and 
priuoiples. We thus not only discover our 
faults, but the eye and judgmect become 
ediioated respecting form, proportion, spac- 
ing, fiUnt, shade, and, all the essentials of 
good writing, which, united with persistent 

practice, will certainly lead to a good hand- 

It is through such analysis that there 
comes to be formed in the mind a correct 
and excellent ideal of writing, which the 
hand, as the willing implement of the mind, 
will ultimately acquire skill requisite tor 
transcribing. Practice will make perfect it 
we think perfection while we practice. 

nyfltery. Schoolho^ 

king, w, 

ipletely subject t 

Modern vs. Ancient. 

" There is nothing new under the «ud " 
was a very unwise remark of a reputedly 
wise old king. Yet how often has it been 
repeated, apparently in the sincerity of be- 
lief, by cavilers at the host of innovations 
that have ever since been coming iu confiict 
with ancient doctrines and beliefs respect- 
ing every branch of human thought and 
eigned, the man 

object of curiosity and 
id education for 
Bes were unknown, nor did the 
people possess a right to property, 
tr even life itself, that he, as their 
ipect. They were as 
he will and caprice of 
the king as were bis sheep and oxen. No 
law or power stood between them and bis 
will and purposes. The lives and welfare 
of an entire people were as nothing when 
weighed in the balance against the pleasore 
and purpose of a king. 

Solomon with all his wisdom and glory 
uever saw a printed book or a newspaper- 
He never heard of a post-office, sent a tel- 
egram, or talked through a telephone. He 
never rode on a rail-car, steamship, or any 
other conveyance equal in comfort and con- 
venience to a modern lumber-wagon. He 
never saw au iron plow, a power -loom, 
or mariner's compass. While the Mrs. 
Solomons never saw a range with hot and 
cold water — to say nothing of a sewing- 
machine, a patent washer, or clothes- 

A single regiment of m 

BO, armed with 

modern implements of war 

would pnt to 

almost instant flight the 

most numerous 

army Kjng Solomon ever s 

iw, if armed as 

were the warriors of bis tin 

e. No subject 

of his kingdom ever enjoyeil the privilege 
of a trial by jury, and not even his wisest 
men ever presumed that the earth was other 
than a vast flat surface, around which the 
sun, moon and stars revolved every twenty- 
four hours, and that they were, as they ap- 
pear, mere tiny objects, existing simply as 
attendants, and for the convenience ot the 
earth. Sulomun veritably believed in the 
ends of the earth, and that rain was poured 
from the windows of heaven. Thunder was 
to him the voice of a disturbed deity. 
Comets and meteors were heavenly messen- 
gers presaging war, famine, pestilence, or 
other dire calamities, which were deemed 
to be the judgments of an offended deity. 

"Ames's Guide to Self-instruction 

in Practical and Artistic 


The issue of this work was delayed some 
two weeks beyond the time mentioned in 
the February number; but it is now ready, 
and all orders will be filled by return of 
mail. During a single week nearly one thou- 
sand have been sold and mailed as pre- 
miums to subscribers to the Journal, and 
we are certain that our patrons will unani- 
mously pronounce this boob the moat thor- 
oughly practical and useful to teachers and 
learners, and especially lo home and office 
learners, yet published. Single copies, by 
mail, in paper, 75 cents. Handsomely 
bound in stiff' covers and gold stamp, $1. 
Mailed, as a premium ( iu paper ), free to 
every subscriber remitting $1 for one year's 
subscription to the Journal, and full bound 
for $1.25. _^ 

Slmgle copies of the Journal sent on 
receipt of price, 10 oeata. 





Th« above out ib plioto-eDgraved from pen-and-ink copy, executed at the office of tlie Journal, and 
Penmansbip." Thia is the must comprehensive and practical guide, in the entire range of the penmaD'H art, e 
of Off-Iiand Floui-isbiug, upward of forty Blandard and oruate alphabets — two of which are represented above- 
iftlK, certilicaies, title pages, etc., etc.; in all, $R^'ENTY 11x14 inch plates. It contains numerous examples 
mailed free, as a premium, to the sender of a club ot twelve subscribers and $ld to the "Journal." 
be at liberty to return it, and we will refund to them ibe full amount paid. 

part of a page of Ames's new "Compendium of Practical and Artistic 
id, comprising a complete course of instruction in Plaiu Writing, a full course 
-- ■— - ty 11x14 plates of commercial designs, engrossed resolu ' 

The King Club 

For this month nambera sixty-itoo, and 
comes from the Speocerian BasiDess Col- 
lege, Milwaukee, Wis. 

The Queen Club numbers ^/iy-m'ne, and 
was sent by W. W. Bennett, penman at 
the Spencerian Business College, Cleveland, 

The third club in size numbers fifis/six, 
and is sent by L. Asire, penman at Archi- 
bald's Business College, Minneapolis, Minn. 

One numbering forty-six was spnt by J. 
Howard Keeler from the Grand Kapids 
(Mich.) Business CoUege. One of thirhj- 
four by F. P. Preuitt, principal of Pre- 
uitt's Fort Worth (Texas) Business Col- 
lege. Thirtt/ from W. H. Patrick, pen- 
man at Sadler's B. & S Business College, 
Baltimore, Md. Twenty-five from W. R. 
tilen, penman at Rider's Trenton ( N. J.) 
Business College. Sixteen from A. C. 
Jones, penman at Nelson's Business Col- 
lege, Springfield, 0. 

Smaller clubs have been very numerous 
— never before equalled in the history of 
the Journal. To all who have thus 
given such substantial evidence of their 
appreiriatiou of, anJ good will toward, the 
Journal, we return thanks, and assure 
them that we shall earnestly endeavor to 
give full reciprocation for the growing pa- 
tronage of the Journal through its own 

Who should Subscribe ior the 


Every lady or gentlomaii who would 

make an effort for the improvement of their 

writing at home or in their jiIbcc of husi- 

Every teacher and pupil of wriling in mir 

Every parent who has aoua or daughters 
whom he would have become more inter- 
ested or efficient in their writing. 

Every school-officer who would he fa- 
miliar with tlie highest standards of writing 
and best methods for its instruction. 

Every admirer of good practical or ar 
tic penmanship. 

The January Issue Exhausted. 

So unexpectedly numerous have been 
subscribers since January, who wished to 
begin with the year, that the several thou- 
sand copies reserved (or back numbers have- 
been entirely exhausted ; but in order that 
the course of writing-lessons by Prof. Hin- 
man, which began in that number, may still 
be complete to those who may in future wish 
to begin with the year, we shall at once 
reprint that portion of the January number 
containing the lesson, together with cuts 
showing copies, reduced in size, of six of 
our premiums, viz., the Bounding Stag, 
Spread Eagle, Garfield Memorial, Lord's 
Prayer, Family Record, and Marriage Cer- 

Business-writing Again. 

The Penman's Art Journal for Janu- 
ary conuins the lirst of A. H. Hinuiau'e writ- 
ing-lessons, in which he lays out his work and 
measures somewhat the ground he proposes 
to go over. Hinman is a splendid penman, 
a strong, original teacher and a fearless 
writer, and if he does not dig up something 
fresh and new on the subject of teaching 
writing we are mistaken in the man. The 
Art Journal is very wise in getting such 
teachers as H. C. Spencer and A. H. Hin- 
man to conduct the writing-lessons. 

The Record missed the historical article 
from R. C. Spencer, and hopes the readers 
of the Art Journal may urge the writer 
to continue them until the subject is com- 
plete. The story of P. R. Spencer's life, and 
relation to the subject of writing, should be 
told now, and no more suitable person can 
he found to tell the story than R. C. Spen- 
cer of Milwaukee. 

The Art Journal has lately contained 
some good thoughts on the subject of 
"Practical-writing," by which we presume 
it means "husinees-writing." We wish 
some of the wise men among the business 
educators would explain just the difference 
between " practical-writing " and " business- 
Why is it that while the Art Journal 
and other penman's papers insist so strong- 
ly upon the supreme importance of practi- 
cal or business writing, they very peldom — 
indeed, if ever — present an illustration of 
Simon-pure business-writing? They have 
little trouble in presenting every form and 
style of ornamental or artistic penmanship, 
but why such a scarcity of business- writing t 
If none of the penmen can produce such a 

specimen, then let them borrow a slip of 
real business - writing from some book- 
keeper, correspondent or business manager 
wh(» is known in business circles as a good 
business writer. Failing in this, let them 
call upon the students of the business de- 
partment of the Jacksonville Business Col- 
lege, and secure a few specimens of business- 
writing, with which to illustrate the subject. 
Business- writing, according to the penman- 
ship publications, is a thing to talk about, 
but never to see. What says the Penman's 
Art JouRtiXhl— Jacksonville (III.) Col- 
lege Record. 

At the close of an article on " Business- 
writing," in- the December number of the 
Journal, we extended an invitation to 
teachers and others to express their opin- 
ions upon that subject, and also upon our 
manner of treating it ; and we now extend 
an invitation to all — which, of course, in- 
cludes Brother Brown — to forward speci- 
mens of their business writing, or that of 
any otlier persons, which present their 
highest ideal of good bueiness-writiiig; also 
specimens of copies which, in their exper- 
ience or judgment, are the best calculated 
to enable the pupil to acquire such a hand. 
If such specimens are written with good 
black ink, we will endeavor to give them a 
showing in the Journal. 

Our Kxchanges. 

Satvyer^s Universal Penman, after a sus- 
pense of nine months, comes with all the 
assurance of a regular visitor in good stand- 
ing, without apology or even an allusion to 
its long absence; hut, upon the other hand, 
its editor invites notice from the Journal, 
through an article headed "A Jealous 
Spirit and the U. P.," from which we quote, 
as follows : 

The jealous spirit ( t ) who presides over 
the destinies of au excellent American pen- 

, the 

rapid and steady growth of the Univ< 
Penman into popular favor and usefulness, 
and tries to carry a false impression to his 
little constituency as to the permanency of 
our enterprise. To this malicious Attack 
we would simply reply that our paper has 
been published since March, 1878. ... It 
holds a position in Canada among high- 
class j ouruals, at once imposing and nnique. 
. . . . Really we are surprised that an Amer- 

ican editor should be so blinded by his prej- 
udice or jealousy. 

Now, this is a rather long and severe, if 
not wicked, indictment, and it has several 
counts, lo each of whicli we are, of course, 
called upon to plead. 

First, to that of "jealousy" we enter a 
full and compU'te denial. A thing that has 
been undeniably a corpse for the past nine 
months could scarcely excite our jealousy 
" through its rapid and steady growth," al- 
though, as one of the mourners, we might 
be open to the charge of being "grieved." 

Second, to the charge of " presiding over 
the destinies of an excellent penman's 
journal" we see no escape from a plea of 

Third, to the charge of trying to convey 
false impressions, etc., we plead not guilty, 
claiming full Justification for all we have 
said by facts. Month after month the U. P. 
failed to come, and three notes of inquiry 
failed to bring it, or an explanation, while 
numerous inquiries came to us from persons 
who had sent their money for subscription, 
but could neither get the paper nor a re- 
sponse to their letters; and now. greatly to 
his discredit, Mr. Sawyer mails the first 
number of his new resurrection as if it wore 
a regular issue, with no explanation for the 
long suspense, but rather chooses to hurl all 
manner of charges against us for venturing 
to furnish, through the columns of the 
Journal, /(ic(,* for which he should have 
offered au explanation and apology. 

To convey au idea of the venerableness 
of the U. P., its editor says that it has been 
published since March, 137S. Now, since 
that date there have been seventy - one 
months, calling for as many numbers of the 
U. P.; but this latest resurrection is num- 
bered fifty. The editor thus unwittingly 
furnishes a clue to the number of months 
( twenty-one ) that bis enterprising sheet has 
passed in hibernation since the date of its 
first issue, an aggregate of neariy one-third 
of the numbers during its pretended exist- 
ence skijtped, and, according to our files and 
information, its claim to fifty issues in eev- 
enty-cte months is all that facts will war- 
rant; bo: that would undoubtedly be ample 
to justify its editor's modest but undonbtedly 

trulhral claim fi<r it, a position at ooce 
" imposing aod unique " amongst tbe bigh- 
clae» Caoadiao journals." 

Nuvr, for the fioat charge that we are 
bliuded bj " {trpjudice," etc., this is simply 
the editor's mistake. We are without prej- 
udice or ill-will toward the U. P. or it« edi- 
tor; but, upon the other band, we have 
flDtortiiiued the kiudliest feelioga toward 
both, as has been ovideoced by the many 
friendly notices which have appeared from 
time to time in the Journal, as well as 
our long forbearance to mention or comment 
upon the capricious appearance of the U. 
P. And finally our advice to the editor of 
the l^. P. ie to make a truthful statement 
<if the facts, offer a suitable apology to bis 
patron, and then publish his paper accord- 
ing to projjraniiiie, or make a manly anounce- 
meiit of bis innbility to do so. and then quit. 
And should bo succfed in tbe former, we 
beg to assure him that he will find no more 
courteous and friendly contemporary than the 
Journal. In a good and reliable Canadian 
penman's paper, the Journal would recog- 
nize a powerful friend and ally rather than 
a dangerous rivftl and foe. 

Iltald'$ Business College Journal, San 
Francisco, Cal., is published monthly, and 
i» among our most entertaining and spright- 
ly exchanges. 

The Chirographer, published, monthly, 
by K. K. Isaacs, per $1 a year, at Valpa- 
riso, Ind., is a well-ediled and interesting 
paper devoted to peumansbip. In each 
numher are well-illustrated lessons in flour- 
ishing and lettering. 

The College Journal is published, month- 
ly, undi-r tbe auspices of Willamette Uni- 
versity, Salem, Oregon, at $1 per year. It 
coutftius inucb interesting editorial matter 
relating to educ;itiou on the Pacific coast. 

The Educationist is an education month- 
ly, published at Topeka, Kan., for $1 per 
It is sprightly, and full of interesting 

The Illustrative is a beautifully illustrated 
quiirterly art jourual, lately issued by the 
Moss Engraving Cu. of this city, at fifty 
cents per year. The first issue ( January ) 
contains fac simile reproductions of fourteen 
interesting and beautiful works of art. It 
is printed in the highest style of the art, on 
H fine quality of paper. We are sure that 
every number of this publication will be a 
rare treat to all lovers of art. 

Clark^s Commercial College Journal, Erie, 
I'u., is a fine-Hppearing college paper, well 
printed, and edited with creditable ability. 

The School Journal, published weekly 
for $2 per year, by E. L. Kellogg & Co., 
21 Park Place, New York, is one of the 
leading educational journals of the country. 
Every number contains a fund of informa- 
tiim of use and interest to teachers. 

The leacher's Institute is also published 
by Messrs. Kellogg & Co., monthly, for $1 
per year. It is devoted largely to Institute 
\v..rk, and is an interesting and valuable 
eiliu-jitiitiial publication. 

The School Bulletin is published, month- 
ly, !>y C. W. Bardeon, Syracuse, N. Y., at 
$1 per year. It is oue of the best conducted 
educational papers of the times, containing 
interestiiip school items from all parts of 
the Empire State. 

The Business College Record, Jackaon- 
ville, 111., is a;n(mg the most interesting 
and valuable of our exchanges. Although 
it hae sometimes been slightly mixed on 
tlie subject of business writing, it averages 

The Cosmopolitan Shorthand Writer, by 
Hongough and Yeick, at Toronto, Canada, 
for $1 per year, is a spicy and interesting 
plionogniphio uiHgazine. Its illustraUons 
are amusing and highly suggestive. 

The Educational Journal of Virginia is 
Jiu iutorc5ting educational paper. Pub- 
lished, monthly, by Wm. F. Fox and R. 
11. Par, at Richmond, Va., for $1 per year. 

The Rochester (N. Y.) Commercial Re- 
view, published by Messrs. Williams and 
I Rogers, of the Rochester Business Univer- 
sity, bas no superior among the college pa- 
pers of the times. Its columns are filled 
with sensible matter, edited with ability, 
and printed in good style. It is a live ex- 
poneut of a live intitilution. 

Home School and Business is the title of 
a fine-appearing four-page sheet, lately 
issued by Dell Morse, 79 Madison Street, 
Chicago, for fifty cents per year. 

Journal of Education, New Orleans, La., 
is a thirty-six-pnged msgazino containing 
much valuable information relating to 
schools and education in the South. It is 
finely printed and well edited. Mailed for 
$1.50 per year. 

The Sc/tool Supplement is an educational 
monthly — the first number of which is 
before us, and is one uf the most interest- 
ing of our exchanges. It has twelve pages, 
same size as Journal, and about the same 
quality of paper; the typography is excel- 
It is No. 1 in a double sense. Published 
by Eaton, Gibson & Co,, Toronto, Canada, 
for $1 a year. 

Conspicuous among our educational ex- 
changes is the Canadian School Journal, 
published, monthly, by W. J. Gage &. Co., 
Toronto, Canada, for $1 per year. It is a 
well-edited and able exponent of educa- 
tional matters in the Dominion. 

The Stenographic Messenger, by Mr. 
Stanislas Dluesky Kciti' { Russia ), is a 
handsome eixteen-paged magazine devoted 
to the interests of shorthand. In its pros- 
pectus it is announced as tbe only periodi- 
cal devoted to shorthand in all Russia. The 
subscription price is six roubles ($3 00) 
per year. 

The Exponent, by George Cross, A.M., 
and George Yeager, M.A., Bloomington, 
111., is a monthly publication, devoted to 
tlte interest of tbe eclectic system of short- 
hand, of which Mr. Cross is the author. It 
is a magazine that canuot fail to be of 
interest to all ehorthanders. Terms, $2 
per year. 

Brown's Phonographic Monthly, for 
February, is, in its typographical appear- 
ance, far better than usual. D. L. Scott 
Brown is its presiding genius, at 23 Clinton 
Placp, New York. Mailed one year for $2. 
Single cojiies twenty cents. 

Tbe Notre Dame Scholastic is published, 
weekly, under the auspices of tbe Noire 
Dame { Ind.) College, tor $l..^0 per year. 
It is among the best edited of our ex- 
changes, while it ia chiefly devoted to col- 
lege matters. Each number containa sev- 
eral pages of well-written editoriala of 
general interest. 

The Agenfs Herald, Philadelphia, Pa., 
is apparently impressed with the belief that 
it has a mission, and that to expose and 
fight fraudulent advertising. It certainly 
deserves praise for the fearless and ener- 
getic manner in whicb it sets about its mis- 

The Practical Educator, Ly H. A. Mu- 
maw, Elkhart, Ind., is publisbed, quarterly, 
for twenty-five cents per year. It is a de- 
cidedly interesting little sheet. 

The Student's Journal, published by A.J. 
Graham, at 744 Broadway, New York, for 
$2 per year, is the ablest and most enter- 
taining of tbe uumerous phonographic 
journals that reach our office. Probably 
no American has brought to bear upon 
shorthand greater ability and industry, or 
ibuted more to advance the interest 
tandard of shorthand, than Prof. Gra- 
ham, and anyone interested in shorthand 
■ill do well to send for his Journal A 
nglo copy may be had for 20 cents. 

Remember, you can get the Journal 
le year, and a 7.5-cent book free, for $1 ; 
a $1 book and tbe Jocbnal for $1.25. 
Do yonr frienda a favor by telling them. 

Wm. E. Bealy \» conducting a penmanship 
iuBlitutiou at La Grunge, Jnd. 

A. D. Cbiebolin, principti of Caenovia 
( Mich.) High School, has a special evening 
olase in writing, numbering fifty pupils. 

C. C. Cochran, who Iibh for several years 
past been principal of comratrcial department 
of Central High School, FittBburgh, Pa., is 
about to go Weet to engage in other business, 
whither he will carry tbe best wishes of many 
warm friends, among whom we wish to be 
uumbere!. H« requeela us 1o say to those 
who have eent autpgrapha for exchange thai 
they will receive attention as soon as he ia 
again located. 

A. J. Rider, proprietor of the Trenton 
(N. J.) RuBinesB College, has issued an ele- 
gant iiitle pamphlet, entitled, "A Souvenir of 
the Eighleeulh Anniversary and Commence- 
ment " of that Insiitulion. 

W. B. Heilocker is teaching large claeees in 
writing atFreeporl, III. He ie an accomplished 
writer, and is deserving of hid success. 

In a former issue we mentioned Mr. James 
W. Westervelt as special teacher of writing in 
public schools of Woodstock, Ontario, which 
is a mistake. He is tbe principal of a buBine*B 
college in that city. 

In a late number uf the Union City ( Pa.) 
Times, we find a highly complimentary notice 
of a specimen of penmBnehip executed by Prof. 
N. R. Luce. It is deecribed as follows : 


down together,"' etc., and very beaulihillvVoi 
trays tbe lesson. " 

As a woik of art it is replete with aitislic 
excellence, and exiiibila the fact that Prof. 
Luce stands without a rival in his masterly 
skill and power over tbe pen. This is a fine 
piece of BlipplH work in which light and shade 
-_. derfuUy blended, piodueing a masterly 

Prof. Luce ia an enthusiastic disciple of P. 
R. Spencer, Sr., of whom he received instruc- 
tions in tbe Log Academy (Jericho) at Geneva, 

J. E. Soule, of tbe B. & S. Business College, 
Philadelphia, Pa., ia the deserving "victim" 
of a growing prosperity, and, therefore, needs 
more aBsistauce. Any young man qualified for 
a good position will do well to read Mr. Soule's 
advertisement in another column. 

L. Madaraez seems to be about as much of 
an autocrat in the card-writing business as ia 
Barunm among showmen, and, for the same 
reason, both give the worth of the money. If 
you want a curd ae nice as a card can be, eend 
to Madaraaz. Sevei'al letters and card speci- 
mens received from bis pen are among the very 
finest specimens we have ever seen. 

J. B. McKay, special teacher of writing in 
the sshuols of Kingston, Ont., writes a hand- 
some letter, and sends several specimens of 
writing exhibiting tbe improvement made by 
pupils during a period of less than five mouths. 
The specimens are highly creditable to teacher 
and pupils. From the number we are requested 
to designate the oue which exhibits the greatest 
mprovement — that, in our judgment, ia the 
one written by Master Frank Auglin. 

Geo. E. Levy, Richmond, Va., writes a 
baudaome letter, in whicb he says: "Have just 
had the numbers of tbe Jouknal from May, 
It?8a, to January, 1883, bound, and a more per- 
fect seleoiiou of matter relating to penmanship 
could not, in my judgment, have been selected. 
The Journal is worth five and twenty timea 
its subscription price to me, and many others, 
I Buppose; and it is due to the Journal alone 
that I have made such improvement in ray 
penmanship in the last two years." 

G. P. Farley, lately will, G. A. Gaskell, of 
Jersey City, N. J., ia having good suuceae 
teaching wriling-cIasBes at Rockvllle, Conn., 
and vicinity. Mr. Fariey is a good writer and 
brimfull of tlu) suanter in modo ; juel the man 
to take with lada and lasaea. 

E. H. Heald, proprietor of Heald'a Business 
College. San Francisco, Cal., has regained his 
health which for some yeara past bus been 

A. A. Clark, special teacher of writing in 
tbe public schools of Cleveland, Ohio, in a 
beantifully-written letter, sayB: "I know of 
nothing that gives as liberal returns for bo 
small an investment ae that of your valuable 
Journal. I have all ibe numbers since its 
publication; they have cost me $0.75, and 
could not be bought for ten times that sum, if 
they could not be replaced, 

Geo. K, Lansing eent twenty-seven speci- 
mens of writing by as many pupils, ranging 
from nine to thirteen years of age, members of 
hiB writing-claBB at the Academy, Mediua, N. Y. 
We have rarely seen so many really excellent 
specimens from one cla?8 of pupiU to young; 
Ihey give evidence of elHcient work by both 
pupils and teacher. Mr. LaUBlng is a fine 
writer, and evidently unites with his writing, 
skill and a genius for teaching. 

H. W. Wesco, who bas for some years past 
conducted the penmanship department of the 
Portland ( Oregon ) Biisiueee College, is about 
to retire from the profesaion of penmanship for 
that of music; hence, there is a vacancy for a 
good teacher. Those wishing to apply can ad- 
dress, A. P. Armstron;^, Principal, Portland, 
Orpgnn. ' 

[ Persons sending specimens for notice in 
this column should see that the packages con- 
taining the same are postage paid in full at 
lelUr raUt. A large proportion of these pack- 
ages come short paid, for sume ranging from 
three cents upward, which, of coui-se, we are 
obliged to pay. This is scarcely a desirable 
conBideration for a gratuitous notice.] 


, pen 

E. M. Huntainger, Providence (R. I.) Busi- 
ness College, a letter. 

J. W. Harkins, o( Hinman's Worcester 
(Mass.) Busitiess College, a letter. 

W. L. ParkB, La Moile, Ul., a letter. 

W. R. Gleu, of tbe Trenton (N. J.) Busi- 
ness College, an elegautly-written letter. 

A. G. Coonrod, Minneapolis (Minn.) Acad- 
emy, a letter, with club of ten subscribers for 

A, C. Webb, Nashville (Tenn.) Institute of 
Penmanehip, a letter, fiourished bird, and 

W. Y, Chambers, Cornell University, Muuul 
Vernon, Iowa, a letter. 




W. E. Pope, ColumbuB ( O.) BuBineae 

lege, a fiourished bird, and Bet uf capitals. 

Wm. H. Watson, Chelaea, Vt., a letter. 

Frank P. Lolz, Baltimore, Md., a letter. 

. Ilour- 

Maiy A. Philip, Waukesha, Wis., informa 
us that in a former issue we. made the mistake 
of crediting her with a letter written by her 
brother Robert, of Sacrameulo, Cal. We make 
the correction, but 

Mary's elegantly-^ 
was not misplaced 

I letter, that tbe credit 
miugtou, N. Y., a lel- 

J. D. Briant, Racelaud, La., a 
birds and flourishing. 

A. W. Dakin, Tully, a fine 
epistolary writing. 

C. W. Slooum, Chilliootbe, Obii 

J. H. Bryant, Spenoerian Business College, 
Washington, D. C, several beautiful card 

Mort Smith, Utica, N. Y,, a letter and fiour- 
ished birds. 

Lil j*-JusIs/l^'7~^: 

W. A. JuFKeD". Newporl, R. I., a letter, in 
which be aaye : "I take iliree otlier papert, 
but lb» Journal is the best and the cheapest, 
and would lie, sbou'd you raise its price to that 
of all the others combined. 

G. Thompson, of the Liverpoor(Eng. ) Bus- 
iness Collegt*. a letter. 

A. J. Taylor, Taylor's Rochester ( N. Y.) 
RiiaiiieSH College, s. letter. 

E. L. Burnett, penman of the Elmira ( N. Y.) 
Business College, a Honrished bird, a photo- 
graph of a very fine specimen of pen drawing, 
entitled. "Moses and the PrinceB"; also a 
plioly of his own winning face. 

A. M. P. Droniu, Sle. Famille d'Orleaus, 
Quebec, a most elegantly- written letter. 

Cbas. Kelley. Nasby, Mo., a letter andflour- 
ii^hed quill. 

R. S. Collins, Goodman's Business College, 

Nashville, Tenn 

. Mil 

C. G. Prince, Aroherht, Ohii 

letter and 

D. McLftchlan, of the Canada BusiuesB Col- 
lege, Ontario, a most elegantly-written letter, 
and list of subscribers to the Jouknai.. 

G. Huret, Lebanon, Pa.; a letter and oards. 

L. Madaraaz. card-writer, New York, several 
superbly-written letters, and elegatitoard speci- 

C. T. Marsli. London, N. H., a letter, cards, 
and set of capithla. 

T. .1. Risinger. Spenceriau BuBinees College, 
Detroit, Micb., a letter. He says: "Count me 
215 pounds avoirdupois solid, for the JoUR- 

J. W. HarkiuB, Hinman's Business College, 
Worcester, Mass., a letter, and a photo of a fine 
ppecimen of lettering and drawing. 

B. M. Worthingion, Lake Side Business Col- 
lege, Chicago, III., a letter in superior style. 

F. P. Preuitt, Fort Worth, Texas, a letter. 

It. A. Stoddard. Rockport ( 111.) Business 
College, a letter and club of subsoribers. 

D. H. Farley, professor of penmanship and 
book-keeping in the Female Norma! College, 
Trenton, N. J., a letter. 

R. W. Cobb, Champaign (III.) Business 
College, a letter and club of subBcribere. 

J. W. Swank, Washington, D. C, Treasury 
Department, a letter. 

William J. Altherr, a student at Cady's Me- 
tropolitan Business College, N. Y., a letter and 
several specimens of plain writing. Mr. All- 
herr's hand is so greatly deformed as to pre- 
sent, apparently, an insuperable obstacle to 
his handling the pen. Yet he has triumphed 
over misfortune, and now presents a hand 
whose symmetry and ease a majority of his 
companions, blessed with a symmetrical right- 
hand, may well envy, but strive in vain to 

J. P. DoDald, with the "Willard Tract So- 
ciety," Boston, Mass., a letter. 

E. C. CrichtoD, Atlanta, 6a., a flourished 

E. K. leaacfl, editor of ChiroffrapJter, Valpa- 
raisu, Ind., a letter. 

S. A. Drake, principal of Clark's Tilusville 
( Pa.) Bueiness College, a. letter. 

G. T. Oplbger, Slalington, Pa., a Family 
Record and Marriage Certificate combined, 
engraved from pen-and-ink deeign by Mr. 
Oplinger. The print ia on heavy card-board, 
23x28. It is an ingenious and interesting 

W, K. Glen, penman at Rider's Trenton 
(N. J.) Business College, an elegantly- written 

If you desiro to have the very best aid to 
self-iinprovement in practical and artistio 
penmanBhip, send sevouty-five cetits for 
Ames's "Guide to Self-iustructicin in Prac- 
tical Jind ArtL'itic PeumaDsliip" (in paper 
covers) or $1 for same nicely bound in 
thick covers. It tolls you all about writ- 
ing, nourishing and lettering, and how to 
learn. If you are not pleased with it you 
may return it, and we will refund the cash 
by returu mail. 

Position for Flourishing. 

A correspondent tisks if we will not ex- 
plain the position and manner of holding 
the pen for nourishing the Italian capitals. 
We comply, as, no doubt, the information 
will be valuable to many of our readers, and 
WG also give cuts illustrating position and 
an elegant sot of Italian capitals, reproduced 
from " Wimnms'a and Packard's Gems," and 
which also appear in our "New Guide to 


The cut below represents the correct 
position of the hand and pen while in the 
act of flourishing. 

It will be observed that the hand and 
pen is reversed so as to impart the shade 
to the upward or outward stroke of the 
pen, instead of tho downward or inward 
stroke, as in the direct or ordinary position, 
while writing. 

Sit square at the desk, as close as Is prac 
tical, and not touch it — the left liand resting 
upon and holding the paper in the proper 
position, which must be always io harmony 


We copy the following from the Albany 
Evening Journal, of February 2Ist. 

Lilian Brubn Folsom. 

Liist Friday Lilian Folsom was to all ap- 
pearances the embodiment of health. Sun- 
day night she passed over the dark waters, 
and yesterday her remains were laid "at 
rpst." To her father and mother the blow 
falls with crushing, aguniziog turco. Lilian 
was tho older of Professor Folsom's two 
daughters. She was to his home circle a 
light and joy that will bo missed sadly in- 
deed. We all love to think of the good 
qualities of departed friends; but words 
cannot describe the purity and beauty of 
childhood, or the borrow that comes to the 
parents' hearts when their child, just blos- 
soming into young womanhood, is ruthlf ss- 
ly snatched from them by tlie hand of 
death. When one like Lilian Folsom, of 
lovable, unassuming disposition and gen- 
tleness of character, is taken from the 
home, tho heart, indeed, bows down in sor- 
row unspealtable. 

Lilian was her father's almost constant 
companion, she gave piomise of a bright 
and talented womanho >d and upon her 
was laMshed all that a kind and loving 
father and mother ( ould bestow. She in 
return gave to them the 

with the position of tho hand and pen. 
Th«^ penholder is hold between the thumb 
and first and f.u-eSngors— the thumb press- 
ing upon tho holder about two inches from 
tho point of the pen. The first finger is 
bent at the centre joint, forming nearly a 
right angle, and is held considerably back 
of the s'cond finger, which rests upon tho 
under side of the bolder, about midway be- 
tween tho thumb and the point of the pen. 
The third finger rests upon tho fourth ; the 
nail of tho latter rests lightly upon the pa- 
per about one and a-half inches from the 
pen, in a straight line from its point, par- 
allel with the arm. The movement em- 
ployed is that ot the whole arm, which is 
obtained by raising the entire arm free from 
the table, resting the baud lightly upon the 
nail of the fourth finger— all motion of the 
arm being from tho shoulder, which gives 
the greatest freedom and scope to the move- 
mouts of tho pen. This same movement 
is used in striking wholearm capitals. The 
practice of tiourisliing will be found to 
gieatly add to the facility and grace of one's 
ordinary handwriting. What dancing is for 
imparting grace and ease of movement to 
tho body, tinurishing is to one's handwrit- 
ing. Its practice is thus of double import- 
ance, as a discipline to the hand, and as a 
separate accomplishment. 

questioning love of ihildhood, and it was 
hard to test which losed most or best, par- 
ents or child. 

The fair form of this loved one was 
scarcely less beautiful than the flowers that 
covered her casket (the gift of sympathiz- 
iog friends and college students). True, 
we know that God has only taken this fair 
blossom to the' home of perpetual bloom 
and sunshine. Yet, indeed, it was with sad 
hearts that we laid her to rest. 

We are sure that the readers of the 
JOUKNAL who have had the idcasuro of 
knowing Professor Folsom, will join us iu 
an earnest expression of sympathy in his 
very sad bereavement. 

Autograph Exchangers. 

In accordance with a suggestion in a 
previous numbtr, the following-named per- 
sons have signified their willingnci'S or de- 
sire to exchange autographs, upon the 
Peircerian plan, as set forth iu the August 
number of tho Journal : 

[ Shepherd 

. PiiUburgb. : 

H S. Taylor, Biuioees CuHege, Rooheil 

r, N. y. 

J W. WMtervelt. Wooddock. Onlnrio. 

H. K. HMletter. Box 1633, Sterling. Dl. 

C. W. Tollman, UilUdale. Mich. 

Randolph Appleby. Jr., Summit Ave., J 

er^eyCily. N. .1 

D. A. Welch, Medlurd, WU 

C. H. KimmiBg, IUS2 Watur St., Phila 


W. R. Fottm. Troy Grove, III. 

A.R, Kelley. careof Rilner-. RnBioeM Co! 

, Sl,Jo«eph,Mo 

W. L Maoe. Mound City Coiumeroial C.» 

B. F. Shaw. Plymouth, Maw. 

0. S. ComptoD, Pierce, Ohio. 

J. R. Duraell, Zenoria, III. 

W. T. Wolfe. Bryant's Buaioesi Col., St 

Joseph. Mo. 

Myron Ryder. Sherwood. Mieh. 

W. B. Shilling. Waihington, Kaa. 

w York. 


Chaa. H. Balx-ock, Bor aiiT. IlarMorfl. C 

Wm. RobmBon, Wasliago County, Simon 


C. B. McCIiire, MuDBonTille. N. U. 

W. T. Wiley. UoMaUou luotituie, Aarou 

Rook, Mo- 

Writing- Ruler. 

The Writing-Ruler has become a stand- 
ard article with those who profess to have a 
suitable outfit for practical writing. It is 
to the writer what the chart and compass is 
to the mariner. The Writiug-Kuler is a re 
liable penmanship chart and compass, sent 
by the Journal on receipt of 30 cents. 

Responsibility for Mail. 

The risk of sending properly directed mat- 
ter by mail is very slight; and in all cases 
where the remitter will haud the, same to 
the postmaster for examination before seal- 
ing, we will be responsible for losses; and 
on the statement of the postmaster that he 
saw the money inclosed and duly mailed, 
we will consider it the same as received by 
us. Persons directing books and packages 
to be sent by mail may have the same re- 
gistered by simply remitting ten cents ex- 
tra. All such packages are sent at the 
risk of the person who orders. 

"The Guide" (in paper) is now oflered 
free as a premium to every jiersoii remit- 
ting $1 for one year's subscription to the 
Journal. Or, handsomely bound in cloth, 
for 25 oeutfi additional. 

:l to 

TiiE"s Art Joukna 
practical aud oniami^utal penmanehip, aiandi 
at the head of all the publications ou this sub 
ject. It liaB DOW reached its eighth year, anc 
aeemB to grow better with each i8BU«, Kver; 
lover of the useful and beautiful in penman' 
Blnj> ohould send $1, and secure llie's 
Art Jouunal for one year. — College Journal, 
S&lem, Oregon. 


"Ames's New Compendium.' 

1 am d«ligbl«d with (he " Oompendinm," ud would 
purotaoio another.— L. N. OaUI-, 1018 Uftrhet Street, St. 

The "Guide." 

This is a book of Bixty-foor large pages, 
elcKftDtly prioted on the fineet quality of 
plate- paper, and ia devoted ardusivehj to 
iDStrnctiou and copies for plain writing, 
off-hand flourishing and lettering. We are 
sure that no other work, of nearly equal 
coat, is now before the public that will 
render as efficient aid to either teacher or 
learner, in all the departments of the pen- 
man's art, as will thia. Thirty-two pages 
are devoted to instruction and copies for 
plain writing. Fourteen pages to the prin- 
ciples and examples for fiourishing. Six- 
teen pages to alphabets, package marking, 
and monograms. 

Price, by mail : in paper covers, 75 
cent? ; handsomely bound iu stiff cover.'', 
$1. Given free (in paper), as a premium 
with the Journal, one year, for $1 ; full 
bound (in stiff covers) for $1.25. Live 
agents wanted in every town in America, 
to whom liberal discounts will be given. 
Both the Journal and book are things 
that take everywhere. With them agents 
can make more money, with lees eftbrt, 
than with any other publication they can 
handle. Subscribers and purchasers are 
delighted with, and warmly commend, both. 

Standard and Complete. 

On the occasion of delivering an educa- 
tional address, President Garfield very aptly 
designated the Spencerian as "that system 
of penmanship which has become the pride 
of our country and model of our schoola." 

Its latest complete American edition of 
Standard Practical Penmanship, prepared 
for the Journal by the Spencerian Broth- 
ers, is a reliable and popular publication for 

It is not sold to the book-trade, but mailed 
direct to students, accountants, merchants, 
bankers, lawyers, and professional men gen- 
erally, on receipt of $1. 

The work embraces a comprehensive 
course, in plain styles of writing, and gives 
their direct application in business forms, 
correspondence, book-keeping, etc., etc. 

If not found superior to other stj/kd self- 
initraotorB in wriUug, the purchase price will 
be Tflfdnded. 

A Poem Without an E. 

John Knox wbh a wight of .vondroiw might. 

" What is the feminine of tailor?" asked 
a teacher of her German class. " A dress- 
maker," was the prompt answer of a small 

Two autograph hunters, in a joint letter 
to Charles Reade, asked for his signature. 
They got it, at the end of this note : " I 
should like to knock your beads together. 
Bother autographs I " 

A Jewish penman in Vienna writes foar 
hundred Hebrew letters on a kernel of 
wheat, and has written the Jewish prayer 
for the Austrian imperial family on the edge 
of a card thin enough to run through the 
slot ia a three-foot gas burner. 

Short-hand. — Isaac Pitman invented 
shorthand in 1837; in 1854 Graham pub- 
lished his "Reporters' Manual;" in 1866 
Munson issued his "Complete Phonng- 
rapher " Munson's system is the latest of 
of the three practical systems of shorthand. 

A fragment of conversation between 
young girls; "Do you know what a pre- 
face is?" "No; do you?" "Not ex- 
actly; only I know that it is at the 
beginning of books." "Oh, well; then it 
must be the same as when we are courted 
before entering on marriage." 

Behavior.— Manners impress as they 
indicate real power. Nature forever puts a 
premium on reality. What is done for ef- 
fect is seeu to be done for effect ; what is 
done for love is felt to be done for love. A 
man inspires affection and honor because he 
was not lying in wait for ihese.— Emerson. 

"Oh, yes," said the eldest Miss Culture 
at table d'hote the other evening, " I break- 
fasted yesterday with Mrs. Brainweight, 
and we enjoyed a delicious repast— excellent 
coffee, superior bread and piscatorial globes, 
done admirably," "What?" aaked her 
friend, "Piscatorial globes," repeated the 
Boston maiden. "And what imder the 
snn are- they?" " I believe, said Mrs, 
Culture, drawing herself up stiffly, "I be- 
lieve unoultured people call them fishballa." 

If we could build up a solid column of ice 
from the earth to the sun, two and a quarter 
miles in diameter, spanning the inconceiva- 
ble abyss of ninety-three million miles, and 
then if the sun should concentrate hia pow- 
er upon it, it would diasolve and melt, not 
in an hour, nor in a minute, but in a single 
second. One swing of the pendulum and it 
would be water; seven more, and it would 
be dissipated in vapor.— Pro/. Young. 

The "Guide" (in paper) is mailed 
firee to every person remitting $1.00 for 
a subscription or renewal to the Journal 
for one year, or, for $1.25, the book hand- 
somely bound in cloth. Price of the hook, 
by maU, in cloth, $1 ; in paper, 75 centa. 
Liberal disoount to teachers and agents. 

We wish our pati 
in payment for subscript! 
sire postage- stamps, and that they should be 
sent only for fractional parts of a dollar. A 
dollar bill is much more convenient and safe 
to remit than the same amount in I, 2 or 3 
cent stamps. The actual risk of remitting 
money is slight — if properly directed, not 
one miscarriage will occur in one thousand. 
Inclose the bills, and where tetters contain- 
ing money are seated in preaenc* of the 
postmaster, we will assume all the risk. 

/formal Penmanship Department of the 
Gem City Business College. Quincy. III. 

inew College this 

country. Eaoh . 

ip by bolh leanhe 
B plain SDd oraai 

coniiaHlly briufp 
inoy. The Journ 
r CoUtge Journal 

eased with It. H 

■ replete with praotloal gei[is.~E. 


avideac«, R. t. 

B- ■« very beantifol, and I un >iu« 

at In the wealth a 

d variety of it* detiigaa I iball And 

y and ImproTBmeflt— A. G. COOS- 

.AD. MinneapoU. (fc 


It i» with ptewinr. 

tb[it we call attention to "Amei's 

ompendiom of Pi 

■actical and ArtiiHo Penmanihip." 

hon^h ostenaibly a 

second edition, it Is eueoMally nev. 

only thirteen ol 111 

e seTenly plate* are reprinta. The 

rinting appears to 

be done from plate*, either phote- 

ograved or photi-Ii 

faographed directly from the original 

en-SEdlnk dMigna 

and hence, eacept as regard* «ize, 


ilion of^eara of alody ii 

Every mail brings inquiries respecting 
back numbers. The following we can send, 
and no others : All numbers of 1878 but 
December ; all for 1879, except Janxtary, 
May and November ; all numbers for 1880 ; 
all numbers for 1881 ; all for 1882, except 
June; all for 1883, but Jawttary. It will 
be noted that while Mr. Spencer's writing- 
lessons began with May, the second lesson 
was in the July number. Only a few copies 
of several of the numbers mentioned above 
remain, so that persons desiring all or any 
part of them should order quickly. All the 
51 numbers, back of 1883, will be mailed 
for $4, or any of the numbers at 10 cents 

rOilt Edge 

I may avail t 




LAPILINUM iStone-ClothX 

A $1 Book and the "Journal " one year for $1.50. 

We have made arraugements by which we can mail the following deaorihed book, 
with the Journal one year, for $1.50. Or we will mail the book, free, to anyone send- 
ing us a I'lub of three subscribfrs anil $3. 



I' ' ( '' II ■" iiiini I" |.iMii,.Lii,..- \vii' iiiiivorri LhatlsnotnbdenUHidtfiflratheBrd 

1 llgbUy, »k. n map, mThonl InJ.irj-. Un.iiu.led 


ide, 1 markiDg eurfaca, per linear yard. II. SO 

Black Diamond Slating. 

Hu Beat Liquid Slating {without exeepti4m) for 

Walls and IFooden Blackboardt. 

Make* the flnest and moit durable larfaae. Euily 

PiDt.»l,25; Quart, 
Qua (toart euUr o 

mmar Scl 

f Pbaii'Ly ' 

Madi^n UniveSity - 
SI. John'* College ■ - 


LDgham School • 

MippI - - - 

- - ■ Orford, 

- M«baneville, ' 
go - Brooklyn, N 


ow Vork Slock 
quitnble Qiuin an 



Uie Public Seh 

aoU 0/ 


Bergea Point, N. 
Soutb Orange, N 
Hoboken. N. J. 


riiuhing, N. Y. 


Naugamok, Ct. 

Raleigb, N. C. 




"' 2 : : : : 

:: ^;?' :; 

.... 11. 






1 DOZEN earda bwt quality. 18 oeuU; tnenty-ara. 

1 DOZEN cardi. "nuliro alike." elegant sample of flnv 
p ABB BUSINESS CHANCE ! From •.1.000 to ffi.OOO 

ftddres* •■ILLINOIS," care of Pbnmam'8 AiiT JouiUial. 


PACKAGE only ( 

Autog^raplis — Garde 

II MY PAVORITK"PEN Mot at $125 per grow. 
IVI _ For totiodnction, 35 cent* per 1 groM. Addrw. 


IT IS "^^roi^Tn so oi?.iDx:sr.A-K,-H- booics 

oRtT is wonli luori' lo any householder ibun ftfty i ary. if ir had b^en supplltd to them lu early iKe. 
pruv^X^'such^H wo7k ) r'^'hV"'"VVld'l''"<l.^^^ '" T 'llf*"'"lf '! 1^ ""'*' '**' P''0'*'"="»S " 'w "i« 

U?/'V ''""^red times lis cost There are meo, ' A-lc -1 of yoiir Irlends to buy'^^e^ each°anrt ^Ihus 
■'L*^5^.^°'?i?..^'*^Jy_B1Y^e.?'^e°B'*'.oufia_Da Jiret^j^^ free.flll postpaid aod wa* 



AoUmb fur wbat would k 

o give satis&KlIoD. 

The Best Fountain Pen Made! 

correspond for the object of mutua 

Soviaty. and foroUb you with auy 
enta you may deaire. Ladies admi 
age and sample of wnting, and w 

improToment. Upon 
SOCIETY. Bo-*35l. 

400 +."^11. 

oo?anDg 50 paffu of p«p« 
OOLUiaii, KeolcDk, Iowa. 


ganl Extended Move- 
he pen— all dUfepeol— 

aouri.L.,1 Su.g. .L.. Sil2 rnebn f 
3-121 H. W. Shavlob. lis Ho 


1 DOZEN peo.floQilHhed 


Elm Sl„ Utioa. N. Y. 

The Double Penholder, mailed from 
the office of the Journal, at 90 cents per 
dozen, can be used oblique or straight, as 
the writer may prefer. 

Remember, that if you renew, or send, 
youf aubseription to the Jodrnai., with 
$1, you will get a 75 cent book free, or a 
91 book for 25 centa extra. 

'h^M'XKT ,j 

Education Without Dead 

One would tliink that the advocates of 
the claesics, as the one euperior system for 
the nnfolding of the liuumn mind, woald 
have long »g'> abated their exclusive pre- 
tcnsioDB iu face of the fHct that such multi- 
tnde» fail with it, and that so many succeed 
without it. It-ie not fonnd difiicnil to evade 
the force »<f the first olijection that great 
oambers of dead-laogiingp student* come to 
nothing with their cUssics, because it is 
said that tlioy neglect their opportunities, or 
get f4r more good from this source than 
they are ever aware of. Dut it is not so 
easy to escape the objection to the wonder- 
ful worth of defunct speech in the culliva- 
tioQ of the human faclulies with such 
noulliplying evidence as we have of great 
intellectual power acquired by a mental 
cultivation into which the dead lauguagea 
have never entered. That these studies have 
declined in consideration, and are put upon 
the defensive, and fall back upon tradi- 
tion and authority for hacking, is simply 
because other instruments of oalture iu 
these modern times are not only competing 
with tln'm but are healing them every- 
where. Accoiiipanjing the decline of the 
ulaasic^, there has arisen an outside educa- 
tion, irregular in form, unguided by institu- 
tions, self-itjspired and self-shaped, which 
is lull of great results. 

The past generation has abounded in 
mfn who have either turned their backs 
upon the universities, after trying them, or 
who have never gone near them, but who 
have become leaders of thought in all de- 
partments of intellectual activity. The 
unfortunate creatures who have been en- 
ticed to college, and there loaded down with 
a •knapsack of dead languages have found, 
as was very natural, that they were over- 
weigbte<l iu the competitive race of practi- 
cal life, and left behind by those whose 
acquisitions are belter adapted to the 
uew requirements of the age. 

Charles Darwin went to the university, 
neglected the classics, and made what he 
could out of it for the promotion of his 
natural history; and Herbert Spencer re- 
fused to he lured there at all. Yet these are 
the men who are guiding the mind of the 
age, while fur twenty years we have been 
afliicted with the pitiful protestations of 
classical graduates ( with their incomparable 
"mental discipline") that they could not 
even understand the epoch-making books of 
these great thinkers. — Popular Science. 








ThT. ft 

vorite IiooV of lb« 


willioul doubt lb 




mother, ol High. 


oihere of jwiilia 



k. icull, 1., il,.re i 
ve HDfl fplrit are t 

gM le 


wliioh the Mulho 



reit in tbi» piTotal 



f our wirthly life 







lir. naptitt Chur 



ro. 0. 


ilv' rontaSDj mu 

h vel 


e inromialioa,"— 

A Tabul; 
Women's Kigiits. 

BV AX Ol.o nAriiKi,Oft. 

The right to do 
pretty much as they 

The right to malte 
a fu8s when a fellow 
stays out late. 

The right to blame 
everything on their 
h u s b a n d's money- 

ar View. 

Men's Rights. 


making propensities 
iust as it happens. 

The right to turn 
a house topsy-turvy 
for three weeks every 
six months and call it 

The right to make 
the old man vote any 
way they want him 

The right to a 
home, a husband and 
a baby. 

Extra Copies oi the "Journal" 

Will be sent free to teaohere and others who 
desire to make an effort to Beoure a club of 


'eak LungM" (profiuely iUuit: 


29 WARREN ST. ( P. O. BOX 2126), N. Y. 

The Calligraphic Directory. 


et wUl be Utued abnut April 10th. i 
per copy, a very low price indeei 
1 be Bold tbrougli the influence of 

Jonei. proprietor of Palace Clothing Hr)l, I 
Neb.; Fr. A. HarriBon, leaolier of inilru 
Table Kook, Neb. 

Qr any furtb 

er informuUon you 



large amo 

nt of Taluabla ma 

ved for Ih 

e DirtcUtry, bul w 

Would be pleased il you wonia treat a aperipl lubjecl a 
length. If yon will respond freely we will pay you well 


"Review" departuieot. We will make the notice pay 
Oo]<y for publicalioD ehniild be lent in ai aoon u 

3-lt. C. H. RANDALL, Fairmont, Neb. 


TborouKhly tauglil pwnonally, or by mHll. A more 
mm olT,,,a to lU, p„i,||c. Three compW. cimM " 
C""" ro,',™',' „'7,',"L',ir°°'°°. ""'"' '•"'"■' 

WEBSTER i EEED''ltak oSiflo.,"; WoSSId 

The Full Equipment of a Business Man. 



Th.. .SPEN-CERIAN OBLrullE HoLDEIl is approvcd liy professional nml li.isinpss penmen. 

The Spencbrian ScniPT Ruler has 
l''nMS.ript Ali, capilnlaau.Ks.nall letters— and Un scala of measuremml. 

Price-list ofSPENCERIAN SPECIALTIES sent on application. 

Ivison, Blakeman, Taylor & Co., 

3-5 753 and 755 BROADWAY, NEW YORK. 


Barcher's Assorted Colored Inks, 

11, Caniiliie, Yenow. Dark Green. Light 

Penmanship and Art Department 


BuBl,n<.U, IU. 

Soholiuiblp in penmanship department, tvith ili- 


Ok of plain an 
from the pen. 

Ijolearm capita 








ety nt ca 







itdl, c 





Ihorougfbly qualified 

Peirce's Business College, 


" No institittion 
can guarantee to Uspalrons teller results." 


Modern Education. 

I'eople in this cituntry are beginning to 
see the iinportanoe of ilip practical features 
ID education. They are uo longer con- 
teuted to see their sons and daughters por- 
ing over the inusly tomes of the ancientH, 
spending their time oouunittiug to memory 
legpnds of the gods, or the equally fabulous 
accoiints of the exploit* of ancient kiuga 
and " heroes." Teachers are beginning to 
discover that there are branches that have 
a practical value, the proper stinly of which 
will bo more beucBcial, as a training for the 
mind, than these old Buhjects of study, 
which have for so many years constituted 
the mental food of generations now sleepiog 
under the willows. When people find out 
how difficult it is to get at the exact facts iu 
modern history, they begin to suspect that 
. possibly some of what we have been so as- 
eiduonsly studying as "Ancient History" 
may not be quite accurately repcrted. 
Next they are led to wonder whether men 
who lived so long ago, before the age of 
Science or the Prioting- press, could have 
been so wise as to be now the best teachers 
of the Youth of the nineteenth century. 

Teachers (or some of them) have found 
that books have been too much relied on in 
teaching, aD<l that teaching scholars to 
think, !ind find out facts for themselves*, 
would be better than the old methods, 
which were based on the supptsitiou that 
the Wise Men are dead, and tliat the best 
thing we can do is to gather up carefully 
the stray fragments of their wisdom which 




" Dead Languages." The men and women 
of this age are getting to see that they live 
in the same world in which theso vaunted 
"wise "men lived, and with vastly better 
facilities for learning facts than they posses- 
aed. Why, then, should we be so taken up 
with studying "the wisdom of the An- 
cients" to the exclusion of the vital quea- 
lions of the hour, the questions on a 
proper understanding of which our own 
welfare depends. 

We are beginning strongly to suspect 
that the useful working men and women 
are the true gentlemen and ladies, and that 
the Kings and Queens, Lords and Ladies, 
whose most trivial words and acts we have 
been so intent on studying, were only beg- 
gars and thieves, living on the earnings of 
the working people. Our ideal men and 

Permanent Inks. — Ink-making has 
now become quite a high chemical art, and 
there are so many kinds of ink in the 
market that a choice is rather puzzling. It 
is very desirable that manufacturers should 
state the composition of their inks — «. e., 
of the coloring matter they conUin. This 
might be done without betraying any trade 
secrets. We could then choose our ink ac- 
cording to its purpose. For documents of 
a permanent character, and subject to the 
possibility of intentional obliteration, the 
ink should contain more than one kind of 
coloring matter; as, for example, the old 
tannogallate of iron plus indigo or aniline 
black, and perhaps a little copper salt. No 
single chemical agent could bleach all of 
these, and neither paper nor parchment can 
stand a series of chemical solvents. The 
aniline inks, now largely used, are of very 
questionable durability. It is uncertain 
whether they can endure the action of time 
alone. Supplemented with the old-fash- 
ioned iron lalt, which has proved its dura- 
bility, they are safe. It should always be 
understood that the indelibility of any ink 
hirgely depends upon the nature of the sur- 
tac-6 to which it is applied. The more 
absorbent the paper, the more dilhcult is i\a 
removal, as it penetrates below the surface 
of such paper. If the paper is highly 
glazed, by covering it with any kind of var- 
nishing material the possibility of removing 
the whole surface — varnish, ink, and all, is 
increased.— 2^ QmtUman's Magatine. 


Shading T Square. 



•»ved dirBCI from wo 


8ing sepUHled f 




BDv dMlr«? leofith or m 


miule boriKDDlally 



kDd ilMonpUon, 


giv« herewith 


°'!i"'ne**by the X 

•rd dlreoUy from 

with the «pidlt: 

or frm hand linM. 

V TORS, Joly 27, 

D. T. AMI18— D«ir & 


ruUn^and tRitin( 


l» t«l 


Am. Bank Not* Co 

.N. Y 

D. T. AMKB, E8«.-i 


^ by°m"e ^r"ott 




, with D. AppletOD 


, AMB8. EBy.-i3 

tar Si 

wno 10 




/A N cxPONCN Y I • ■ •" ;; fc",; ":S t^ 



■aphtrj* brimful ol good t 

iDbJMt of peni 

Penmtiubip Star of lbs WmI," 

brlBl.t thouBlit*'«^-/.-i iv/ormati^. Md aen-ible in«tru.aion.- It, lH„.i™ilon. of plaia -.....- 

pennianihip are of the lilghcnt era<le. which fact can be*t be atteated by itatinfr that amoU \\» oomribiriofi an 



ven dollar-bill, i 

E. K. ISAACS, Editor and Publisher, 



ll 00 per dosan. 

aOS Bnwdwar. 1 


BlarloQvtlle, Ououdaga County, New Yc 


"CoUeclion No. 1" (SOHeoipe*) ContooU: Blaol 

kind*; Blue, 3 kindi; Red. 4 kind*; Omm, 8 kti 

Yellow, Brown, Violet, White, Gold, Silver. Indulib 

Sympatfaetio, 8 kbda; Aniline Inka, elo.. 


hiDd«; Green, 
Blue, 4 kiud« 

: Sympathetic 
king paokagM 

\g ptriodical. U.S. vtampsb 

Something New. Novel and Practical. 


lag and Forms Vully tubulated Htid llhiitrated * 

full graded prograinwe. 

It is the u.o»t pmotioal thing of the kind that baa over 

lieBD introduced into the ioUooIroom No leaohenr pupil 

Id private or publlo bHiooI should be without It 

Sample copy, with bronzed cover, «eat, poM-paid, on 
receipt of 26 com., Ad.lreM, 






For Sale by all Stationers and Booksellers. 

The Esterbrook Steel Pen Co., 

WORKS, CAMDEN, N. J. 26 John Street, New York. 

The F'amous Card-writer, 

WJio is well known in all parts of the country, ipishes to call your attention to the follow- 
ing price-list of written cards, which will be found among the very finest obtainable: 


Style A. Plain White BrUlol, good qaallty * .25 ' f H5 

'I C. Bevel Gold-edge 30 .55 

'■ H. SattQ Bevel-edge, veiy stylish 40 J.'i 

1. Ealra Heavy Bevel. 8 ply Bristol 35 .65 

" J. TheEIif*, thelate»t«yleB 35 .60 

AddreH-lluea, IS reata per dozen oitr«. Elegant aamplei of the above oarda leat lor 15 centa. Envelupps 
furninlied and addreued for 50 cents per dozen. 

Your alteDlioD is especially culled to style R (Pen-flourighed). The deaigos are original and eutirely new to the 



rerent styles 

FLOURISHING, fresh fhtmlht 
IS. Tfaeae holder* are d> 



A. B. PAaaOKl, Oolombna Junelioa, U. 

xe«med In Ihis country, 
auoh toalB and skill," — V 


luany lesllinoDtata reoetved : 

I, Ohio, say*: "Prof. A. W. Daklu has ^t hia plain writ. 

I Improved." 

r Itaplda, I 

li Avenue, Hot 

PROF. A. W. DAKIN, TuUy. New York. 


Penmen's and Artists' Supplies. 

On r«-Mi.t of Ibo \m^ aun^xwl. w.. wtll /..rwiini by 

AmM'a Book o(Alphab*to.''^!^".' .'.'.' .'*""!!!"! 1 50 

Bryant'* Donk kenpin^, CDUOting-boiise BdilloD... 3 50 
AmM'* C<>|>y-«lip«, fur lualruoUiin und praotioa In 

wrliia^, p«r«hMl, oonuiolnf; forty «xwoiM« 10 

Fifty 8be«ils ( fifty fiUI seta of <>oi>ies ) n 00 

Briitol Boonl. 3-ibeataiiok, 22x28 Id.. p^^^Mt .. SO 

*^T ;. 'aexio! ■• ■• '.'.'".'". i si 

Black OBTd-board, 22)rt8, for whit* tok 50 

BiHok Cardji. per Uioutand, liy«xpr«u S 00 

Wb8U..ftu-|i DmwiDg.paper. ho(-pr««.'ir>.W.T.l'!i \\^ 

\-,x-i'i . .SO a 00 
;■ ■■ ■■ i!'.ji,. .'ju s »i 

Blank Brintol Board CardB, per HH) "!-!!.'.'' M 

'• 1.0(10. by «xprM. . 2 00 

" 10,000 " . 1 50 

Wluior i Newton'i Snperior Sup. ludia Ink Stick 1 00 

by mail...'....' ', .' « 

1000 '■ by%iVrp«^----^'.'.'.V.V.-"--"--I-^^"-' 4 00 

Ani«i» Penmen 'i Favorit* No. 1 per grow 1 00 

The New Speooerian CampendiuDi, Part i,*2, 3, V 

Cron-ifnilT Pen, very floe, for draniog, dos 75 

WilUiuna'i and Packard's OeiM 5 00 

Coiiirilou'gNoriDamy«iein of Flonriibiug 80 

SpoDge liubber, 2x2 in., very laperior 50 

Boll BlackbuardB, by expr«u, 

No. liiM,2X3 feet 175 

No. a ■■ i>*x3| " 175 

No. 3 " 3X4 ■■ 9 50 

Stone Cloth, one jrard wide, any length per yard, 

Lifiaid Slating, tbe ben in me, for walla or wooden 

bcard«, per gallon 6 00 

1^" No goods sent by mail until cash baa been re 

receive aitentiou. DANIF.L T. AMES. 


The Office of the NEW SHORTHAND GO. 

prefer phonetic apellirg.'" Wbil^W per Vent. faiMn'^Ihe 

Shorthand can be k.«med by all in^ijIeeD lemons, and 
a«ed more praolically than auy olh«. Teaohere of It are 



era Indiana Normal School. Valp°arai^ ImUana.* 

The CItirographtT \« handaoroely printed on line book- 
paper, and no Ltbor or expense will be spared to make it 
a leading exponent of the useful and the beautifo] in Pen- 


than the subst-riplion-priw— «l ; but in ordtratonM^to 

of two GENiriM: l-Hi:Mn-MS '''iBaaos' PortfolioTf 
Letlering," au.l ■■Si,i>.i,, . t ■,,:„|,..|„iiuiii of Peoman- 
ship.' The Pi. nil. I ( i- ._• r.nKaing over thirty 

Sbaylof'e Comp^TTdium of Penmanship oonnisls of Move- 
lueut Exercises, Variety Capitals, Word Copies, Sen- 
tence CopleiSi a variety ol Business Forms — suoh as 
Notes, Keueipiit etc.; also, a fuU-page BiiH in ess- Letter. 

Lettering, and Shaylor** C>^u!li^Au^ulZ^ 'l'.,','i',.'nahip, 
Sl?50 "^^^ VI„rograj./„r ^d both prem.uim, 

boy and girl aud yonug man and woman will aequire it. 

HenA In your subsnrtpllons noiu , tiie offer wiU not be 
oiMin very long. Sample copy during this month free. 

E. K. ISAACS. Editor and Publisher, 


VV anit t)UBiUL-«« pynraaiuhlp. To one who is bright 

a It. J.'e. Sbui^. Philadelphia, Pa. 

SAMPLES of oard-wriliDg, 10 cents Oiroulan fVee 
A. B, DBWHUlusT, 36Elm St., Utioa, N. Y. 3 11 


prices. Hotcumb i^ibllBUlng Ui 



kdBpt«d for use willi or witboul Text-Book, 
and tbe ouly Ret reaommended to 


Bryant & Stratton 
Counting-House- Book keeping." 


On reoelrl of 50 ..*ot», a packajte of el. gaul awor^ed 
omdi. mih yoiit name wrilten in v""™' "jle". ^"1 be 

Special Offerfor a Short While, 


I style possible. By sendi 

y postage in lull. 

»>dsin«chpM.kBge: IG 36 
' or cream, jiovl quality » .42 « .! 

" H. Eigblply bevels, gilt, elo 

J, Pen-flourisbcd, especially for i 



Rossla leather, fou 

'lOTlieU 1 .25 

■• i 

T'"' ;' 

'• 6 

Calf " 




j-l!!!!!!™.,, ' 



l.clve c«o,pari,«,.,i. 


nil •aroplos. with redureJ prices, sent for fllty 1-cen 
oiuely, canvassing at the niies offered. 


""S'" ^"S"^,^ 

nd earefnlly flUed Cniiadian 

ai6 E. QOtli St. 


New York. 

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and neatly bound in cloth and gold. Contains SOS pagti, 

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to ioUdt HuUriptJons to the Pksman'8 Art Joubmal 

The following is a list of the works which we offer fbr 

Ames's Compendium of Praotioal and Ornamental 

Penmanship f5 00 

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Ornamental and Flourished Cards, 12 designs, new. 

original and artistio. per pack of 50 30 

100, by mall 50 

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Send (or our Special Rates lo Agents. 

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7-H- 205 Broadway, New York. 

Shorthand Writing 


Young men have- only to master ShoHhand lo make It 

\^'"tI'' T'"* "' '"!*'.^'' '''^""•f^ttP'iers receive better 
salaries than are paid in any other clerical position. 

W. M. HULTON, 8t«noKrapher, 







Racommonded and used by more Ihan ono-hilf of 

the penmen in the United States. 

loolose stamp for prioe-list. with sample ..f inks written 


WsMn HaniLbotory, Ohloago, Dl. g-ia 

POKTL\Nl>, Mk., Febranry 24tb, I8d4. 
Ir. Madarati ■ Fiur UUer >oUh earth rtcHvtd. The^ 
tUganl, and only soree to eonjlrm tohal it grwoing 
'« apparent every day. vit : THAT VOU BTAMt) AUOKg 

h tUr.tucix'i lo tifiial yourmtrit you loill be jtooded 
h •■ ur'fnbacki" Vrry trul;/. H. W. 8IIAYI.0U. 

NBw Vokk. January 29lh. 1894- 

■Mte and rapidity of his work is marvtUnii, and A 
ts today without an e/pial at a oard-writer. 

G. A, OabKILL, Editor of Penman's OatelU 

ENVELOPES of (be finest quaUly foruisbed and 
Bddrewied for 53 cents per dwien; 90 cents (or twenty. 
five. The finest oil' hand penmanship ever sent out by 

Alt unaurpnHsed apevinieu of bold bualnens 
\Triting, In the shape of a letter, uu the ben 

dre.-is, for KS oeiita. With upevliueu of dour 

lional penmen sent in their orders for these letter*, and, 

ligbly flattered to have received their palrunuge. and 
lope that the speclroens gave good satisfaction, and will 

SIGNATURES. -If you wish your name written 
LSBorlttd styles by the most gmoefui penman of Amerli 
end fitly l-«ent etwnpi to Yours, truly, 

215 £. 50fh Street, New York. 

^pPl«Me iumUob the PmfiiAif'B Akt JousNau 


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Vol. VIII.— No. 4 

Lessons in Practical Writing. 


By a. H. Hinman. 

Copyrighted hy A. II. HiDmna. 

The cIiHracter and alrength of a ivell- 
written page is due lurgply to an abundance 
of straight Hues of uniform slant. The 
grace and beauty of wriline is due to 
curves. Thnmghuut ttie small alfdiabet 
neatly every letter sliould ctmtain a straight 
line. Wo do not except the c, and e, and 
eveu the o and s will not appear badly with 
their downward lines straight. See the 
following word, voices c 

In the following words : 


It will be seen that the downward lines 
straight, while the slanting lines above and 
below show them to be of unif.irm slant. 
Between the shtpe-liues the spaces are seet 
to be of equal width. All the letters rest 
ujion the biise-line, while the Hue across 
the top shows the short letters to be of 
uniform height. The letter ( is two spaces 
high ; the 7i, three. 

points to be observed in this 
OUT LINES of uniform 
slant wilh er|ual spacing between them. 
All letters to be of proper size, wiiii good 
taste displayed in shading. 
five S's are correct in one's writing, there 
will be few defects seen to criticise. In the 
following cut there are no straight lines, 
and the word has a weak, wilted look : 


In the next illustration the principal fault 
lies in the imperfect size of letters: 


In the neit, although the letters are fairly 
shaped, the bad taste in shading is the 
chief feature to 


In the following engraved words the lines 
are drawn across the letters to test their 
accuracy in straight lines, slant, spacing, 
and size, and to illustrate 
testing words, which wo recommend 
readers : 

by making the first stroke of a word start 
from below the line and carrying the last 
line of the word above the short letters, as 
seen below : 

The above method of testing words may 
be applied to any word formed of small let- 
ters. As accurate writing is more due to a 
critical eye than to years of loose pen prac- 
tice, we believe rapid advanreincDt toward 
accurate writing will be in propor'ion to 
one's care in testing and sharply criticising 
whatever he writes. To the criiical eye of 
the engraver is <'ue his ability to sketch and 
engrave beautiful Fcript, while the general 
writing, which ke does not attempt to crit- 
icise, is no better than the average. The 
slow progress of many young penmen is 
due to the fact that they give so much 
practice to the band and so little to the eye. 
What the eye fails to see the hand will not 
correct; and only as one makes his eyes 
critical will his errors he detected and over- 
come. Superior penmen are superior crit 
ics. With them the eye is the critical 
master— the baud its trusty servant. When 
one imagines he sees a letter before he 
makes it then the eye will guide the band 
to execute it. Legibility in writing depends 
much upon the lines beginning and ending 
words. The fullowing, which some may 
call goud writing, wo regard as difficult to 

While the last is an Improvetneat upon the 
first, we will endeavor to show how still 
greater legibility may be obtained. It will 
be seen that the spaces between the printed 
words you are reading are erect like the 
type. This makes the print before you 
easy to read. We think ihar the same idea 
should be carried out in writing. If the 
spaces between words were made, as in 
print, to slant the same as the letters, the 
writing would he far more legible. In the 
first cut below the arrows will show the 
spaces slanting about the same as the let- 

ters : 

/y •/ 4'Z. 

/ // /// //7 

In the next cut below, the straight lines will 
show the slant of letters, while the arrows 
will show the spaces between words to be 
of the slant of the lines connecting letters 
which make the words appear to run to- 
gether, instead of being broken apart aa in 
the print before you : 

In the following cut the open spaces be- 
tween words is due to carrying the lines 
beginning and ending words upward close 
to the letters, Instead of slanting well to 
the right: 

E or egg-«hapc. In our study of inPthods 
we (ittve never found one which has been 
productive of better results than that of 
leaching the forms of capitals by the use 
of the E and riglit and left curves : and we 
believe that tliose who give this method 
the proper test will find it to be n superior 
aid tn grace aud beauty in capitals. 

Pathetic Appeal. 

Ob I why don't people form iheir »•, 

Not Am 
— thatcuri 
ity, and ot 
■ gives to oursel' 
tbat makes us 


Mary E. Martin. 
■OS— the soul with one passion 
IS (Jelight of the medical fratern- 
Ihat in the watching we confess 
a pleasure. It is not this 
a little the veil from Wil- 

liam Lindle's history. It is because we be- 
lieve 80 firmly that the only difference be- 
tween people, small and great, rich and poor, 
is a purpose once fixed — then, invincible 
determination to do or die. A soul with one 
determination to push all things aside, and 
accomplish tbat one. 

There was a sudden hush over the little 
town of Waverly, The wheels in the great 
factory stopped still. The pleasant hum and 
buzz of the busy workers vanished. In and 
out of the great buildiugs there was a Sab- 
bath stillness. It bad come so suddenly; 
only a few hours before all had been busy 
life. Then went through every shop and 
factory the t.rder to stop work, for the com- 
panies had failed. The workmen took down 
their coats aud hats, picked up their dinner 
buckets and went out — not with the firm 
step and happy whistle of the early morn- 
ing, but with a slow gait that showed a 
heavy heart. Their whole dependence was 
their daily wages, and where now was to 
come from the bread to fill tlie hungry 
mouths at borne f They knew now tbat 
there was, and there would be, a depression 
in trade, longer and more dreadful than 


It ^ 

. had eve 
ritb a hea^ 

step than even 
many of the men moved that William Lin- 
dle approached his own gate. As he opened 
it, he saw coming down the walk Maud 
Burnett. Looking up, she stopped, for the 
expression of his face frightened her. 

"William, are you ill? Tell me what is 
the matter t" tlie girl exclaimed. 

A scornful smile rested fur a moment on 
the youug man's face. Theu he said, slow- 
ly, "No, I am not ill, Maud. I believe 
this world wa.>* only made for the rich ; a 
poor man can have but little pleasure in it" 

*' What has made you bo bitter, William T 
It IB not like you." 

" You will find out the meaning of it. 
Maud, very soon. There will be no more 
work in Waverly for many a day. The 
companies have failed." 

"Maud, girl-like, could not realize aU 
that meant for William. So saying, " I am 
very, very sorry," she passed out at the gale 

which he held open — passed on down the 
street Xj her pleasant home. 

William Lindle watched her as she walked 
away. Ho knew that now he would have to 
give up the dream of soon apkiog her to be 
his wife. lie was just twenty-one. A young 
moulder in one of the iron-works. It was 
hard that just as he wa« at the beginning of 
a young man's life he should be thrown 

For several years he had supported bis 
widowed mother, now old and feeble; and 
he bad a dream tbat one day he would 
bring Maud Burnett home as his wife.- Not 
to this home; but only last night he was 
building his castles in air— that now he 
was a free man and getting good wages be 
would speak to Maud, and she would wait 
until he could make a prettier home. Now 
what could he offer? Was it any wonder he 
felt bitter as he turned away from the gate 
to the hardest task he had yet before him, to 
tell his mother he was out of worK? He 
walked on to the house, and opened the 
door of the small room that was both din- 
ing-room and kitchen. Everything about 
the room was in perfect neatness, not a spot 
on the bate, well-scrubbed floor, with its 
comfortable rugs of home-made carpet laid 
her© and there. Not a particle of dust on 
the bright polished stove or the snowy 
white curtains at the windows. Above a 
little shelf ticked the old fashioned clock 
that his father had bought his mother when 
they were married. On a table with its 
crimson cover stood a vase of flowers that 
his mother had gathered from their garden. 
In a small chair by the window she sat kuit- 
ting. All this William saw as he opened 
the door; and his mother's sight growing 
dimmer each day, she was bending a little 
nearer to pick up a stitch when she heard 
her boy's well-known footsteps. She looked 
up startled, saying, "What brings you 
home so early, William? " He could not tell 
ber. He took all in at a glance; the cozy 
home, the -dear old mother — now no hope 
of keeping, all together. He gasped for 
breath, muttered something about being 
sick, and went back into the fresh air. 

Ye who have even a competency, with- 
out that dread of nothing certain for the fu- 
ture, cannot know how the honest poor are 
knit together. Cannot understand how la- 
boring fur each other they love with such 
intensity they cannot bear to give each 
other pain. 

It was some time that William Lindle 
stood on the kitchen porch before he could 
compose himself autficieutly to go in and 
tell his mother. When he did, very bravely 
did the old mother meet the calamity. It 
was more for her boy than for herself that 
the tears, slowly dropped, were wiped quiet- 
ly away with the corner of her apron. He, 
sitting, gazing gloomily before him, did not 

" What shall we do now, mother?" he 
said. " It would not be so bad if everything 
had not stopped. Hundreds of men are 
thrown out of work; and in a little town 
like this we must starve." 

" There is One who will look out for us, 
my son," said the mother. 

"He never seems to care for the poor, 
mother. It was that smooth- tongue, canting 
Christian, Leslie, who ran off with his 
pockets full of money when he saw this fail- 
ure must come ; and none of them feel it as 
we workmen do." 

" Yuu forget, my son," his mother said, 
"tbat these very men have given us our 
bread for years, and gave work to your 
father before you." 

William was silenced, but felt the blow 
none the less bitterly. 

How stagnant life became in the once 
busy little town of Waverly none can know 
unless they can call up a vision of some such 
afllicted town under the great panic — early 
in '70, or they may be familiar with the 
stupefaction that creeps over Government 
employees during a dearth of work. Men 
walked listieesly about with their hands in 
their pockets, their hata drawn over their 
eyes, and with loitering gait. Some of the 

wiser moved away, and among the first 
Maud Hurnelt'3 father, who had all along 
held a good position. Poor William let 
Maud go, and did not tell his love — let their 
paths separate to meet no one kuows where. 

William Lindle could n.>t leave bis 
mother in her old age, nor had he money to 
take her away. D ly by day, the little he had 
went. Then sickness fell upon them. Wil- 
liam himself, long depressed, fell sick of a 
slow fever. He was just able to go about, 
when his mother took to her bed and never 
got up again. He was glad that to the last, 
no matter how hard his own fare, he kept 
her with every comfort. At last, the tired 
hands were at rest; they crossed them upon 
the heart that would no more ache, and laid 
her away. Not one cent had William when 
the funeral expenses were paid, and all their 
little store of furniture had to go to help pay 

After all was over, he determined to seek 
some large city, and try to pet work at his 
trade, walking, from town to town, until he 
reached the city. Numb at heart, he turned 
his back on the little town where he had 
spent all his life, trying, as he went on his 
way, to get just enough to meet his ex- 
penses. Even this he found was impossible 
— everywhere was the depression felt. He 
could not get enough lo pay for what he ate ; 
not yet, not yet could he beg. 

One evening, just before the sun had set, 
became in bis walk to a small hamlet — 
just an inn, a small blacksmith-sho|i, and a 
stray house built here and there. Under 
some trees, near the inn, there was a rude 
bench; on this seat William threw himself 
down, perfectly exhausted and without a 
penny. The sun was as warm, the air as 
balmy, the birds twifered to each other in 
the trees as sweetly, and the whole world 
seemed as lovely as if there was not a poor 
person in it. AU this poor William felt, 
as he saw a tramp come from the back door 
of the inn with his hands full of bread and 
meat, and his pockets stuffed full for another 
meal. William watched him as he ate; he 
would have been glad of only a small part. 

Desperately he came to the conclusion 
that he, too, would be a tramp. He did not 
care %vhat became of him, and he felt certain 
no one else did. He had tried to keep up; 
everything was against him. He laughed a 
hard, bitter laugh. At last he had found an 
occupation. He would write it down to see 
how it looked. So, taking an envelope from 
his pocket, with his pencil he wrote dowu : 

William Lindle, Tramp. 

It was written in a plain but beautiful hand, 
every letter perfect in itself, not a nerve- 
tremor showing in a line ; but there it stood 
distinct and beautiful — "William Lindle, 
Tramp." All at once, as he looked at it, 
something arose withm him ; the depression 
was all gone ; the fatigue was not felt. This 
feeling thrilled through every fiber of his 
being. A tramp t No I He would be a 
business man, and through bis pen accom- 
plish what he wished — never letting up, 
pushing aside every feeling, until he accom- 
plished success. Like as if he was walkiug 
on air he left the bench, and made hie way 
to the inn. 

Never was it more truly said that we 
never know what we go out to meet. In- 
stead of William going into the inn to seek 
what advice he could tbat would bring him 
employment, there met him at the door of 
the inn a traveler — a man, short in stature, 
rather thick set, with a bueineas-like look 
out of the cool blue eyes. A man who, aa 
as be lifted hia hat, the bald head with its 
thick fringe of reddish hair made him look 
older than he really was. He approached 
William in a brusque way, saying: 

"Young man, do you think it possible 
for me to find anyone, in such a wretched 
little place as this, who writes a good busi- 
ness band? I've just come down from 

D to write out some papers, and fix up 

the business generally, for Mr. Simpson, 
who is dying. My olork promised to meet 
me here, but he has not come. A dying 
man can't wait, sir, and what am I to do? I 

Mr. Simpson is the richest man lu this coun- 
try ; he has so much writing t() go over, and 
I can't find a person, in a bole like this, to 
write a decent band. Do you know of any 

" I have just come to the kcowledge that 
I possess ability in that line, sir," said Wil- 


what I could fiad to do." 

"If it was to instruct these people, I 
should say you could make your fortune i 
that ia, if they paid you aocordine to their 
need; but let me see your handwriting t" 

William handed him the name which he 
had written while sitting on the bench. 

"That is just the bus^iness-hand I need, 
young man; but are you a tramp?" 

"No," said William, "but bad luck was 
fast pushing all the manhood out of ine. I 
was on the verge of becomin;^ one when I 
wrote that ; and it struck me that any one 
who could write a plain, business-hand 
should never throw themselves away." 

" You are rieht, young mau. My name 
is Kuasell ; aud, for the present, I will em- 
ploy you as my clerk. Come into the inn 
and let us have our supper, and we will 
drive over and fix up Mr. Simpscm's affairs." 

In the short time it tfxik to arrange the 
papers of the dying man, the quick- sighted 
lawyer saw William Lindle's vslue. After 
paying him for his services, Mr Russell said : 

" If you will go back to the city wil h me, 
I think I can find ycm some use for your 
ready pen." 

" It was just the place I was trying to 
reach," said'william, '■ aud I will be glad 
to go with you." 

So they went hack to the city ; and Wil- 
liam began his way upward, having for bis 
aim only one determination — to place his 
name with the hifihegt, and be no longer 
poor. He laid aside everything ttiat would 
hinder, and kept this one thiugin view. All 
useless repinings for failures in the past was 
swallowed up in this one aim. Did be not 
s'ill love Maud Burnett? Yes. It had it 
been been with him for years, an ever 
present thought. The firet that came to him 
in the morning, the last at night. Now he 
threw it oft"; even this gave way to the one 
aim. Why should he be shackled with it? 
Any young man is weak who would waste 
his time in a feverish dream — who would 
have an/ feeling stronger than himself. 

In a few years, William Lindle accom- 
plished the end he had in view, and stood 
amongst the first in his city. He accom- 
plished it by having a purpose once fixed, 

Just before dark on the day of an elec- 
tion, there was the usual crowd overflowing 
the sidewalks, wrangling with high talking 
as they hurried from poll to poll. At last 
they knew without a doubt, and before one 
of the largest hotels in the city the crowd 
stopped, and called loudly for the successful 
candidate to the legislature. He came out 
on the low balcony, an I addressed the crowd 
in a polished, sparkling, pleasing speech. 
While be was speaking, two fiery horses came 
plunging down the street, the driver try- 
ing hard to hold them in. The carriage top 
was thrown back, and a beautiful woman re- 
clined amongst the cushions. Her attention 
was most given to how the driver would get 
the horses through the crowd than to any- 
thing around her, until some impulse guided 
her eyes to the speaker. The lights behind 
him threw out his tall figure to advantage. 
Hia face had a triumphant look upon that 
his recent victory had placed there. The 
woman drew her costly shawl about her 
shoulders, and her pale lips gave the order 
to drive home at once. She drew closer to 
the corner of the carriage, as she murmured : 
" It in — it is — William Lindle." 

It was at a reception, a few evenings after, 
that capricious fate brought together the 
two so long separated. There Maud Bur- 
nett met face to face William Lindle. He is 
now in a position to ask her to be his wife. 
Both had attained prosperity by different 
ways. It did not take long for William 
Lindle to show how long and well he had 
loved this one woman. 

Will Mechanical Devices Do 

Away with Writing? 

Bv Paul Pastnor. 

I saw, the otlier ihiy, au account of a new 
" composing machine," by which, it waa 
claimed, the drudgery of both writing and 
type dplting waa ro he done away with. 
The mnrhine consists of a donble alphahet 
of lettered keys, like a type-writpr, con- 
nected with movable types wliioh strike, aa 
the keys are tnnched by the fingers of the 
"Iierator. a blu<-k nf papier-mache, thus 
tofiniiig a iiialrix from which stereotype- 
plates can easily be moulded. The editor 
of a newspaper, or the writer of a book, 
cau thiid be his own "composer," and 
rapidly ] ruduce the required plates for 
priutiug at exceedingly small expense. 


of such I 

! thii 

and the production of constantly improved 
typo-writers, etc., raises the question, Will 
mechanical devices finally do away with 
writing altogether f Will the pen be dis- 
carded, as a nide, old-fashioned instrument, 
fit to be laid away with the spinning-wheel 
and the Hail f 

I think not; and for these reasons: First, 
because the pen is the instrument of the 
artist. It is in the same category with the 
chisel of Phidias, the brush of Hapbael, and 
the graver of Rembrandt. When modern 
ingenuity devises a itelter instrument f r 
sculpture than Phidias used, or that which 
shall outdo the brush of Raphael, we will 
be ready to admit that the pen is out of 

If the pen were merely utilitarian, the 
ease would be different. It certainly 
would be superseded by the ingenious me- 
chanical devices which have been placed 
upon the market. So far as its utilitarian 
uses are concerned, perhaps it is being su- 
perseded—who will say not? There are 
machines that write faster, that write more 
completely and more legibly than the best 
and most rapid penman. But so long as 
the element of beauty enters into the ac- 
count, the pen, in its true sphere, will out- 
live them all. It h, and it always will be, 
an artist's instrument. If the editor can 
produce more "copy," in better shape, 
within a given time by using a type-writer, 
he will certainly discard the pen. He 
ought to ; he is engaged in an employment 
which demands speed in composition rather 
than beauty of penmanship. But whoever 
takes pride in the artistic ette. t of what he 
puts upon the paper— every penman, as 
such, and especially every artist-penman— 
will retain the delicate instrument which 
his art has provided him. For him, there 
is nothing to be gained from the inventions 
of modern ingenuity. They do not, they 
cannot, intrude upon the true sphere of the 
pen. As an iustrumeni for the interpreta- 
tion of beautiful forms, it will never be 
superseded. Anything which robs the 
artist of his skill by confining him to mere 
mechanical motions, cannot compete with 
the pen as an instrument for producing 
beautiful forms. 

The second reason why the pen will 
never be discarded in favor of mechanical 
contrivances is because of its availability. 
It is the writing instrument of the people. 
Comparatively costless, always ready for 
use, easily carried, adapted in its various 
grades to every style of penmanship, never 
getting out of order, or requiring expensive 
repairs, there is no danger that it will ever be 
given up by the masses for expensive, cum- 
bersome mechanical contrivances like the 
type-writer and the comp.isiug-machine. 
These are well enough for spenal classes. 
There is no question that they have their 
place, and will gradually take it, and the 
pen must give way to them. But there 
will never be a writing instrument so popu- 
lar as the pen- one which will be in ouch 
general use among all classes of the people. 
In view of these two facts, I think we 
may assume that there is no danger of the 
pen being superseded by mechanical con- 
trivances. ppns are manufactured 
and used to-day than ever before, in spite 
of the introduction of the type-writer. 

Qmen cease to use their favor- 
t, and the people find a more 
available article for their purposes, we shall 
look for a revolution in the arts and a mil- 
lennium in mechanics. 

Little Scotch Beggars. 
By S. 8. Packard. 

Every country has its peculiar forma of 
tlie hegging nuisance ; nud no traveler in 
Europe will hmg be loft in ignorance o( 
what some of these fonns are. The most 
insidious, persistent and successful beggars 
are the servants, of all grades, who hover 
about you, and run against you, and inter- 
cept your progress from the lime you put 
your font on the deck of an outward bound 
steamer, until you shake the dust of travel 
from your garments in New York Bay. 

To the American who for the first time 
goes abroad, it would seem that the pre- 
vailing industry of Europe is the pillaging 
of foreigners ; for be it understood that the 
European beggar is no mere receiver of 
alms at the option of the giver, but more a 
recognized official who under the protection 
of his government levies his coLtributiona 
on all comers, and exacts his payments on 

At all European hotels the item of daily 
"service" is put in your bill alongside of 
the dail} "candle" that you never use, 
but lliis has nothing to do with the fee 

boy with a baton, who goes through his 
little " piece " like the regular machine he 
ia, and next, strolling down a delightful 
ravine, through woods and across bridges, 
to Hawthomden, the onco residence of the 
poet Drummond. You start back at four, 
arriving at your hotel just in time for din- 
ner, having had a day's trip that you will 
never forget if you live to be a hundred. 

By great good lu.ik we chose a pleasant 
day for our excursion. To be sure, it 
rained for a couple of hours in the morn- 
ing, and several little showers occurred 
during the day, but when the sun did 
shine, it lit up the landscape with such au 
honest glow, and gave such variety to the 
tittts of the greensward and the foliage, 
that we were quite content to take it even 
by snatches. But the feature of the trip 
to me inhered in the countless little beg- 
gars who beset us along the route. As wo 
sped through the thickly settled parts of 
the way, swarms of boys and girls from 
four to ten years of age would emerge from 
the dweliiugs and the cross streets, and 
keeping pace with our fadt Hying omnibus, 
as they hemmed it in on all sides, would 
look anxiously up at the face of the pas- 
sengers, extending their open liands or 
hats— those whn had them — and crying 
with musical tone and cadence, " Pooroot ! 
Pooroot ' Pooroot !" 

The scene, or rather the sound, reminded 
me of the peculiar wayside music so familiar 

that It; exacted by every servant agamst 
whom you rub At first you feel inclined 
to protest against tlie imposition , call it 
an "outrage," a "swindle," and various 
other American things; possibly refuse to 
be put upon in this pestiferous manner, but 
you will soon learn that the easiest way is 
the best, and like all other Americans who 
have preceded you, will settle down into 
the rut, keep your pockets well supplied, 
and scatter the shekels bountifully where- 
ever you go. 

But aside from the forced contributions 
are the numerous appeals which beset you 
on every hand : first, by the sellers of sou- 
venir trinkets, whom in your overwrought 
enthusiasm you are disposed to patronize 
rself borne down with 
id next by the outright 
and devices are legion, 
various parts of North- 
Italy and Switzerland, appeal to your 
sympathy in spite of your stomach, through 
the most hideous and repulsive exhibition 
of deformity and dirt, while others assault 
your pocket under the pleasanter guise of 
ipoverished childhood, and win your pen- 
es and your smiles by their cunning per- 
sistence and imperturbable good humor. 

While spending a week at Edinburgh 
two summers ago, I took a day for Roslyn 
Castle, which is one of the regular things 
to "do" in Scotland. The 'bus leaves 
Edinburgh at ten in the morning, gives you 
a two hours' ride, past Arthur's Seat, out 
into the open country, getting you at Ros- 
lyn in time for lunch. Here you disport 
yourself by first listening for a half hour to 
a monotonous dialectic description of the 
wonderful "castle "from a fourteen year old 

until you find you 
useless rubbish ; ai 

e of the 


in fact, the re&emblance 
I of the little beggars to frogs made the 
jietuhar cry aeem appropriate I had 
never read of this form of beggary, and 
should have expected to encounter it in 
any country sooner than in Scotland ; but 
it seemed to furnish no end of interest and 
fun to the travelers who would shower down 
their pennies in order to witness the scramble 
for them. No football melee, or cane con- 
test, or " push " of American college boys 
could exceed iu zest or in variety of combi- 
nation this penny scramble of the little 
Scotch beggars; and the punched heads, 
and scratched faces, and bleeding noses of 
the contestants seemed only to add to the 
fervor of the sport. I was particularly 
struck with the pleading face of a little 
four-year old baby who stood quite still by 
the wayside and held her outstretched apron 
with an apparent confidence in the Provi- 
dence that showered down money on poor 
children ; and I was glad to see how accu- 
rate was the aim of a few well filled hands 
that sought to reward this confidence. The 
little creature heard the "chink" of the 
copper in her apron, closed it tightly at the 
mouth, and went away with a beaming 

I sketohod this picture on the tablets of 
my memory, and recently got an artist to 
reproduce it in a more permineut form ; 
and here euhmit it with my hurried account 
of the " Little Scotch Beggars." 

Extra Copies o( the "Journal" 

Will be sent free to teachers and others who 
desire to make an effort to secure a club of 

The Art of Writing. 

As Viewed and Trkatkd by the Father 

Of Spbnckbian Penmanship. 

By R. C. Spencer. 


In 1815, when he was fift«en yeara old, 
and just before commencing to clerk for 
Anon Harmon, Piatt R. Spencer Uught his 
first <daa8 iu writing in the town of Kings- 
ville, a few miles east of the village of 
Ashtabula, Ashtabula County, Ohio. He 
was BO elated with his success In teaching 
that he did not stay to collect his pay, but 
hurried off to teach another class. In this 
he showed that fondness for imparting in- 
struction and that unselfish interest iu the 
work which characterized him through life. 

He entered upon his mercantile clerkship 
with a strong desire for knowledge, a paa- 
sion for the art of writing as the potent in- 
atrument of intelligence, and fondness for 

His boyish experience in teaching writing 
had quickened his active mind, roused his 
energy and enthusiasm, and prepared him 
for the keener observation and critical study 
of the various specimens of handwriting 
which were to come under his eye in the 
business and correspondence of his em- 
ployer, from which, doubtless, he absorbed 
much that became incorporated into his 
views of the subject of business writing. 
Of this he seemed through life to be con- 
scious; for, coupled with his originality and 
inventiveness was a wonderful impressibil- 
ity. Scarcely anything escaped his obser- 
vation, and he was apt to make useful 
deductions from whatever came under his 
notice. Here, then, were the iutiuences 
and needs of business, in their relations to 
the art of writing, working upon his mind 
in preparing him for that mission in life as 
teacher and author which made him famous 
for his usefulness, genius and skill. 

The growth and perfecting of the style of 
writing which he gave to the world waa a 
gradual process of development from the 
rare endowments of his physical and mental 
constitution and the eircumstancea of his 
life. A strong element leading up to the 
grand result was his high moral nature; 
his great sympathy with, and love for, his 
kind; his benevolence and philanthropy. 
It was this that directed his talents to the 
practical rather than to the ornamental in 
the art of writing. The elements of artistic 
genius were strong in him ; and but for the 
benevolent and philanthropic cast of hia 
moral nature, and his early consciousness of 
the low and neglected condition of " the art 
of arts" made all the more apparent to 
him by his observations and experience as 
a merchant's clerk, he would, had circum- 
stances favored, turned bis attention more 
toward the purely artistic, and less to the 
practical. His contributions toward the 
improvement of the practical art of writing 
in after years, and the widespread and deep 
influence which he exerttd upon this im- 
portant branch of education, were the out- 
come evidently of a fortunate combination 
of elements in the man himself and of the 
ripeness of the time iu which he lived for 
the work that he was inspired to accom- 
plish for society. 

(vhich 1 

Obsequies of Queen Elizabeth. 

Queen Elizabeth waa buried at Weat- 
i theStith of April, WOH. "At 
'" says (Stowe) "that citie waa 
surcharged with multitudes of all sorts of 
people in their streets, houses, windows, 
leads and gutters, that came to see the ob- 
sequies; and when they beheld her statue 
or picture lying upon the cofiSn, set forth in 
royal robes, having a crown upon the head 
thereof, and a ball or sceptre in either hand, 
there was sueh a general syghing, groaning 
and weeping as the like hath uot beene 
een or knowne in the memories of man, 
neyther doth any historie meution any peo- 
ple, time or state, to make the like lamen- 
for the death of thoir aoveryne," 
The funeral cost £17,428. 

An Ode to the Pen. 

Bv Will Cahltom. 




A into ft bagr'pe "^^^ 
bomM Moore, liii »ou1 


e Longr<;11ow«triick 

I tby cheap aoJ eauj- n-leldeil proDg* 

C-rdB o( iuki>elle< 

Educational Notes. 

[CommuDicalionB for tliis Deparlmenl may 
be addreaaed to B. F. KkllkY,"20o Broadway^ 
New York. Brief educaiioual itwms eolicited.j 

The University of Jlissiesippi baa opened 
all its departinenta to women. 

The largest school in the world is the 
Jews' fiee ecbool in SpitalSolds, London. 

The South is beginning to see that the 
BpelliDg-book is belter than the shotgun. 

Minnesota employed 5,4^2 teachers last 
year, of whom 1,5^5 were men, and 3,857 

Princeton baB the honor of possessing the 
identical electrical machine that Dr. Prank- 

The Dartmouth says that sixty per cent, 
of the studcQts in American colleges are 

L^st year Columbia's total revenue was 
$312,0011; t-.tal expenditure, $555,000.— 
Ilerald- Crimson. 

An Indian student at a school in lluats- 
ville, Tex., was recently expelled fur packing 
his clothes io a trunk on Sunday. 

Ii is found that there are over ;i,0()0,flOO 
scholars of both sexes iu the schuuls of 
Italy. This i? the nioih part of the whole 
population of the kiugdum. — Hiffh School 

The New Hampshire Lfgislature has 
passed a bill granting S5,0Ult per year to 
Dartmouth College, to be applied in aid of 
indigent sluiiontP. This is tho first money 
granted by the State to the institution fur 
one hundred years. — 'Varsity. 

Aciiording to rece 
schools of Germany are suffering from over 
study. In the agricultural schools it is said 
that DO fewer than twenty-four sul-jfcts are 
required during ihe six or seven years which 
are supposed to complete the course. 

Henry Saybert left by his late will $50,- 
000 to the Uuiversity of Pennsylvania, for 
the purpose of endowing a professorship 
which shall investigate the philosophy of 
spiritualism. Acjminittee of five members 
of the Faculty baa been appninted to uiake 
the investigation. — Pennsylvania Teacher. 

The bastinado is the common form of 
puQishnieiit in Syria, and it is to be uted 
with much severity by the native teachers. 

A visitor at one of these icbools was invited 
to hear the boys recite, after which the 
teacher offered to whip the school, from the 
largest to the smallest, to show how well he 
could govern. 

It is claimed for the New Shorthand 
recently developed, that it can he learned in 
siiteen lessons, and is so simple, legible, 
and pr«, that not only a reform, but a 
revolution is now inaugurated iu the field of 
stenography. The New Shorthand Com- 
pany's oflice is at Spenoerian Hall, New 
York City. 

Indian Territouy. — The Worcester 
Academy, established at Vinita fur the In- 
dian?, by the Woman's'^Si^artment of the 
Home Missionary Society, has over one 
hundred pupils, all it can accommodate. 
Many have been turned away for lack of 
room. Ooe Shawnee girl has applied fjr 
Fpecial iustruction in German and mathe- 
matics who will have to come thirty miles 
for each recitation. — School Journal. 

ly Bu.lneti cillejre i'emi might not be inarpropriHle 

Educational Fancies. 

[ In every instance where the eourci 

item used in thie deparltnent is kuo 

proper credit is given. A lik« count 

others will be appreciated,] 

What part of gramm 

t Sjn- 

If twice 11 are 23, how can twice 10 he 
twenty-two t 

Teacher: "Now, then, stupid, what's 
the next word t What comes after cheese ? ' 
Dull boy: " Mouse, sir." 

Teacher. " Who was the strongest man V 

Boy. " Jonah, because the whale couldn't 
hold him after he got him down." 

iftUly c: 


"A kiss," said young Charles, "is a 
□ouo we allow : but tell me, my dear, is it 
proper or common ?" Lively Mary blushed 
deep and exclaimed, ** Why, I think it is 

The Boston Courier : At the kindergar- 
ten—" Now, children, what is the name of 
the meal you eat in the morning?'' " Oat- 
meal," replies a precocious member of the 

" What influence has the moon upon the 
tide t" asked the professor. The class wag 
replied that he didn't know exactly what 
iuduence it had upon the tide, but it had a 
tendency to make the untied awful spoony. 

A teacher asked: " What bird is large 
enough to carry off a mau ?" Nobody 
knew, but one little girl suggested " a lark."' 
And then she explained: "Mamma said 
papa wouldn't be home until Saturday, be- 
cause he had gone ofi* on a lark." 

The boy who returned homfi from school 
at a suspiciously late hour, on being called 
to account for bis lardiuess, remarked that 
he had done so well on his lessons that day 
that his teacher gave him an encore on his 
Latin recitation. — Columbia Spectator. 

"Ethel," said the teacher, "whom do 
tho ancients say supported the world on his 
shoulderf "Alias, sir." "You're quite 
right," said the teacher." Atlas supported 
the woild. Now, who siipporled Atlas f 
" I suppose," eaid Ethel, soflly — " I sup- 
pose he married a rich wife." 

Professor in D bliral class to student: 
" Mr. B , why is it you never have your 
lesson? I don't believe you could r^^peat 
two passages of Scripture if your life de- 
pended on it." Student: " I think I could, 
Professor." Prof: " Very well, let's hear 
them." Student {-lowly) : " And straight- 
way he went and hanged himself. ( Pause.) 
Go thou and do likewise."— £x. 

A London oculist says that culture di- 
minishes the size of the eyes. Now, just 

listen to that ! Everybody knows that 
small i'd are a sign of entire absence of cul- 
ture. "Thai's not what I meant," re- 
sponded the professor. " Iu ancient days 
knowledge was coufiued to a few learnt-d 
men, but nowadays almost every donkey 
knows as much as a professor." The stu- 
dents looked at each other, nodded, and 
whispered, " That's so." — Tej:as Siftings. 


Everybody is now taught to write, and 
there nro probably few persons belonging 
to what are called the respectable classes 
who do not imagine that they can write a 
letter fairly, both as regards calligraphy and 
jxpres&bin. Hut there is an 
amount of bad letter-writing. In 
umber of cases, persons of good 



I the! 

own name intelligibly. We have seeu a 
letter written by a "finished" young lady 
of the period, in her nineteenth year. The 
penmanship itself was ugly, ungaiuly, and 
awkward; the spelling of several ordi 
naiy wo.ds nas incorrect; small letters 
were used where CHpitals ought to have 
been ; and we wondered, as we perused the 
ill composed, badly-written document, how 
a being of even moderate abilities cuiitd 
send f.irth anything so impeifect. Yet this 
young lady had been~ for years at a high- 
class school where masters had taught Eng- 
lish in all its branches, the mistress of which 
also was a lady of cultivation and refine- 
ment. Penmanship is far too little attended 
to in schools, even of the best class. No 
doubt ornamental writing is often taught; 
but this style generally unfits the pupil fur 
the plain, every -day process. The b'sl 
model for daily use should be placed befnre 
the young lad/ fur at least one year before 
she leaves school, and after she has emerged 
from the regular text and half-text copies. 
Epistulary composition should also he stud- 
ied as a distinct accomplishment, if the pu- 
pil have no natural talent that way. 

Good penmanship is as necessary for a 
lady or gentleman as a good style of talkiug 
or reading. If a man is owner of a large es- 

command, we wonder all the more if he 
writes a mean, cramped, or illiterate hand. 
We take up his letter with a feelicg of sur- 
prise, and say. " What ! is this the produc- 
tion of So-and-So? It looks like the 
wretched scraping of some poor laborer, 
with a scarcity of ink to boot." Bad writ 
ing haa the same effect upon the eye as 
discordant tones in music have upon the 

Much has been said about judging char- 
acter by handwriting. In many cases, how- 
ever, we should feel far from jusliSed in 
reading an individual's habits or disposltiim 
in the writing he or she may produce. The 

tation, hut is often, also, a result of whim, 
without regard to what is neat, tasteful, or 
intelligible. Perhaps it might ba as correct 
to say that it is a result of carelessness. AVe 
happen to know an English clergyman of 
dietmcliun whose letters are next thing to 
unreadable. Consisting of irregular scratch- 
ings, their meaning is barely guessed at, ex- 
cept by some one skilled in deciphering 
them. Is not such writing very like an in- 
diguity towards the individuals addreseedf 
We entertain an utter detestation of this 
eccentricity in letter-writing, whether caused 
by sheer carelessness or by perverse oddity. 
We say the same thiig ot confused, unin- 
telligible signatures. No one is entitled to 
torment correspondents by these 

It is difficult to realize the 
her of those who are brought, day by day, 
into correspondence, and exchange many 
letters, perhaps without ever meeting; and 
as nothing is more misleading than written 
of.mmunications between people who are 
personally unacquainted with each other, 
the amount of misapprehension going on 
around us must be very great. An editor, 
for instance, may have corresponded for 

years with a writer whom he has never 
seen, and while conversant with bis or her 
literary ability, may be a total stranger to 
the character of his contributor. It U curious 
how often it happens that those who may 
write their thoughts and feelings in expres- 
sions perfectly natural to them, convey to 
their readers ideas of their mind, manner, 
and appearance often much at variance with 
the truth. Mere handwriting haa with sime 
a great effect— far more than is justified. A 
crabbed writing, difficult to decipher, cer- 
tainly detracts from the pleasure of reading 
even the brightest ideas, while a free, legi 
ble hand is prepossessing, carries you easily 
over common-place, and enhances tho charm 
of well-constructed, sentences. Writing may 
be allowed to be characteristic, inasmuch as 
it indicates, to a certain extent, temper and 
temperamenl ; but even on tlipso points it is 

command a manual dexterity suffii-ient to 
make writing free enough to harmonize with 
their really powerful character. 

One who has taken much interest in wo- 
man's work for women, relivles that the most 
elegant, refined-looking tetters thiit she ever 
received, interesting her det-ply, and induc- 
ing her, before an interview, to commit her- 
self to promise of certain assistance, were 
from a dreadful old woman of enormous 
size, dirty, ragged, repulsive, degraded— in 
a word, drunken — whom it was impossible 

A companion with much strength of body 
and mind was required to attend to a lady 
who needed "supervision," numerous 
applicants, one was selected whose letters 
were in a fine, hold writing, w! 

a teleg 



unnecessary word.'', and conveyed an impres- 
sion of steady phlegmatic presence of mind 
and capability of exerciaiug control. An in- 
terview was requested ; and a limp, shrimp 
of a (Woman presented herself, shy, nervous, 
and halting in speech, on whom the lady re- 
quiring supervisioff^would soon have " turned 
the tables." 

Some are courageous, not to say audacious, 
on paper,^who in personal intercourse are 
very much the reverse/ Not difficult to un- 
derstand, this — because in fyllowiug the 
train ^ our own thoughts we frequently lose 
the sense that we are writing for any eye 
but our own ; and the mistakes arising from 
this audacity lead to doubtful situations and 
perplexities. Those- and, paradoxical as 
it may appear, there are many — who have 
immoderate affections and very moderate 
passions, are the most likely to he betrayed 
into expressions of which they do not realize 
the force and interpretation possible to them. 
Oa the other hacd, people of violent temper 
and passions, conscious of the meaning of 
their words, are often very reticent in cor- 
respondence. Ttjere is little doubt but that 
the most matter-of fact among us are im- 
pressed with "the ideal" in a way they 
hardly acknowledge. 

Before concluding, we would revert to the 
evils of illegible calligraphy, and offer a 
word to those who have occasion to submit 
their manuscripts to the scrutiny of others. 
To an editor, nothing is more annoying than 
a bundle of badly-written and confused 
manuscript; and many an article, no matter 
how intrinsically good it u)ay have been, has 
been coudcmned.and returned to tlie author 
unread, siuiply on account of the villaisous 
calligraphy.— CftuiH&frs's Journal. 

Responsibility for Mail. 

The risk of sending proper'y directed mat- 
ter by mail is very slight; aud iu all cases 
where the remittor will hand the same to 
the postmaster for examination before seal- 
ing, we will be respimsibl© for losses; and 
on the statement of the postmas'or that he 
saw the money inclosed and duly mailed, 
wo will consider it the same as received by 
us. Persons directing books and packages 
to he sent by mail mny have the same re- 
gistered by simply remitting ten cents ex- 
tra. All such packages are sent at the 
risk of tho person who orders. 

The Oblique Holder. 
Bv Chandler II. Peirce. 

This age of wonderful inveution ia Icav 

a people, 
r iQiiustry 

of the 

its mark in every departiiieut w 
tion has any jii9t claims. We, 
point w ith priilo tti the result of 
and labor, aud upon every liaud we 
sured of our univerBal activity and 
Praise comes from every quartet 
globe, and we, ourselves, are not slow to 
see that rttpid strides are being taken toward 
completing and perfecting all that pertains 
to a very advanced stage of civilization. 
One department keeps pace with another 
until, by comparison, it would be difficult 
to tell which has the lead. While those en- 
gaged in any branch are in a measure igno- 
rant and blind to the interests of another, 
yet do we see the same energy and tact dis- 
played by all tbdt evidently furthers the in- 
terests of each, and secures the highest at- 
tainable reaulta. 

We are constantly being surprised at the 
wonderful inventions, and ignorance with 
many asserts itself too often for no other cause 

(dden time." There is no apolugy net^esaary 
tor the general and particular shape of the 
aforoaaid obllciue holder— that unJoubtedly 
has proven invaltiabte to a largo per cpnt. of 
those who know how to wield the pen to 

than tbrt 

, ot envy, and a deair 


to lessen the importance of 
CKpense of aoolher. As " the proof of the 
pudding ia in the 
cbewing of the 
string," so aro in- 
ventions rendered 
advantageous and 
profitable by a 
practical applica- 
tion to every-day 
affiirs. We hope 
to see the day when 
the many will not" 
cry out against that 
which ia new; that 
which is ia its in- 
fancy ; that which 
in the germ seems 

that which by the 
l>roper nurture will 
prove beneficial to 
mankind. If our 
education serves us 
any purpose, it 
should eavor of lib- 
erality in thought, 
ard not condemn 
anything that places 
us beyond barbaric 
times. We should 
be proud of every 
intere£t that repre- 
eents our country's 
alvancement, and 



not a few who must meet the demands of 
business by producing small, ligh', smooth, 
even, busiueis-wriling. The shape dues no 
more than conform to the laws that govern 
other mechanical contrivances Look, ex- 
amine, and compare for yourself. Every- 
thing looks odd at first sight, so do not con- 
deuiu because it looks so queer — ao different 
from what you have been used to. The 
beauty, the utility of anything is not deter- 
mined by ffjaks of fancy from the faslidious. 
Something more substantial must be the 
ruling power, hence it is proclaimed by 
competent judges that the oblique holder ia 
an iudispcuaable requisition to the highest 
at'ainablo results. 

Tne haudle of a scythe is too utterly 
crooked for anything, yet wiih all its crook- 
edness it serves to produce a slraightuess 
that is justly admired and appreciated. The 
oMi<iue holder, like the snath, isconsiruotod 
upon scientific principles, and has for its "b- 
jective point utility rather than beauty. Yet, 

uolhingism, with 

The mission of 
vince a man agai 
liqtie holder has 

one will attempt 
all othe 
weak points, 

eptible to it. The spirit of con- 
is too often baaed upon know- 
a, with a tincture of total de- 

trticle is not to cod - 
is will, that the ob- 
rior merit, and that 



} pallie 

deny. Like 
a strong and 
1 never was intended to 
pacity with equal etfdct. 

onccdo tha 


at all essential, then 
of necessity admit the use of th( 
onal holder. If ornament ia desirable, then 
shade, aa a part of it, is accelerated by the 
ob'.ique holder. The oblique holder was 
never intended for the uee of a coarse pen. 
To those who prefiT the coarse pen let them 
by all means use the straight holder. I do 
not deny but that in business generally, the 
coarse pen ia preferred to the fine — hence 
the straight holder the preference over the 
oblique. But this does not prove that the 
oblique has not iiB mission to perform. 

Oue of the catises of very much of the 
very poor writing of to-day 
tion of the materials. A cos 

I the selec- 

condition of his tuols. Whatever may be 
his skill, the results must confor'n in a great 
measure to a general law. Again, where 
there is do choice, and we are expected to 
use what everyone else has condemneJ, it is 
then that our effirts are the least, and our 
result! the poorest, because we are conscious 
that the very worst must follow, and bo do 
not try. Skilled workmen iavariably use 
the beat tools. 

Let tho'e who expect excellent or supe- 
rior results conclude that the diagonal hi Id- 
er properly used will serve a purpose that 
the straight never has or can. I do not as- 
sert that the straight bolder in the hands of 
the skillful penman cannot be used to a de- 
cided advantag 
8trai.^ht scythe 

agonal holder, like the crooked scythe-han- 
dle, is a very valuable improvement, and 
both are to be appreciated alike for the su- 
perior qualities they possess. 

The adoption of the oblique holder by the 
fraternity precludes the possibility of a sup- 
position that the original verbatim directions 
for holding the straight holder a 

. I do not 
handle cann 

contend that a 
ot be used ad 

I simply as 

ert that the dl 

rith the obliqui 
3 held to c 




The oblique pen- 
holder is a produc- 
tion of this Nine- 
teenth Century, and 
of mocbani 
ita utility, 

If the straight holder 
3 rules of a majtirity 
of authors, the ac- 
tion of the pen is 
about the same as 
that given by the 
oblique. *■ The ad- 
vantages claimed 
for the oblique hol- 
der are, that the 
pen is madetoslact 
in the fame degree 
as the writing 
slants, thus secur- 
ing smoother and 


Thi above cut was photo- ertfjraved from pen-and-ink copy executed 
Prof. D. B. Farley. Principal of the Commercial Department of the Stale Female Normal School. Trenton, N. J. 

much a piece 

be proud of, because of 

f>.nything else. Because its 

it. Becai 
of everyo 

I it d )i 

. the 

the purpos 
.t c.mplainl 


our country do not uae it, doea not signify 
in the least its merit or demerit. Bdcauae 
poor writers generally diacourige its use, 
will not lessen its usefuloess. Because it ia 
not used io all the busineis colleges in Illi- 
nois, will u It lessen its sale. " At firdt, the 
obliqiie holder waa destined to be used only 
by thefe / professional penm9n.and cranks"; 
but, like all other predictions of an ignorant 
and unjust discerning public, we fiud it at 
this hour in general fivor not only by intel- 
ligent penmen, but by a large force in the 
buaineas comuiijuiiy, who have risked a fdir 
trial, aud found its mfirils great enough to 
insure a higher order of results by its adop- 

The cranks whom it was predioled were 
to wield this *' instrument of torture" have 
continued to vote the democratic ticket, and 
are yet wedded to the atraight holder of "ye 

while the latter has not been ignored, there 
is no claim for its use upon that score. Sci- 
entific! yes, scientific! It is an acknowl- 
edged fact, susceptible cf proof, that the 
semi-angular writing, or writing produced 
upon aslant of about 50°, is preferred to all 
others. While the holder does not materially 
determine the direction of the writing yet 
the position of the pen in the bolder is re- 
garded by experts as a matter very essential 
to its moat perfect actinu. As the straight 
holder is generally held it ia parallel n ith 

the a 

sirily draw 
than the ol 

results am 
While thii 
and fine pc 
on the 

, and the i 

n exec 

ution neoes- 

re upo 

n one point 

pre th 

action im- 

if^ct u 


raste c 

f materials. 

rule, w 

ith medium 

will c 

onsider later 

;ct'ptinn, VIZ., coarse pens. Agam, 
the oblique holder haaao ailjustable keeper, 
which admits of the pen being placed not 
only in a manner to produce smooth and 
oven actiou, which secures the greatest du- 
rability ; but the comi'osition of this keeper, 
together with ita mechanical construction, 
gives an elastiolty that is highly prized by 

thing tha 

productive of poor writing than a medium 
or fine one. Ciarse, rough foot-wear, in 
sizes to admit of all possible shrinkage, will 
ovenly, uncomely gait, Any- 
productive of carelessness must 
3r, and disaster leada to ruin. 
Coarse pens of the varl >us grades, with the 
stub thrown io, meet with general approval ; 
yet facts go to prove that a busy life in 
which the peu ia indispensable, degenera- 
tion by the mass is considered inevitable. 
The cause cannot be wholly attributed to 
the pen, yet its portion should not be lost 
sight of, when it is conceded that the aver- 
ago business pen found in hotels, post- 
offices, ex press -offices, aud many other pub- 
lic resorts, to say nothing of not a few 
private ofTues, ia a miserable failure. I offer 
no remedy in this matter. I am ouly simply 
contending that a coarse peu in a straight 
holder ia not productive of the heal results, 
and ihct carelessness is engendered to such 
an extent as to produce retrogressiin rather 
than progression. The selection of the in- 
strument to bo used in execution must, in a 
measure, determine the result of the work. 
No good workman can disregard the proper 

with the straight 
holder, and the pen 
being made to stand 
squarely on the 
point all the tim«, 
the durability of the 
pen is greatly in- 
creased." Just eo; 
but while this ia an 
accepted fact among 
the supporters of 
the oblique, ia it 
not eq'ially true if 
the straight holder 
be held properly? 
Praw-per-ly, yes, 

But it is a very 
difficult matter not 
only to hold^'the 
pen correct! y, ^bnt 
even greater to' so 
adjust the hand that 
it may rest upon the 
nails of the third 
aud fourth fingers 
I while executing. Father Spencer's directions 
for holding the pen are in direct conformity 
to every known law govern'ng reason and 
I good sense, and the application of these di- 
I rec:ion3 must remain the same throughout 
j all times, providing the straight holder be 
used for execution. Admitting, then, 
that the strdight holder is governed by cer- 
tain Uws, are these same lawa app icable to 
the oblique f 

If the hand assumes tb^ correct poeltioa 
with the straight holder, will not the same 
position be incorrect with the oblique hold- 
er ? Why was the oblique penholder in- 
vented? Surely not as a novelty ; but, if so, 
it has long aincd worn off, and its utility ia 
beyond peradventure, " Noc eaily is the 
mother of invention." The oblique pen- 
holder waa a necessity, and, as such, was in- 
vented to meet the requirements of its time. 
If the penmanship of to-day is superior to 
the generation that has preceded us, it sure- 
ly is equivalent to eayiug that the inotni- 
meuts need in execution aro superior. If 
war to-day ia more formidable than it was 
in early times, it ia not due to mere bravi ry. 
buj to the meana employed which inveuticu 

biia wrought. I fully comprebend thftt there 
are modifying iofiueDces, yet do I etand firm 
aod proclaim the supremacy of the oblique 

The position of the baud in executiou is 
Dot the same as with the straight, no more 
than the position of the lody is the same 
in mowing with the crooked scythe-handle 
as with the straight. 

mgb mul«. 

. ffhine 

(N. B.— The above is not intended for 

While in the one the hack was made to 
assume a much eKS-er position, so in the 
other the hand Jres not undergo the least 
torture. I, for one, consider the obliijue 
bolder a blessing to mankind, and I know 
that I voice the opinion of competent judges 
when I pronounce the verdict that it is not 
only a fixture, but is the vehicle through 
which the greatest good is to be secured to 
the greatest number. 

Recollections Respecting My 
Writing Teachers. 
By Geo. M. Nilol. 
How delightful are the recollections that 
sometimes come jerking along over the 
hilN of time I The echoes ring through our 
sonN, again and again, in consequence of 
the great clearness of the atmosphere. In 
looking down the years we ngaiu witness 
the opening dawn of days of exceeding 
splendor, watch the thick mists of night 
dissolve into the gray twilight, ami ride 
with a sort of joy ou the wild billows' top- 
most wave, and iu the deep dark abyss of 
M'flters And delightful, too, is the pleas- 
ure that comes from bringing to a halt a 
happy few from the long tiles that march 
before' a vision. Notwithstanding the 
sluggishness of my disposition I yield to iin 
■ impulse prompting me to stndl backward 
in the Ispso of time and call up spirits from 
whom I have received benefits. 

George Bbickley. 

My first recollection of making "pot- 
hooks" was with the old "goose-quills," 
under the instruction of George Brickley, 
who taught the Hammond district school, 
St. Lawrence County, N. Y. Even to-day 
the oft-repeated request, ''Teacher, please 
mend my pen," would sound strikingly fa- 
inilliar to my ears. Well do I recollect 
how wo spurned the steel-pen, when first 
introduced, as a thing of little account. At 
that time a common school teacher's capac- 
ity was measured in no slight degree by his 
skill in making a pen. My teacher, there- 
fore, esteemed all his other attainments 
more valuable on that account, and super- 
latively io for the neatness of his band- 

Mr. Brickley was an eccentric man ; in 
fact, he had short spells of insanity, and 
during hie demency there was, of course, 
no school. He was very leanifd, as we 
thought; very formal, as we saw; very se- 
vere, as we felt. Among his eccentricities 
there was none more laughable and cryable 
than his manner of inflicting punishment. 
It was a maxim with him that justice 
should not only be done, but a -knowledgod. 
And thus such scenes as the following were 
of frequent oc-urreuce : 

reac;tcr—"He2kirthWinchesler Brown?" 

Tea.—" Present yourself hither." " Hez- 
kiiih moves slowly and reluctantly to the 
teacher's desk. ) " Ah ! Hezkiah Win- 
chester, guilt is stamped upim your counte- 
nance. No doubt you felt proud and 
happy in committing the offense " 

Hee.~"l didn't mean-" 

Tea—'* You are likely to become the 
enemy of mankind, Hczkiah, if your pro- 
pensity to evil is not modified by some 
wholesome discipline. Is it not soT" 

Hes.~" But, sir, I did not in—" 

Tea.—" CerUiuly not, certainly not, 
Hezkiah." (Taking a ferule from his 

desk. } " Evil must be repressed, evil 
must be repressed. Hold out your right- 
hand." ( Whack, whack, whack.) 

He^.—" Oh, sir, I did'nt mean to do it." 

Tea. — "Very likely! very likely! my 
dear boy. My conscience would upbraid 
me, however, were I to deal unjustly by 
you." ( Whack, whack, whack, and a cry 
from Hezkiah.) 

Ues.—" Oh, sir, I will never do it again." 

lea. — '' I trust not, Hezkiah. My hope 
is that you will in due time enjoy the 
blessings of self restraint. Hold out your 
other hand." (Whack, whack, whack, 
and a screech from Hezkiah.) 

Hez.—" Oh please don't I'll nev— " 

Tea. — " I hope you will not, Hezkiah ; 
but I fear your memory has not yet been 
sutliciently strengthened. Hold out again 
your other hand. Why don't you obeyf" 
( A stroke across the shoulders.) 

-//«. — "Oh yo— ye— yes, it has" (sob- 

Tea.—" I fear not, Hezkiah." (Whacks, 
and screams from Hezkiah, who' squirms, 
and endeavors to shield this hand wlthiu 
the teacher's firm grasp.) 

Hez.—" Oh, Mr. Brickley ! don't ! oh ! 
please, please, don't! I'll never, nev—" 

Tea. — " No doubt, dear boy, you now 
think that you will not; bnt I fear the im- 
pression is still too light. Do you not think 
I am conferring a great benefit by—" 

sesses. His wealth of knowledge and ex- 
perience, his versatility, and his superb 
mastery of the pen ought to make him 
truly a powerful leader of public thought. 
He is now conducting a business and phon- 
ogniphic college at La Porte, Ind. 

Geo. W. Eastman. 
The glorious beams of a vernal sun 
ajestically above the horizon 



r«o.— "Don't, eh?" (Whacks in quick 
succession, and wails from Hezkiah.) 

Ut^- — " Oh, ye?, sir, yes, yes, yes." 

Tea.—" Do you think, Hezkiah, I derive 
pleasure in laboring thus for your ultimate 

i/ej.-"Ye-ye-yes,s-s^8ir."( Blub- 

7«a.— "You do, do you f (Whacks up- 
on the knuckles, slashes across the shoul- 
ders, and wails from Hezkiah.) 

Hez.-" No, sir, no, no, no." 

Tea.—" Now, dearboy, do you think this 
castigaiion inadequate to a rightful com- 
prehension of the advantages of chastise- 
ment, and a just appreciation of my tender 
regard ? " 

if«.— "Ve — ye — yes, sir, I— I do." 
(Still blubbering.) 

Tea.—" Confound your obstinacy! (his- 
sing.) "Confound your obstinacy!" 
(Whacks and slashes on the most availa- 
ble parts of Hezkiah's body, and a kick 
that seuds him reeling.) 

M-.--"Oh, no— o— o, sir— r-r, no— o 

7«a.—" That's right." (Whack) " That's 
a good boy." (Slash.) That's right. 
(Slash.) You may now take yonr seat, 
my good boy, and cry as much as you wish, 
but without disturbing the school." 

John B. Holmes. 

I first gave special ear unto words on 
penmanship about— without too much 
scrupulosity, say- thirty years ago, and 
culled some fruit from John B. Holmes's 
iustructious that pleased me well. He it 
was who kindled within me a fire which 
grew and grew and grew till it glowed like 
the glare of Vulcan's forge. The catego- 
ries of both Aristotle and Kant were quite 
insufficient to express my youthful opiuion 
of his productions. 

Mr. Holmes was a man of mild aud pre- 
possessing manners, agreeable humor, and 
possessing substantial accomplishments. 
He afterward went through the curricula of 
the higher schools, and in duo time the 
degrees of A.M. and LL.D. were conferred 
upon him. He conducted for some time 
the phonographic department of D. T. 
Ames's business college, Syracuse, N. Y.; 
afterward ho filled the several positions of 
literary and political editor on one of the 
principal Chicago papers. As a writer for 
the press he is splendidly equipped, and 
while endowed with a naturally bright in- 
tellect, yet by hard, unremitting and enthu- 
siastic study, he developed it to a splen.lid 
vigor; for only by varied reading and earn- 
est application is it possible to attain tlie 
stretch of encyclopedic knowledge he pos- 


shed its exhilarating iuHuence in a flood of 
light and warmth upon me' as I sat in a 
vehicle coursing my way to a depot, miles 
away, iu Northern New York. La/ily, in- 
deed, the horses seemed to move their slow 
length along as bright visions intoxicated 
me with accomplishments available in the 
immediate business of life I was about to 
secure, in a brief time, through some de- 
terminate means, at Eastman's Business 
College, Rochester, N. Y., whither I was 
journeying. "Ere time had rolled earth's 
fields round twain" my agreeable specula- 
tions of worldly advantages had taken 
llight, aud my mind wa.s weighted with the 
hustle, aud seeming confusion, and the 
beauty of the only city I had ever visited. 
Some hours sped by before I went up to 
the temple of learning. Alas 1 the illus- 
trated circular which I had received aud 
the real college broke companionship as 
suddenly as Pliable and Christian in the 
Slough of Despond ; aud ever afterward 
made each other appear ridiculous by ex- 
aggeration and caricature-the circular ex- 
aggerating the college, and the c .liege 
caricaturing the circular. Like Chrisiian. 
when he espied Apollyou, I began to cast 
in my mind whether to go home, or to 
stand my ground. I decided to venture, 
however, and, throwing my soul into the 

work, my progress was Modesty here 

clutches my pen. Week after week were 
notched in the stick of time, and not a 
glimpse had I caught of the great Eastmau 
himself. It was told to those who had the 
curiosity to inquire that he was passing a 
brief time at his country-seat. With a 
thrill of gratification I had seen, however 
his splendid pieces of workmanship, and my 
eyes had beamed with a bacchanalian lustre 
upon the largest number of empty cham- 
pagne bottles I have ever seen together. 
They were heaped in a comer of his pri- 
vate office, where do " bad boy " was ever 
permitted to enter except by giving the 
janitor the right hand of democracy, and 
some token at eariy morn that would affect 
the muscles of his consequential face. One 
morning the school was slightly agitated 
by a report that Eastman had returned; 
shortly thereafter my eyes were riveted up- 
on, I verily believed, the greatest penman 
of the age ; dressed in a spotless suit of 
snowy white, standing alone, erect, immov- 
able for at least ten minutes in the effective 
pose of a Grecian statue; his raven hair 
aud piercing black eyes in agreeable con- 
trast to his immaculate suit. Had he but 
turned on his heels and loft the room with- 
out utterauce, the tripping fairies would 
have burniaheil for me a goldeu dream. 
But, alas! he opened his mouth, and 
speech bewrought his fall. His egotism 
made nie wretched, at the same time his in- 
telligence impressed me with good things. 
Verily his brain was disordered by vain 
conceit; his imagiuatiou conjured up the 
greatness of / in all his outgoings aud in- 
comings; the burden of his private talks 
was I. and his instructions were hut a re- 
frain. But who docs not withdraw, in 
more or less degree, from the direction of 
superior wisdom, and bring unfortunate 
consequences upon themselves? Notwith- 
standing Eastman's weaknesses he was a 
man of no mean ability; ho left his good 
deeds to chronicle themselves in the grateful 
and affectionate remembrauce of those who 
knew him best and can better appreciate 
his eteriing qualities and goodness of 
heart. Requiescant in pace. 

J. V. R. Chapman. 

Jupiter, graciously bending his ear, 

heard the prayer, and J. V. R. Chapman, 

of Rochester, N. Y., was made Adonic in 

personal appearance, and given notes that 
delighted with their musical power. At 
his feet I sat, and listened with the great- 
est attention to the most thorough analytic 
treatment of letters, and complied with his 
command. "Slide one, slide two, slide 
three ! " etc. Mr. Chapman was a devotee 
to penmanship in the justcst eeuse of that 
word. He did not imagine himself supe- 
rior to all others, nor create dissatisfaction 
and distrust of one's own natural powers. 
Ho was the man to please, aud encourage 
one to feel " that Nature sets her gifts on 
the right-hand and on the left"; his 
graceful praise and ingenious criticism flat- 
tered the hope till the timid hand became 

Two or three years after my pupilage 
%vith Chapman I visited him on the third 
day of the State Fair which was being 
held in his city. His grave aspiration to 
complete, for his own gratification, an 
equestrian pen-picture of Washington— 
instead of the Evil One, as it appeared to 
nie— so thoroughly weakened his desire to 
visit the fair that he peremptorily declined 
accompanying me thither— even after my 
offer to procure a hack, and treat him to 
vino de grosella and sidra. I looked with 
compassion on the man as he ardently la- 
bored merely to invoke, imconsciously, the 
censures of both this and the spirit world; 
for no mortal could ever hope upon a 
guardian in the spirit of the " great illus 
trious" so long as that overcharged picture 
remained intact upon the earth. If exam- 
ple be necessary to prove that assiduous 
toil unaided by competent assistance dots 
not develop the highest possibility, refer- 
ence may be made to the life of Chapman. 
The beauty of his ordinary writing caught 
the eye; his merit and amiability as a 
teacher — the heart. 

Professor Gounlock. 

It was impossible not to be struck with 
the contrast afforded by Chapman's and 
my next teacher's lettering aud ornamental 
work-Prof. GouLloi-k, of Preston, Onta- 
rio. While Gounhck was never pleased 
to hear the skill of another dexterous pen- 
man depreciated, he had himself a stentorian 
voice and a vocabulary that sometimcK 
buried the most ludicrous projectiles against 
his competitors. At one time he was all 
rage ; at another, all sarcasm ; at another, 
all humor; at another, vowing never 
again to exhibit bis work in public His 

ilVauied masterpiece — a work of ^.-rent 
merit- was marked with a compel itni's 
fire. By reason of its having been awarded 
only second prize, at a pr»viucial exhibition, 
he was possessed with the idea it was un- 
worthy of a frame ; therefore somewhat 
soiled. At first my sympathy was so 
wrought upon, especially by the frequent 
allusion to the above grievauee, I feared it 
would prove a hindrance to my improve- 
ment. Gounlock's likes were strong ; his 
dislikes, intense ; ho was a fine dassioal 
scholar, a capable teacher, and a consum- 
mate " Juhu Bull" in habits and thought. 

C. B. Knowlton. 
I retain a lively recollection of my next 
teacher, C. B. Knowlton, Buffalo, N. Y.; 
instructitr at the time in Bryant &. Strat- 
ton'e Business Ci-Uege. Although a fine 
penman, he gave something -jf the fop to 
the terminating lines of his small letters— 
the compound curve appropriating for 
every Hue all the degrees of right aud left 
inclination. I thought the conceit elegant, 
and in the spirit of imitation kept my own 
pen aloof from the short right-curve ter- 
minal till my c.-nception supplied a better 

Knowlton wa.s a most indefatigable 
worker, nervous in manner, aud c.mslantly 
showing symptoms of an interesting slate 
of agitation over the proUible pecuniary 
results of getting engravi d the productions 
of his peu. A few years afterward he 
found time, even while tilling the position 
of writing-teacher in the public schools of 
his city, to graduate both in modiciuo aud 
in law. I waa informed, a year or two 

ago, that he had grown financially, " solid," 
and was, in a measure, suspioiuned of enler- 
tainiog loose, vaguo, and contradictory uo- 
liona relative to the acme of terrestrial hap- 
piness ; for the simple reason that 

■• joyed n 

1 fondly l.te.,d. 
eat vnrtbly blij 
ideariDg kiH. 



Warren Platt Spencer. 
I next made improveineut, in Bullalo, 
under the iustruction of Warren Plait 
Spencer, nephew of Platt R. Spoiicer, orig- 
inator of the Spencerian peuinauship. He 
was born in Geneva, Ashtabula County, 
Ohio, and the years of his majority were 
spont upon his father's farm, locitod upon 
the shore of Lake Erie, in the same county. 
Soon after becoming of age he entered an 
academy at Twin^burg, Ohio, where, dtir- 
ing about two years of earnest student 
life, he made excellent progress. He 
supported himself at the academy by 
teaching penmanship. 

His knowledge and skill in penmanship 
he secured under the instruction of his 
uncle Platt. It is said that Mr. Spencer 
had very little natural aptitude for the art; 
indeed, he was not at first regarded as a 
promising pupil by his uncle; but later he 
developed n stability of purpose and such 
steady perseverance, in working hia way 
onward and upward, that he became a 
tirst-olass peuman, a most excellent teacher, 
and one of the finest blackboard writers 
this country has produced. 

He retitined a wondrous hold upon the 
afl'ections of his pupils ; even after years of 
separation his powerful influence protracted 
a correspondence which he seemed to re- 
gard as time most delightfully spent. His 
letters were never too brief; they satisfied 
l»y the manifest interest he took in his cor- 
respondent's welfare hy his excellent co^m- 
sel and by the seemingly abundant leisure 
he had to commune with friends. 

The experience that Spencer gained 
while clerk for his uncle in the Treasurer's 
Office of Ashtabula County, helped to give 
to his handwriting the plain business 
characteristics which he always retained. 
About the year 1856 lie completed a two 
years' course in law at Albany, receiving 
his diploma. Subsei|uently he taught 
writing, for several years, in the city of Buf- 
falo. He did his last teaching in 18()(i, 
when he left the schoolroom to take the 
editor's chair. He was principal owner, 
and the editor of the Geneva limes about 
fifteen years. After the death of Ms wife 
in 'tj;i he lost interest in business, and soon 
after sold his paper and retired to a neat 
little cottage within sight of hia birthplace 
to spend his days of leisure. About a year 
ago he passed into the spiritual world to 
rejoin wife, father, uncle, and hosts of 
others whom he loved here. 

Warren P. Spencer was a stroug man, 
and left the impress of his vigorous per- 
sonality wherever he went. He was a man 
of fine literary tastes, which he pursued 
with unflagging enthusiasm. He was con- 
tiuuully a student, a poet of considerable 
merit, and a clear and forcible Speaker. 
His naturally strong mind carried the 
adornments which varied reading adds, and 
his happy conversational powers scattered 
them with a geniality born in a warm 
heart, and rendered bis presence in a 
coterie of bright men always welcome 
No one who knew him could forget him 
and his kindly greeting, his cheery voice, 
his firm friendship— though now no more 
-have left among his numerous 
. resemblance so tender that the 
1 of bis name will always touch it to 
the sounding of grateful beuisons, so strong 
that it will hold his memory fresh when 
years have gone by. 


My last teacher was the noted A- R. 
'PubtoQ. In all (departments of the art U" 

was the greatest Roman of tliem all. To 
be in bis company the best of penmen 
could afford to pay a handsome sum an- 
nually. Fault after fault would soon so 
haunt their pens that either the fast con- 
vulsive throes of death would silence their 
scratch, or infuse a determination that 
nothing could surmount. He could hint of 
more subtleties, and explain more secrets, 
way oft' in the deep, broad ocean of the art 
than a score, together, of most mariners 
who have sailed -upon its bosom. His 
skill as a penman is sufficioutly known for 
me to omit testimony in proof of his pos- 
session of genius. 

There is no point of view in which the 
ludicrous, expressive of ferocity, can be 
seen to greater advantage than in an en- 
graver's room if Duuton be only present 
and critically examining proofs of his 
copies. He is a perfect terror to engrav- 
ers; and to see them together, an illusion, 
to the inexperienced, would be prolonged 
that their strong emotions wore kindled by 
some powerful stimulant; and, in the an- 
guish of his soul, perhaps, Dunton would 
be heard to exclaim: "I never knew but 
one engraver who could do me justice!" 
Speaking of illusions reminds me that but 
few professionals could equal Dunton in 
legerdemain. As an illustratiim : One 
lovely afiernoou, in June, as he and I were 
strolling together in Bjston Comm tn we 
approached a pond where a score of boys 
were playing with a small terrapin; Dun- 
ton asked permission to hold it in his hand, 
which was readily granted. Interrogating 
the boys as to what it was, its habits, etc , 
and receiving ready answers, he said : 
" Well, if it lives in water, in water it be- 
longs," and thre* it to all appearance far 
into the pond. The boys, of course, ex- 
pressed their seemingly well-grounded dis- 
approbation, and bestowed epithets as 'only 
angry boys can sometimes do. After their 
passion had somewhat cooled. I remarked 
that if the terrapin had fallen in the water 
it should have made a splasli, and there- 
fire suggested their seeking for it In his 
pockets, clothes, etc. For a few minutes 
he was besieged, and every portion of his 
clothes was examined. Alter they gave up 
the search Dunton walked over to the 
owner of the freshwater tortoise and said, 
in a loud impulsive manner, " There it 
hangs now," and, suiting bis action to 
his words, seemingly grasped the terrapin 
from the lad's nose. Never shall I forget 
the boy's momentary fright, his sudden 
start, and the utter amazement of his com- 
panion. Dunton could at any time be- 
wilder adults as easily as children. 

He was wont to boast that in case of a 
neighboring fire he would never leave his 
bed till the walls of his own dwelling be- 
came so heated that he could feel their 
warmth. One cold midwinter's night in 
'67, while living in Philadelpliia, the ad- 
joining tenement to his caught fire ; the 
noise of the fire-engines, the trumpet 
voices of the firemen, and the importunities 
of his wife moved him not; the man of 
iron nerve untroubled lay, like one with 
worry drowned in pleasant dream. Sud- 
denly, as " snuike, that rises from the kind- 
ling fires," he bounced from his bed when 
the first slight whiff of dark exhalation en- 
tered his apartment. Words fniled me to 
convey an idea of his utter demoralization, 
as described to mo by his wife a few days 
after the occurrence. The recollection of 
where he had hung his clothes had become 
a desert in his memory, his boots had 
glided from his recollection, and his cries 
were like the ebullitions of a mighty tide. 
To the credit of Duuton be it said his de- 
nial was less irrislble, but more irascible, 
than his wife's assurance. 

Souie twelve years ago I assisted Dunton 
iu filling up about fifteen hundred diplo- 
mas for the public schools of Boston. 
After our work was completed it appeared 
doubtful whether the "city fathers" would 
make an appropriation to meet our account. 
While waiting in suspense Dunton lost his 
superlatively diminutive black and tan dog; 

aud the advertised reward of twenty dol- 
lars having failed to inUuenco the thief to 
return the caiiis, I suggested the propriety 
of his consulting the "spirits," in wliom 
he fervently believed, relative to his loss. 
" I never thought of it ; I will go at once," 
said he, and immediately departed. In 
about two hours he returned, in a state of 
great agitation, and declared that the 
"spirits" had communicated to him mat- 
tors horrific. He was told, however, his 
dog would be returned to him within a few 
days; which was prophetically true. I 
asked him if ho had interrogated the spirits 
concerning our money ; receiving a nega- 
tive anstver, I oxpre^sed a wish to inter- 
view the pprson with whom the spirits 
were on such familiar terms, and, receiving 
the address of Mrs. Hardie, I sallied forth, 
an incredulous Investigator; but returned 
with eyes dilated and hesitatingly skepti- 
cal. Things past, present, and things to 
come were revealed to me concerning my- 
self and family ; some of which I doubted 
till subsequent inquiries confirmed their 
trutlifulness. I thought It at the time 
impossible for any person in Boston to 
supply the information ; but now, after the 
lapse of some years, this inquiry rubs itself 
aijaiust my mind : Was not Dunton, indi- 
rectly, the invisible agent that excited me 
to become the dupe of a facetious caprice? 

S. S. Packard. 
Upon reflection it can scarcely be said that 
A. R. Dunton was the last person iustru 
mental in improving my liaudwriting. 
Hour after hour have I sat in cupyine S. S. 
Packard's announcement " To the Friends 
of Education," and the forms and super- 
scripiioQs in " Williams & Packard's Gems 
of Penmanship." In view of thii fact I 
am influenced to number him among my 

1 that Packard's accom- 
frse and numerous; that 
between the schoolroom 
.nctum J tlwLt his fame is 
wide spread, and that he acquires readily 
wliatever., he undertakes to karn. Not 
many months since there appeared a notice 
in the Art Journal that Packard inid 
just learued telegraphy. Now, the opinion 
prevails that he acquire'd the art as quickly 
as old Hessian believed his sons could 
learn the higher mathematics — Iq three 
days' time. I regret it is my duty to dis 
pel this widely extended impression, and 
hint that only in the acquisition of this art 
has he ever shown any degree of dullness. 
Twenty years ag'i he clicked the key of tlie 
instrument, and how much longer before 
that time his memory alone runneth to At 
that time I was teaching in Butfilo fur 
Dr. J. Bryant, who cauie into my room 
oue day and casually remarked tliat Mr. 
Packard was in the ollice. I soon found 
myself, like " Old Mortality," wandering 
lonely and desolate, from table to table, 
seeking in the office for soiuothing I had 
no desire to find. Were I to sketch the 
personal appearance of Packard as he sat 
at a table, with his face to the wall, so in- 
tently eugaged in leavuiug telegraphy as 
never to look up, nor in any way distracted 
by the noise of a heavy obicct I purposely 
let fall upon the floor, I could nut present 
the extraordinary and unnatural size 1 had 
previously conceived of him. He first im- 
pressed me as being a sort of hybrid 
" Wandering Jew," resulting from the 
Nephilim mingling with the beautiful 
daughters of men — the head retaining the 
size of the giants, and in all other "points 
the marks of the beautiful daughters of 

Concentration of Effort. 
By J. W. Harkins. 
Concentration of eU'ort is an indispensable 
requlBltioQ to success in any vocation. 

At the present time, the field of art and 
science is so extensive and varied, that, as 
Sydney Smith says, "It is necessary to have 
the ourage to be ignorant of a thousand 
other things, in order to be proficient iu any 

It is a fact to be deplored that men of one 
idea are so often ridiculed. But bow many 
have risen to distinction who have not been 
actuated by some master passion f 

A noted penman in the SlVhth, iu dwell- 
ing upon the death of the Goi 
gia, put the inquiry to mo: 
tiop requires the most applica 
work in the attainment — thai 
ticiau or penman ? And if one 
penmen should die, would he receive ihe same 
honor, and be mourned as universally t" 

Be that as it may, the devotion of one's 
entire energies, and the use of strenuous ef- 
forts, for the atUinment of some worthy 
object is deserving of honor in whatever 
capacity it may be, and our great penmen — 
great because of concentration of effort — 
deserve and should receive a general com- 

At this day, when so many things are be- 
ing forced upon the mind, to obtain success 
it is absolutely necessary to devote all the 
energies to a single purpose. 

The scattered hours, wasted in idly draw- 
ing the pen over paper by some visionary 
lake, if rightly directed, 
I Flickinger, but an ex- 

' Which voca- 

, of the poli- 
af our leading 

It is well kn( 
plishments are t 
his pen alterna 
and the editor's 

[By THE Editor. — Our corresptmdent 
is in error in H;iyiii^' ilnit Pmikard learned 
telegraphy at J C. Ur>;iiii's .olli-ge, twenty 
years ago. On 'ln' i-"uti;nv, he was a prao- 
tical operator, luai ly thirty yt;ir3 ago, hav- 
ing charge of a tclftiiMpli oflicc, iu c<uinc«- 
tion with his editorial duties, iu WesIiTU 
New York, in 1855. But he never rhusscd 
himself with operators, simply l)ecmiso with 
all his faoillty for acquiring knowledge he 
faiJed to become at) expert " sound," 
reader.] *^ 


not a Spencer o 

cellent penman. 

Pope says on 

this subject: 

To aspire to become a Spencer, a Plick- 
enger, an Ames, or a Hinman, it is neces- 
sary to remember that the successful man in 
any calling, whether literature, art, science, 
, is he who can say with Paul, 
thing I do." 

Selected Miscellany. 

In answer to a request for his autograph 
to be sold at a bazaar for the benefit of the 
Chelsea Hospital for women. Lord Tenny- 
son recently wrote: "Sir — I send you a 
stanza from a poem of mine — written half a 
century ago — as you say you wish for a verse 
of mine: 

Oi.n Hickory's Orthographv.— 
Somebody has been unearthing a lot of old 
depnsitious in a Kentucky clerk's office, and 
takiog notes of the bad spelling of some of 
the great men of the past. A deposition in 
the handwriting of Andrew Jackson con- 
tains euoh spelling as "reS'erenco," "depo- 
nants," " until," " ballance," " valine," and 
" dificult." Old Hickory's use of capitals 
was quite remarkable. Such words as 
"Dollar" and "Money" he capitalized, 
while he also wrote '* alm'ghty god." 

Many of thi saloon-keepers of Kansas 
have gone where the woodbine twinelh, 
and some to jail. Both classes are mourn- 
fully chanting the chorus: 

The Edjtcationist. 

The liolgin* of ([real uieu, reaoUed mi kept, 
Vf*n not ftUiLioeil by smldeo fligbt ; 

But Uiey, wliile lUeir oumpnnioM ttopt, 
Wew Wiliug upward in »io aigbt. 


There is no temptation more seductive 
than that which leads the teacher to be ear- 
castio, attempting to discipline the school by 
rasping the feelings of the children. TMa 
can never be vindicated, aud always indi- 
cates weakness on the pait of the teacher. 
It should be avoided with the utmost care. 
—Atnericcm Teacher, 


PabU.hed Monthly at »1 per Ye 


SlngU ooplM or Ih* JOURNAL ••dI od receipt ol 
SpwilmM oopipf hmiuhed to Agent* free. 


SiDfU Ineertlon. M oente per Une nonpareU- 


Dot to have it barreu of other entertainiDg 
and useful matter. Sixteen large pagPB all 
devoted to penmansliip would be a eurfeit, 
aud could not luog be tolerated, certaiuly, 
by any one not wildly eotbuBiastic upon tbe 
BuI'Ject; hence considerable space in each 
QUiuber has been filled with a carefully pre- 
pared or eetected miscellany pertainiog to 
education, art, Bcience, literature, humor, 
etc., thui imparting to the Journal a fea- 
ture alike acceptable to the professional 
penman, aud to others ; and making it wel- 
come alike in the schoolroom, cobntiog- 
room and home circle, thiie widening th 
scope of its patronage until there is □<>« 
open to it a possibility as grand and honor 
able as that of any class of jourDalism. 

The following item should bwi 
Q the March number of the Joi 
7&8 misplaced, and henoe oiniite 

Our looalit 


t^uiaite fui 



r «it 

eCeoleDDlB) PiHora of Pro^rau 23x28. 

Pluuri»b«i Eii«le Mx33. 

Boondiiig StHK S4i38. 

Family Record. .;:::;:... ::;;:::::ifixa2: 

Tba price ol esch of these works, \>y mail. Is SO cei 



traWe sabs. 


riptloot and 112 we will Mod a 

IIbILu for IS, ""^ *° 



one yll^wiTh a choice^fSm tht 


755 1 5^ .. 


New York, April, 1884. 

The "Journal " and Its Purpose. 

The Journal is a penman's paper. Its 
editors have each had practical experience 
as penmen, teacbere, acd authors ol works 
npon writing, extending over a period of 
more than a quarter of a century. Their 
combined experience is far beyond that rep- 
resented by any other penman's paper thai 
baa yet been published. Tbia, with the 
fact that the Journal is at least twice the 
size of any other paper of its clasa, has 
placed it quite beyond rivalry. When it 
was first issued its patrons were confined 
chiefly to professional penmen. It soon iu- 
cluded amateurs ; then pupils and teachers in 
public and private schools; echool officers ; 
then clerks, accountants, and men of busi- 
nesB. Thus it has widened the sphere of 
iU patronage until ii has now become a 
paper of the masset ; it is scarcely lefts wel- 
come in the home and counting room than 
in the writiug-school, and to the profes sional 
penman. Indeed, it is quiteeafe toeay that 
among its present subecribers, not one-fifth 
would make any claim to writing as a epec- 
ialty. It baa been the aim of 
while striving to make it attracl 

great metropolis 
mand every facility re- 
tbe Journal emiuently 
d it will bo our earnest 
I the fullest extent upon 
lur command for making 
the Journal more and more attractive and 
valuable to alt classes of its patrons, and 
we can only ask that they shall he as 
apprrciative and earnest in their support in 
the future, as in the past. 

The Convention. 

The Business Educators' and Penman's 
Convention which cunvenea at Rochester 
the second week in July, will probably be 
the largest and moat enthuaiastic convention 
ever held by that class of educators. All 
along the line there seems to be a deteroii- 
nation to attend, and more than the usual 
number ol our Canadian friends have already 
announced their intention to be there. This 
is very encouraging. We had hoped for an 
official commucication from the Executive 
Ctmmittee reporting progress for this issue ; 
but it has not come to hand. It will probably 
bo in season for the May number. Also, 
all penmen who propose to be present, are 
rf quested to commuoicate the fact to ua ae 
chairman of the Penmiio's Section; also 
state what part, if any, they will desire to 
take in the proceedings, aud give a brief 
description of specimens, either of writing, 
or the result of school work they propose to 

Remedy for Writer's Cramp. 

Somebody who has tried it gives the fol- 
cramp: Tnke 

tincture of capsicum I 
turpeotine one ounce, 
to the hand and wrist < 
so as to keep up a glo 
the turpentine proves t 
the quantity of it or on 

ix them nod apply 
ice or twice a day, 
on the surface. If 
) irritating, diminish 
t it altogether. 

its i 

The above is simon-pure 

which is almost invariably to be ] 
a aroall, polished, metallic holdei 
necessitatf 8 a tight grip to hold it : 
together with a cramped finger mi 
Substitute for these a large size 
penholder and the forearm moveu 
there will be do writer's cramp. 

Another Penman's Paper. 

Iq a late number of Ihe Gazette, Mr. An- 
drew Cox, who announces himself as the 
" Author of the Penman's Amalgamator," 
says that he is thinking that he may some 
time start a penman's paper, become the 
author of a Compendi-un, Hand book, 
Guide, etc,, thoa be a rival of the editor of 
the Gazette. We trust that Mr. Cox will 
pardon us for saggesting that when he 
comes to the authorship, and especially of 
his "Hand-book," that he make a pilgrim- 
age to Mount Ararat and aee if perchance 
among the sweepings from the famous insti- 
tution that once rested there he may not find 
some label, tag, or other scraps having 
rapbic art by the Messrs, 
igbt photo- engrave and 
book, and thus treat his 

Club Item. 
In a general competition given by the 
"De LaSalle Penman's Club," of the Com- 
mercial Academy of Quebec, on Fehniary 
2.3.1, last, Mr. D. L. Power, book- keeper for 
the Emigration S'iciety, took the premium 
— a silver cup — offered by the Club to any 
nue in the city of Quebec or Leris, over 
fifteen years, who presented the heat spoci- 
meu of business penmanship. 

Master Taucrcd Pidfret, aged thirteen 
and a half, a pupil of the lotermediJite 
Department, was the successful competitor 
in application writing for pupils under fiftf en 
years. A special mention was discerned by 
the .judges to Mr. M. J. Morrison, secretary 
to Hon. W. W. Lynch, minister of Crown 
L'tnds; to Mr. T. Lambert and .Mr. Ed. 
Batterton, of the senior members; and to 
Marcus F. Girard, S. Picard, A. Drolet 
and J. Hamel of the junior members, all 
pupils of the Commercial Academy. 

The judges were seven of the most im- 
portant merchants in Quebec. Hundreds 
of fair specimens were presented, and the 
competition waa a complete success. 

The members of the above Club intend 
giving in a few months another prize which 
will be open to all penmen in America. 

Teachers' Agency. 

Teachers warning situations, and thosi 
wishing to employ teachers, frequently ap 
pty to U-, and iu th^t way we are often abh 
to be of service to both classes. But to d( 
so costs UB more or less time and correspon 
dence; and in view of the great value o 
such assistance to those who secure either a 
good situation or teacher, we have ihoughi 
it proper to announce an agency through 
which the namea of all persons wishing 
either situations or teachers may be regis- 
tered, and have all the assistance we cau 
render by remitting $2. 

Sketches from "A Schoolmaster 
Mr. Packard, of the business college, 
leaves for Europe on the 24b inst., to be 
gone four monthe or eo, and everybody 
wishes him a pleasant journey and safe re- 
While abroad he will write some letters for 
the Journal descriptive of the countries 
he may visit and the people whh whom he 
comes in contact. We expect they will be 
good lettera and worth reading, and as he 
proposes to send sketches of alrikiug scen- 
ery and events we shall reproduce some of 
them as illustrative of the text. The ar- 
ticle entitled, " Little Siotch Beggars," 
which we print in the present number, is a 
foretaste of what will follow. The letters 
will run through a year of the Journal, and 
will make a unique feature of our publica- 

The King Club 

For this month numbers ft/li/, and Wfl8 
sent by W. E. Dawson, penman at the 
Miiimi Commercial College, Dayton, Ohio. 

The QueoD Club numbers /or/y-stx, and 
was sent by A. S. Osborn, penman at the 
Rocliester (N. Y.) Business University. 

The third club io size comes from Bry- 
ant's Buffalo (N. Y.) BuPiuess College, 
and was sent by S. Van Vliet, the penman 
of that instituiion. 

A club of thirty comes from W. W. 
Chambers, penman at Cornell College, 
Mount Vernon, (Iowa). A club of twenty- 
Jive, H,H. Aalter, Willmar, (Minn). Eigh- 
teen from the New Jersey Bustuess College, 
Newark, N. J , sent by L. L. Tucker. A 
club of fijtuen from D. II. Parley, penman 
at the State Female Normal College, Tren- 
ton, N J. 

An unusually large number of Bmaller 
clubs have been received, while about one 
thousand single subscript ions have been 
added to our list, and from nearly every 
civilized country on the globe. 

Memphis, Tknn., Feb. 21, 1874. 
Mr, D. T. Ames. 

Dear Sir: Inclosed find some cards and 
a stamp. Please write your name on one 
and mine on another. Yoii will do me a 
great favor by so doing, as I dearly love the 
art of tine writing. I Hin a subscriber to 
fhe Journal, and am deriving great bene- 
fit from it. Hoping you will fdvor me by 
granting my request, I remain, 

Youra, truly, 

F. W. Wilcox. 

The above is a very simple request, and 
to the writer, no doubt, so reasonable and 
proper that, should we not comply, be 
would think us, to say the least, unobliging. 
Were Mr. Wilcox the only one, or one 
among a few, to ask Buch a favor, we 
should, no doubt, tbiuk it a trifle and com- 
ply with bis request. But were we to at- 
tempt to do so with all similar requests, we 
might work the entire time, and then leave 
a multitude to call us 
considerable reason, v 
mens to some and not 

Persons who have no knowledge of the 
facts cannot imagine the number who solicit 
from us such favors, aud when we consider 
liiat were each applicant to succeed, and 
30 report to his acquaintances and friends, 
such requests would be greatly multiplied, 
we are compelled to decline to send speci- 
mens to any one, and we also deem it proper 
to here say that in no case can we send 
specimens of penmanship, and for the rea- 
sons above stated. 

liging, and with 
re to send speci- 

Noab, which li 
incorporate iut< 
Ileal. These c 

cuts he might als 
„.. J . . -- -° embellish the pages of bia 

Mtmg, and instructive as a penman's paper, paper, this making his rivalry complete. 

Responsibility for Mail. 

The risk of sending properly directed 
matter by mail is very slight; and in all 
cases where the remitter of money to us will 
hand the samo to the postmaster f, r exami- 
nation befor.) aealiug, we will be respon8ii)Ie 
for losses; and on the statement of the p(>st- 
maflter that he saw the money inclosed and 
duly mailed, we will consider it the same as 
received by us. Persona direoling hooks and 
packages to be sent by mail may have the 
same registered by simply remitling ten 
cents extra. All such packages are sent at 
the risk of the person who orders. 


Before us is a tiaely engraved note, which 
reads as follows; 

" Your presence is requested at the marriage 
of MiBs Lottie Hill to Mr. Silas S. Packard. 
Thursday morning, April 24ih. at eleven 
o'clock. Centra! Cnngregmiuual Church, Mad- 
ison Avwnue and Korty-aeveuth Street." 

" The Guide " { iu paper ) is now offered 
free as a premium to every person remit- 
ting $1 for one year's subscripUou to the 
Journal. Or, handsomely bound Id cloth, 
for 35 oeuts addlUoo&l. 



very large numbei 
ling pai'iies have 


i" readers thei«e 



The pai'Inei 

poBseesor of a wide and uume 
ftienda, whom we are eure w 
wishing that ihe years of the ne 
many, sad be ladeued to the ei 
hlessiiiga of prosperity aiid htve 
Od the evenin- Bfter llie i 
Packard wiih hia bride will sai 
wht-re he will make a honey 
about four mouths, during whi.h lie will be 
regular couiribiitor to Ihe Jouhxal. H 
sketches will be fully illuBiraled. That ihei 
sketches will form a very iulerestiiig feature i 

iouB of a partner iu Ihe firm, 
each the fortunate and happy 

1 with all the 
arriape, Mr. 

Ihe Jou 


of liU (ich ftudewy 

jy-'TITFW'^rSmXNS 'vT^l^rifitT JOUUN.VI. 

r general inltTcBt lo readnrs. QiicBliona 
whiol) are pergonal, or to which aiiBWera woul'i 
be without gvneral iaterfst, will receive no at- 
tention. Thiv will explain to many who pro- 
pound queatiooB whj? no antwers are given.] 

J. M. S., Gray's Milts, Pa.— Can the ob- 
lique hulder be uaeU to advaUage in flourish- 

Avs. -tio. 

Di> professional penmen make the line 
funning the top of a Huuri^ht'd bird's head 
with the pen reversed ? 

.4ms. — As a rule, yts; allhough many 
do not. 

D. S. Eatou, Me.— What is the Wat foi 
cercise for acquiring the muscular mov 


.4ns.— The ovat movement is the best 
initiatory moveinenl ; after which, capital 

of tnoTements in the proper order of their 
practice : 

M. L., Hyde Parlc, III.— I have seen it 
stated that the pen should be so held as to 
press equally upon both points, hut I kuow 
gootj peumeo who do not eo hold their pens t 
aod I do not ece how a pen can he bold so. 

.4«s,— It ia quite true that good-appear- 
infe writing may he written wiili a pen in a 
bad pof-ition, i. e., writing having the letters 
well firmed, and imiform, aod graceful in 
their comhiuation, but the pen will not glide 
as BQioothly, or make ai good a quality of 
line in any other ponhion as when il is so 
held as to eqnarely face the paper, and thus 
place both uiba under the same pressure. 

It is also true that a maiiirity of writers ex- 
perience a difficulty in holding the pen in 
thia position, to do wliich, rec|uires the hand 
to he turned toward the body uutit the 
holder points over the right shouliier, whinh 
is a forced position ; it is to obviate this diili- 
culty that the oblique pens and holders have 
been introduced, and for which they serve a 
good purpose. 

J. W. A.. Greenfield, Mo.— Why not ap- 
pend the autograpli r f ea^h correspondent 
of the Journal to their artirlesT I thiuk 
your readers would be pleased lo see them. 

Ans, — We see no objection to this, and 
have no doubt that such autographs would 
lend additional interest to articles; for un- 
doubtedly, next to the face an autograph is 
one's most telling and faithful representa- 
tive. We shall be pleased to act upon this 
suggestion where correspondents will either 
fuinish an autograph cut or an autograph 
in suitable form for photo-engraviug. (2) 
" Why not always cmss the i wiih a straight 
line, instead of curved line above it? " We 
suppose that the curved line ia used for ar- 
tistic (ftVct; hut io auy writing other than 
that which is strictly professional there is 
no good reason why the i should not be 
crossed with a straight lino. 

J. K. — (1) Would you insist on correct 
peuholding by small children? (2) At 
what age would you commence to toach 

An9. — It has been our ezperience that it 
was best to insist upon correct pen-holding 
at the first efforts of a child at writing with 
a pen. We do not believe that anything, 
as a rule, is gained by putting a pen into 
the hand of a mere child. There should be 
a considerable development of strength, dis- 
cretion and will-power before writing with 
a pen is attempted. We believe that all 
efforts at teaching the average child under 
eight years to write with a pen is simply 
time and labor wasted. 

H. W. T.. New Carlisle, Ohio.— In \mt- 
iug long words, do good p>-ninon stop the 
pen, and either move ihe arm to the right or 
the paper to the left? If not, what is the 
fault in, and remedy for, writers who do not 
have to chanee position of either the arm 
or paper to complete a long word? 

Ans. — In writing with the finger move- 
ment, long words cannot be written without 
a stop and a hitch of the hand ; but where 
the forearm or muscular movement is used, 
and the hand rests upon the nails of the 
third and fourth finger, as they should, 
there ia a continuous movement of the entire 
hand forward with the pen, and there can 
be no word so long that it would not be 
completed without a atop or change of 
movement. Indeed, an entire line may 
thus be written continuously with ease. 
This is one of the advantages of the fore- 

J. B. D., Morning Sno, Iowa. — Can the 
forearm movement be employed in executing 
capitals to good advantage I (2) About how 
many words per minute do penmen write, 
when doing tbeir best work f (:J) H.w do 
I write tor a " boy " who bus ntmr taken a 
lesson in penmanship except through the 

A-ns. — Yes; it is iht movement to be 
employed, except large capitals in super- 
scriptions and headiugs, when the whole 
arm may be need, and, if made on a large 
scale, should bo used. (2) An exceedingly 
rapid writer writes thirty words v^t minute. 
The average is about twenty. (3) Your 
writing is excellent, and does you great 

Replies to Questions 

Sent to A. II. Hinman, Worcester, Mass. 

[ Mr. Hinman will be pleased to receive 
and answer through the Journal all prac- 
tical questions leliitive to wriiing during 
the couiiuuauce of his lessons.] 

B. S. S-— It you are " crazy " to own a 
gold pen, buy one, then give 't to some 
peumau you wiint to excel. Slick to a 
steel pen, and while tho sharp point will 
make you careful to write well, tho smooth 
point of the gold pen will gradually spoil 
his writing. 

W. P. C— Your "principal faults" 
faulty priuciples. Your cramped 
may ho overcome by writing with the fin- 
gers and hands well raised, and by tho use 
of tho counting movoment, counting with 
the up strokes. Don't simply read my les- 
sons. Reading a doctor's preecription would 
do no one no good. My lessons studied, 
and faithfully practiced after, will bring 
your writing to perfection. 

A, J. W.— Why teach pgg« or ovals in- 
stead of curves ? Eggs are f«vtms that you 
can shut your eyes and see; principles are 
the same; letters are tho same; but lines 
are not. With a perfect idea of forms, your 
lines will shape them. Lines don't govern 
form, but forms do govern lines. Think of 
tlie forms you are trying to make, and your 
lines will take care of themselves. The 
more you practice by fir.-t seeing perfect 
let'cra in your mind before you make them, 
the faster your writing will grow. 

N. L. H. — Your right hand. can be made 
to execute as fine ornamental penmanship 
as any one's right. The eye must Brat be 
trained to fully appreciate accuracy of form 
and artistic efifects ; then, and not till then 
will the hand act to suit you. 

H. A. R.— No, flourishing won't hurl 
your writing, but will help it. Flourishing 
will train your mind to carry your arm 
lightly, and thereby secure that delicate 
easy movement and light touch required to 
write with skill. 

J. F. L— To write well upon the black- 
board stand close to it, feet spread apart, 
make strong hair lines, count on the up 
strokes, write even with your chin, and roll 
the chalk in the fingers to keep uniformity 
of lines. Shade quickly, and with power 
to got brilliancy and strength. Don't prac- 
tice patching up shades. For different col- 
ored crayons dip the white crayons in col- 
ored iiiks, then let them dry. Heat them 
to make them soft, and wet them while 
using to make your writing strong and 

Exchange Items. 

The Chirographer, by E. K. Isaacs, Val- 
paraiso, Ind., for April is at hand. Its ap- 
pearance is very creditable, on good paper, 
well printed, and well edited. Our friend 
Isaacs ia really developing considerable ed- 
itorial genius. Those who have not seen a 
copy of the Chirographer should not rest 
until they have done so. Subscription price, 

The Western Penman, by A. N. Palmer, 
Cedar Rapids, Iowa, thirty-four cents per 
year, is a big thing fur the money. Send 
for a copy, and see. 

The St-.ident's Quarter!;/, published by 
J. A Weber, at Walpole, N. H., for ten 
cents, is a very readable sheet ; the single 
number before us ia worth the price of a 
year's subscription. Send ten cents, and 
judge for yourselves. 

The Printer and Penman, published by 
T. M. Oiborn, 77 Nassau Street, New 
York, for $1 per year, makes a good ap- 
pearance, and is well worth the money. 

The make-up of the Pexman's Art Jot'R 
NAl. is the bettt we have ever seen. No oth»>i 
peumau's paper cumpares with it. Besides iu 
able editors, there is a Hal of wide-awake con- 
tribulorB, who are Writkrs in two meaningE 
of the word. — Woodstock (Out.) Cotlegt 


The Penman's Art Journal, edited and 
publiehed by D. T. Ames, New York, U one of 
that olaes of papers which no progreaaive 
teaoher can do without. The teacher who 
does not take it in behind the limes, at least 
on the subject of penmanehip, and should send 
for it immediately. — A'ormoi CriCtrion. 

The Penman's Art Journal, by D. T. 
Amee, of New York, is one of the moat finely 
illustrated and bust edited papers it is our 
pleasure to receive. The JOURNAL ia iudis- 
penaable lo all who would leach the peo-ait or 
live by the pen. — St. Jottph ( Mo.) Commercial 

Autograph Exchangers. 

In accordance with a suggestion in a 
previous numb r, the foUowing- named per- 
sons have signified thtir willingnecs or 
desire To exchange autographs, upon the 
Peircerian plan, as set forth in the August 
number of the Journal: 

0. a Cuobran. Central High ,S(<huol, PlUabiirgb. Pa. 

Chnrloi liilt*, ZH 1 Itli Strnrr, Ptalladelpbla 

W. G. Enial, Shernrooi), Mtobigaa. 

D C Qrillliba, Waxahaohie, Te»i, 

C W. Sli>ciim, Chilliootlw, Oliin. 

H S. Taylur, BLuloeM Coll»ge, Roctieiler. ; 

J W. WMtervelt, Wooditoott, Ontario. 

, MuuQd City CummcraUl Col., St. Louit, Ho. 
, Plymouth, Mau. 

MjroD Ryder, Ceresc 
H. A. D. Hallmann, I 

utiogoUtiuiily, Sininn. Onl 

laylle'B Coml. CoRege, Dubuque, 

The "Guide." 
This is a book of sisly-four large pages, 
elegantly printed on the fioeel quality of 
plate-paper, and is devoted exclusivtlg to 
instruction and copies for plain writing, off- 
hand flourishing and lettering. We are 
sure that no other work, of neariy f-iual 
cost, is now before lie public thai will render 
as etiicient aid to either teacher or learner, 
in the departments of the penman'^ art, as 
will this. Thirty- two pages are devoted to 
instruction and copies fur plain writing. 
Fourteen piges to the principles and ez- 
ampl's for fljurishing. Sixteen pages to 
alphabets, package marking, and mono- 

Priofl, by mail : iu paper covers, 75 cents ; 

hanJsomel) bound iu stiff cu 

ver3,$l. Given 

free ( in waper ) , as a pr 

iiiinm with the 

Journal, one year, for SI 

; full bound ( in 

stiff covers) for $1 25. Li 

e agents wanted 

in every town iu America, 

o whom liberal 

discounts will be given. Bo 

h the Journal 

and book are things that t 

ake everywhere. 

With them agents can ma 

e more money, 

with less effort, than with any other publi- 
cation they can handle. Subscribers and 
purchasers are delighted with, and warmly 
commend, both. 

A new invisible ink has been introduced 
by Dr. Wiitcman. Il is mnde by intimately 
fixing liaseed oil one part, water of ammo- 
nia twenty parts, and water one hundred 
parts. Tlio mislure must be agitated each 
time the pen is dipped into it, as a little of 
the ink may separate and lloat on the sur- 
face, from which if tatfcu up by the pen a 
stain would bo lefc upon the paper. To 
make the writing appear all that U needed 
is to dip the manuscript in water; when tbe 
paper dries the writing will vanish. — Gey- 
er's Stationer. 

~v f?-l'V,'"AK'r JfoiiKNAi; 

No. 8 New Spcnccr- 
ian Compendium. 
We are io receipt of the 
proof-eheetB of No. 8 of (he 
above - nanied publ; 
which coinpteteB the 
To those who h 
previous nnmber* we need 
Dot e&y that it is in the fiDCit 
style of the penman's aud 
enipraver's art. Like its pre- 
decessnra, it com 
plates (!)xl2 incheu). The 
tiret is repreaeoted in thia cut, 
reduced onf-half ; the second 
is composed of fifteen speci- 
men autographs; the third, 
alphiibete and writing in the 
angular hand ; the fourth, 
the same in the "French 
Round-Hand" which is also 
known as the "Chancery," 
" Engrossing "ai 
Bound-hand"; the fifth, a 
very gracefully flourished bird 
and a specituen of practical 

is a double sheet presenting 
an ingenioualy and pracli- 
t-ally constructed scale for let- 
tering; the eighth is an or- 
namental alpbabi 

each letter 
finished : the 

Carl I.ysing. Sauk Centre 
(Wis.) Academy, writes a ered- 
ilahlv letter and ears: "Three 
months since, when I com- 
meiioed taking tlie JOURNAL, 
I ouuld scarcely write mj 

L. L. Tucker, peDman at the 
New Jersey nusiness College, 
Newark, N. J., a letter. 

L. R. Denham, teat-her of 
penmanship aiul book-keeping 
at Alma College, St, ThomM, 
Ont., a superbly-written letter, 
and list of subscribers tu the 

M. P. Moore, penman, Mor- 
gan, Ky., a flourished biid, and 
a splendidly - written letter, in 
which he says: 'TheJouUNAL 
is the most valuable of all the 
penmen's papers published." 

A. A. Anderno 

u. Catholic Col- 

lege, Pittsburgl 

Pa., a letter 

and card. 

J. E. Gustu 

, McPherson, 

Kas., a letter. 

J. H. Biyant, 

penman at the 

Speaceriau Bu 

iness College, 

WaehingloD, D 

C. a letter. 


is an elegant allegori- 
cal scene representing Science crowDing 
the arte and industries. Upon the whole, 
thia last part is fully the equal of its prede- 
cessors, and all together represent the most 
finished work upon the art of penmanship 
the world has ever seen. Any or all the 
parts mailed, post-paid, from the office of 
the Journal at sixty cents each. The en- 
tire eight parts sent by expreaa, or deUvered 
at the office, for $4. 

And School Items. 

Gus Huliizer, a penman of considerable 
note, is now one of the publishers of the 
Weekly Sentinel, at Toulon, lit. 

D. H. Farley, principal of the commercial 
department of llie State Normal College, Tren- 
ton, N. J., has prepared a "Model Guide and 
Copy-book Cover," which will be very con- 
1 to all pupils of writing. See 

Ilia adv 

J. P. Wilson, arlisl-penman at the Sherman 
House, and also special teacher of writing in 
several of the achools in Chicago, III., has ac- 
cepted the Western agency for the JOURNAL 
and our publications. Residents of Chicago 
and vicinity who wish to become subscribers 
or purchase any of our books can do so of Mr. 
Wilson, at the Shurmau House. 

D. L. Musselman, of the Gem City ( Quin- 
oy. III.) Business College, is enjoying a well- 
deserved Buccesa. He says; "Our Normal 
Penmanship Department is full to overflowing 
with stiideuts. It ia really a gi-and success, and 
we are doing some fine work with our siu- 
deuls." Ou another page will be found a set 
of highly complimentary resolutions, lately 
adopted by the students of the college. 

The graduating exercises of the Meadville, 
Pa.. Business College, conducted by A. W. 
Suiilh, occurred on March -mh. The list of 
graduates numbered thirty-one. 

C. H. Randall, of Fairmouti 
nearly ready for publication 
Directory, which is adverli 
column. Price, by mail, ten 

G. A. Gaskell desires the 
•killed and faithful penman 
College iu Jersey City, N. J. Penmen wishing 
a situation will do well to read his advertise- 
ment in another column. 

F. L. Welden ia teaching writing-oli 
Winchester, Ky. In a well-written letter be 
acknowledges the receipt of our new Compen- 
dium, and Bays: "It is the finest work on 

lanehip I ha 

I teaching writing at the 
a ) Academy. He writes a 
d says he lias never taken 
vriting beyond those given 

J. B. Duryea 
Morning Sun ( Io 
handsome letter, i 
a special lesson in 
in the Journal. 

Geo. A. Swayze has just completed his sev- 
enth year as special teacher of writing in the 
public schools of Belleville, Ont. 

C. C. Cochran, for many years past profes- 
sor of commercial science in the Central High 
School, Pittsburgh, Pa., has established a 
business college at Sioux City, Iowa. He has 
had extensive experience as a teacher of com- 
mercial college branches, and will, no doubt, 
win favor and success in his new enterprise. 

taining the same are postage paid 
UtUr raUs. A large proportion of these pack- 
ages come short paid, for sums ranging from 
three cents upward, which, of course, we are 
obliged to pay. This is scarcely a desirable 
consideration for a gratuitous notice.] 

, Nebraska, has 
a Calligraphic 
ed in another 

: his Busini 

connected with the Anierii 
at Logansport, Ind., is u< 
^'ew Albany ( Ind.) Commercial Colleg. 

ae time past been 
Normal College, 

L. A. Barron, of the Rockland { Me.) Busi- 
ness College, a set of skillfully-executed capi- 
tals, and two bird specimens. 

Photographs, imperial ei«e, of the two large 
pieces of pen-work ; one, iu form of a memorial ; 
and the other, of an engrossed testimonial by 
J. W. Swank, in the Treasury Departmeul, 
Washington, D. C, have been r 
artistic skill displayed both in ll 
execution of those works is of a high order 
merit. Around one of these is the border, copies 
of which Mr. Swank advertises in another col- 
umn for sale, Ii ia certainly very artistic. 

E. L. Wiley, office of the Clerk of the 
Courts for Belmont County, St. Clhirville, O., 

T. J. ColliuB, Utoka, Oui., a letter. 
C. A. French, in the Post-office, Boston, 
Mass., a letter. 
George N. Cobb, Steward, III., a letter and 

J. C. Knapp, Rushville, 111., a letter and two 
flourished birds. 

W. H. Patrick, penman at Sadler's B. & S. 
Business College, Baltimore, Md., a letter. 

Dyer B. Hulett, Pawlet. Vl., a letter v 

club of subscribers to the Journal. Mr. H 

writes a really good hand, which he says i 





S. Van Vliet, penman at Bryant's Buflalo 
( N. Y.) Business College, a letter. 

A. G. Counrod, Minneapolis (Minn.) Acad- 
emy, a letter. 

G. W. Ware, South West City, Mo., a letter 
and flourished bird. 


H. T. Loomis, a photo of a Memorial of 
Mary Duty Spencer, the lately deceased wife 
of Plait R. Spencer. The Memorial was from 
the students of the Spencer Detroit (Mich.) 
Business College to Mr Spencer. The engross- 
ing, which was by Mr. Loomis, is a very cred- 
itable piece of work. 

One of the most elegantly-written tetters and 
cards, received during the month, is from A. 
M. P. Drouin, a member of the Chirographic 
Club of Quebec, Canada. 

S. C. Williams, special teacher of penman- 
ship and book-keeping in the schools of Lock- 
port, N. Y., an elegantly-written letter. In it 
he says; "You deserve the thanks of every 
teacher and student of penmanship in the 
country, for putting into their hands such a 
publication as ilie Jouknal. My family are 
about as muuli interested iu it us I am." 

W. L How 

Nicholson, Pleasant Plai 
t of capitals, and several \ 

lad of fifteen years, of 
and specimens of 
di table. 

pf the Rochester ( N. 
A'./^UBineSB University, a letter. — )C^ 

P. A. Westrope, penman and teacher, Gr; 
■d spdcimeus. 
Loudon, Eog., a letter. 
C. H. Rand, Epsom, N. H., a letter 
specimens of bu8ine8s-\vriting. 

Thel Westropi 

.r of '^ I. T. Daniels, 

T J. Risinger, 
Business College, 
clttb of eobs^ribe: 

at the Spenoerian 
■oit, Mich., a letter, and 


A. E. Dewhurst, penman, Utica, N. Y., a 
flourished bird and card specimens. 

Frank Coburn, insurance agent, Lowell, 
Mass., a letter. 

S. C. Chapman, Baylie's Commercial Col- 
lege, Dubuque, HI., a letter. 

Chas. E. Corner, Corner's Commercial Col- 
lege, Boston, Mass., a letter. 

E. K. Isaacs, editor of the Ckirograplier, 
Valparaiso, Ind., a letter. 

D. E. Blake, a student at Musselmau's Busi- 
ness College, Quincy, 111., a letter and set of 


teacher of writing in the pnblic 

sehools ot Council Bluffs, Iowa, 

a letter, and club of subscribers 

to the JOUBNAL. 

A. W. Daken, penman, Tully, N. Y., a letter. 

J. M. Benisb, of the Island City ( Galveston, 
Texas ) Bunness College, a letter. 

S. M. Gibson, Greensboro, Ala., a letter, and 
specimens of written cards, and a flourished 

N. E. Ware, Sharon, Ga., a letter and flour- 
ished bird. He says: "The Journal has been 
a great help to me for the last four years. I 
wish it were in the hand of every teacher in 

G. W. Ware, South West City, Mo,,-e letter 
and copy-slips. 

J. A Willis, penman at the Yadkin (N. C.) 
College, a letter, which for a lad of thirteen is 
something remsrkable. He says: "The Jour- 
nal has been a great aid to me." 

St. Roach. Quebec, a letter, 
letter and 


D. M. Wingate, Pumpd 
two flourished birds. , 

P. B. Shiun, American Normal College. Lo 
gansporl, Ind., a letter and bird specimen. 

L, J. Moser, Wurtemburg, Pa., a letter. 

H. D. Smith, Elk Rapids, Mich., a letter. 

L. G. Loi-riman. Port Robinson, Ont.. a lei 
ter and card. 

Emily Sabine, a teacher ot penmanship ii 
the advanced school, Utica, N. Y., a letter ii 
most excellent style, 

H. Blackwood, Halifax, N. S., a letter. 

C. A. Bush, Philadelphia. Pa., a letter am 
several specimens of flourishing. 

John Smith, Philadelphia, Pa., a good spec 
imen of husinese-wfitiug. 

W. V. Chambers, Mt. Vernon. Iowa, a letter 

riau Business College, 
in splendid style, 
riau Business College, 

C. R. Cvt 

ile, Bushnell (III.) College, a 
letter and set of flourished capitals. 

H. A. Ostrom, New York, a specimen of 
good business- writing. 

A. U. Capp, Heald's Business College, San 
Francisco, Cal., a letter. ■ 

Robert H. VyU 
Cavalry, Fort CusI 

G. B. Jones, Bergen, N. Y.. a letter. 

H. P. McDonald, Boston, Mass.. a letter. 

Fred Johnson. Manchester, N. H., a leltur. 

R. W. Cobb, Champagne till.) Busiuess 
College, a h-tler and Iburished biid. 

J. O. T. McCarthy, penman in the W r 
Department, Washington, D, C, iwo phoiy- 



gntphs of elaborately t^ugrosseil ti^stimoiiirila, 
iu wliicli is mHiiifegtHd coiieideruble artietic 
ekill hulh iu duaigii and ext>GUlii>D. 

A. J. Tarlor. of Taylor'n Buomeea College, 
RocheBter, N. Y. a Bpl«miidly-written letter. 

J. T. Daily, Davenport, Iowa, a well-written 
letter and several Bpecimena of flouriBliiug. 

J. C. Sbeat«, at the Metropolitan BuaineiB 
College, Chicago, 111., R letter. 

The " WilliamB and Packard's Guide to 
Praotical Penmanship," and " The Cong- 
dtm Normal System of Flourishing and 
Lettoring" are out of print. Neither of the 
works will bo reprinted. The " Williams 
and Paohard'a Gems of Penmanship" is 
also out of prints but in the press is a new 
edition, whioh the publishers promise to 
have ready soon, when orders now stand- 
ing on our boobs will be promptly filled. 

Educational Clubs. 
Editor of the Journal. 

Dear Sir : Iu the last iesue of the Jour- 
nal yon very wisely preseuted views favor- 
ing the organization of chirographic oluba. 
The necessity of effecting such organizations 
tliroughout the country must be conceded, 
and how to carry forward the mission ia a 
question of vital importance, which should 
receive candid coDsideration at the coming 
meeting of the Educational Association at 
Rochester. All the processes in education, 
from the Kindergarten and primary up to 
the graduating grade of the University, are 
iuterwoven with the art of writing. Id a 
broad and intelligent sense all schools have 
become writing-schools, since the exercises 
of both elementary and advanced education 
are atteudcd step by step with written as 
well as ural processes In the mastering of 
the words of any language they must be 
given written structure. The young reader 
often writes uut the lesson, that his educa 
tion in reading .miy extend to the written 
as well as ihe printed page. The student 
writes <-nl his arithmetic, indites his gram- 
mar, records pages uf history, presents 

suit should fiud the student passing from 
lower to higher grades in his work, carrying 
wiih him well wrilti-n books or parts of 
books, written m long or short hand, bear- 
ing upon the title pages his own imprint as 
compiler of the volumes. A large blank 
volume should accompany every text-book 
for school use, and as the student gathers 
knowledge from the oue he should make 
record of it in the other. The graduate 
should be able to point to his hand-made 
library, each volume bearing his name 
showing his responsibility for the work, 
however imperfect or meritorious it may he. 
This process is more successfully maintained 
in onr leading business colleges, than in any 
other institutions of learning. 

One part of education is the acquirement 
ot knowledge, and the other consists in 
giving expression, circulation and exchange 
to tboughtfl, views and opinitms. The vast 
tield of agriculture seuding fortli anuually 
its wealth of productions to feed the world, 
allows the manifestatioD of the.meutal and 
|iliysical power of man to touch the forces 
of uature and gather therefrom her fruits in 
tht-ir time and season. The cities of the 
world are but the mind of man wrought 
into the form of edifices through wood, iron, 
bricks and granite. His mind has assimi- 
lated the forces of steam and electricity, and 
performs through their alchemic agency gi- 
gantic labor in manufacturing and distrib- 
uting the fruits of skill and industry to the 
nations of the earth. The fanner, artisan, 
merchant, financier and professional man, in 
proportion lo their virtue, intelligence and 
industry, contribute to the progress, achieve- 
menls and glory of the ago in which they 
live Their endeavors and activities make 
up the business of the world and develop 
civiliicalion and government. 

The acquiring of knowledge, and thereby 
disciplining the mind, is the province of ed- 


'^>^?f*c^g7^^3 ' 

ucatioD. Its use and application finds force, 
expression and iiianifesfation through the 
innumerable vocations which make the great 
sum and volume t^f the world's business. 
Oral and written speech form the inalienable 
concomitant of both education and business. 

Educational clubs should be multiplied, 
and fostered as an aid to ttie agencies for 
teL-huifal trainiog now existing. The ses- 
sions of these clubs are usually held at 
night, and invite the presencn of those em- 
ployed during the day. Persims of good 
moral charactfr, whether young, middle-aged 
or old, are eligible to membership, if in 
need of instruction or review iu practical 
branches essential to industrial life. The 
study and practice of practical writing at all 
times form an important feature of the 
work of Educational Clubs. 

The reports of these orgaoiz itions through 
the Journal will, it is to be hoped, appear 
often to interest and encourage its many 
thousands of patrons. 

H. A Spencer. 

About Exchanging Autographs. 

Editor of the Journal. 

Becoming interested in the matter of au- 
tographs, and thinking it very fraternal, I 
sent to Prof. Pcirce, of Keokuk, and many 
others, my autograph written uyou unruled 
paper, size, 4x!J inclusive, without folding, 
as directed in the August No. of the Jour- 
nal. The autograph I received in return 
from Prof. Peirce, and some others, failed 
in every point, except that it was truly a 
gem of writing. It seems to me that the 
"Electric Light of the West" is not very 
efi'ulgent or the Professor "would bo able to 
see clearer, and carry out more accurately 
his own suggestions. It would be impossi- 
ble to bind int > au album some I have re- 
ceived without spoiling the appearance of 
the book by so many irregular leaves. Let 
as we are generous. 

C. S. Chapman. 

all be 
Dubuque, Io\ 

" Poor Jeremiah." 

To the Editor of tha Journal. 

Sir : The Penman's Gazelle is getting to 
be a funny paper, I speak of it booduse 

no one would mistrust it hy anything which 
la? hitherto appeared in its columns. In 
the May number, however, the accomplished 
editor just strikes out from the shoulder, 
and the chardcler of his ever-brilliant self- 
advertising sheet cao no Ioniser be in doubt. 
He says he would like to "help drown 
some of the rabble that write up and print 
their own sketches and then quarrel togetlier 
over their respective merits." Isn't that a 
little rough on Jeremiah Jones, who furn- 
ished two or three columns of tliis sort of 
mush for three consecutive issues of the 
Gazelle^ Can it be that Gaskell ccmtem- 
plates suicide ? Or does he mean simply to 
walk off the ferryboat by Ujistake some Hue 
moonlight night f If it were not fixed in 
the decrees of Fa'e that he was never born 
to be drowned, it might be well to notify 
the police. It would be really too bad to 
lose Gaskell. Juixib. 

Portland, Me., March 26th, 1884. 
D. T. Amrs- 

My Dear Sir: The inclosed, clipped 
from your excellent paper of last issue, will 
be likely to convey a false impressioD if not 

Short-hand. — Isaac Pitman invented 
shorthand in 1837; in 1854 Graham pub- 
lished his "Keporter's Manual"; in I8(il) 
Munson issued his ''Complete Fhonog- 
rapher." Munson's system is the latest of 
the three praotical systems of shorthand. 

The present system published by Isaac 
Pitman bears not so much resemblance to 

I the otber systems 


like the original I. Pitman than any of the 
leading systems, aud has a e^eater follow- 
ing in the U. S., but leaac Piluian's is the 
"latest" of the loading styles of phonog- 
raphy, having been revised as late as 188:1. 
Yours truly, 

W. E. H icKcox. 

For $2 the Journal will be muled one 
year; also, a copy each of the "Standara 
Practical Penmanship" and the "Guide 
to Self-Instruction in Artistic Peumanship" 
( in paper covers ; 25 ceaU extra in cloth.) 
Price each, separate, $1, 

Women as Accountants. 

Thky Make Fewer Mistakes and are 

Far More Honest and ReLiAKUi 

than Men. 

Although hundreds of women hold posi- 
tions of financial trust in the country, we 
have yet to hear of one of them being guilty 
of embezzlement or defalcation. The evi- 
dence clearly sustains the position of those 
who believe that women are qualified mor- 
ally, physically, and intellectually, for the 
handling of money in- stores or in banks. 
G^n. Spinner, who first introduced women 
into the United States Treasury, left on 
rec.-rd a striking tesiimonial to the eHicien- 
cy and integrity of the sex, and no one 
ever had a better opportunity to stujy the 
question than he, who at one lime had one 
thousand women under his direction, en- 
gaged chiefly in handling m.mey. He tes- 
tifies that they count more accurately and 
rapidly than men; that their ability to de- 
tect counterfeits proved to be superior in 
almost every test ; that they were, without 
an exception, honest, and were invariably 
more careful and painstaking iu their wi.rk. 

Complaints of inaccuracy and carelessness 
ou the part of men were nude frequently 
during Gen. Spinner's administration of the 
United Stales Treasury, hut such complaints 
•.gainst lady clerks were few. The shrewd- 
est and ([uirkest detectors of counterfeit cur- 
rency were women, and, in case of dispute 
as to the genuineness of money, Gen. Spin- 
ner invariably took the judgment of a Mies 
Grandin. who was for a long timo employed 
in his bureau. Id speak'ng of her ability 
particular, one day lieu. Spluner 

Mfl 1 

L belie 


I should say that she possessed that power ; 
but I am not, so I call it instinct." Although 
there are several Ih.iusand women employed 
by the G'vernnieut as clerks, accountants, 
post-mistresses and in other capacities, not 
one has ever proved unfaithful to her trust. 
Many have been discharged for incapacity 
and for other reasons, but never for dishon- 
esty.- -Albany Journal. 

Subscribers wishing to have their address 
changed, should be careful to give both the 
old aud sew addresSf 

The Schoolmaster. 

know, my boy, before you go hunt; 
for M-hnt yi 

3 peilJIO (TBI 

li K. rmigh 

The Hawkeye Humorist 
Tells of a Doc. that "iYent oi f and 
Lost Himself. 
Oa the Western farm where much of the 
aummer-tirae of my life wa? passed we hail 
a dog. There being two or three boys on 
the farm, we had seven or eight dugs, aa a 
matter of fuct, but there was one particular 
dog, with whose tail I desire to point a 
moral, lie was a Iiuoter. Morning after 


to hunt. Night after night ho came back 
home, hia hair full of burs, hi8 feet covered 
with Btone bruises, and his ears pendent 
with wood- ticks. For eeven long years 
that dug lived on the farm. He gnawed 
not the bone of idleness, neither was he 
wise in the conceit df the sluggard, because 
in all those seven years he liunted all the 
time, seven days a week. But, alas! like 

the eluthful be 

'roasted not tha 


toolt in 

hunting," ( Prov. xii., 

27), beca 

use he 

never found a 


Nut L 



one solitary, li 

St thing 

did he 


in all 

those eeven yea 

rs' hunli 

ug. Ne 


'ound a 

thing. But we 

kept h 

in, because 

we le- 

lieved, indeed v 

e Isuew 

that th 

e d 

g's in- 

tenlions wpro 


He m 



Every inorniug 

as he w 

M forth 

happy and 

confldent, lie h 

.,ied .0 


og and 

to bring it homo wiili hiin jnyous and tri- 
umphant. But he never did. And at last, 
one keen, clear, bracing November day he 
went down in the feroy glens and lost him- 
aelf. We never heard that he died ; no- 
body ever saw him or heard anything of 
him again; his bark came hack no more; 
he was just lust ; he had wrapped the drap- 
ery of ihe unkuowal'le about him and 
joined the innumerable caravan of intangi- 
ble tilings he had been hunting fur years. 
The moral of this passage is self-evident. 
There are men, even in your own circle of 
acquaintance, who hunt all their lives and 
never fiad anything. They are induptrious, 
patient, hopeful, and yet never accomplish 
anything. They take the Congressional 
Record for its jr)ke3 and read the Nation 
for pnliiinul inMruclion. Ho goes to the 
minstrel show fur auiuspment and reads the 
Wasdington papers for news. Ho goes to 
a summer lioardiog-houso to get coo], and 
takes a vaciiion that ho may rest. He 
goes to the country for cream and fresh 
eggs, and keeps a horse to save slreet-car 
fare, lu all thia he doeth foolishly. He 
hunts well enough but not wisely. You must 

where lo uuui lor win 
rnight go deer-slalking _ 
' ' twenty years and i 

^ T Coney Is- 

land fur twenty years and never bring home 
pair of brnnchiDg antlers to hang in the 
ancestral halls of the Oat in which you live. 

The Causes of Failure. 

Wo clip the fulluwing from a report of 
an Address lately delivered, by the Hon. 
Chauucey M. Depew, before medical stu- 
denla in New York city. 

"In our American vocabulary and popu- 
lar philosophy everything almost is ascribed 
to luck and opportunity. The country is 
crfiwded with men whose careers have been 
wasted or wrecked by the speculations, fev- 
erish anxieties, lack of fixed purpose and 
persistent industry, and the hopes and dis- 
appoiutments thus incurred. While these 
elements form part of the phenomenal suc- 
cesses which astonish the world of business, 
the prizes in the professions belong only to 
those who honestly win them. [ Applause.] 
Crowded as are all the avenues, there is al- 
ways about as much room for a man as he 
is able to occupy. Failures are due to two 
causes: one that you have mistaken your 
calling ; the other that yuu will nut or can- 
not work. The men who are early and late 
at their vocation, who are alert to take ad- 
vantago of every opening, who are not 
swerved to the right or left by weariness or 
desire for change, who do the best they 
know how whatever they attempt to do at 
all, furm the minority which invariably 
wins. [Applause,] Commodore Vanderbilt 
once remarked to me in regard to an excep- 
tionally brilliant man, who fell continually 
exasperatingly short of what his friends ex- 
pected, '"There is a cog loose somewhere 
in his machinery," The old Commodore 
was not a metaphysician or mental philoso- 
pher, but with his usuit keen, hard sense 
he pointed out the difficulty of the mass of 
prufessional failures. Their mental equip- 
ment is fur some other purpose. The mo- 
ment a man discovers that nature intended 
him fur something else, let him stand not 
on the order ot his going, but go at once, 
before starvation drives him and orders him 
up. [Applause.] The sooner a poor doc- 
tor, lawyer or olerygman recognizes that 
his genius is for merchandise or types, the 
skilled trades or accounts, th© better for 
himself, the profession and the world. I 
have secured positions for two lawyers — one 
as a brakesman, and the other as a freight 
clerk, and both are advancing with earnest 
strides and confiiient anticipations toward 
the presidency of the road. [ Liughter.] 
The diaappointments and heart-burnings in 
a career come largely from our false stand- 
ards of success. We are over-educated in 
the views that wealth, income and expen- 
diture are its only indices. lu the absorbing 
rush for more money come the tampering 
with trust funds, peculations and suicides, 
which are the sociological problems of the 

"But when properly trained and fitted, 
as certain a« the rising and setting of the 
sun. so sure is the duclur of posiiiun and in- 
come suffi.-ient for a clean and healthful life, 
and its opportunities for usefulness and 
honor. The first few years of self-denial 
and struggle are not the dreaded evils they 
are pictured, but rather the athlete's train- 
ing, the soldier's discipline, their hardships 
forgotten, their experience and value hap- 
pily remembered after the victory. [ Ap- 
plause,} We lawyers are accustomed to 
saying that we owe to you the most lucra- 
tive part of our practice— contesting the 
wills and settling the estates of your vic- 
tims." [Laughter.] 

A recent advertisement read as follows: 
" If the gentleman who keeps the shoe sto'e 
with a rod bead will return the umbrella of 
a young la.iy wirh whalebone ribs and an 
iron handle to the slato-roofed grocer's shop 
he will hear of sometbiug to his advantage, 
aa the eame is the gift of a deceased mother 
now no more, with the name engraved on it." 

Lively Correspondence, 
Which may db a Hint to Other 
School Officers. 
West New Brighton, N. Y., 
Nov. 21st, ise.'). 
J. G. Clark, M.D.: 

Dear Sir: — Your favor of the 14th inst. 
has been duly received, and as yoc have 
written one of similar import to School 
Trustee A. C Wood, it is assumed that 
you have written yonr letter to me as being, 
in some sense, a representative ol the peo- 
ple of the school district, and I will " oblige '' 
you by publicly answering it. Ycur letter 
is as follows: 

W. N. Brioiiton, 

Nov. 14ih, 1883. 
Mr. Hunt : 

Dear Sir: — Will you be good enough lo 
explain to me why my school tax is $42 55 
more than last year! 

I think it is an unfair thing for people, 
who can aflord to pay fur their children's 

sending them to the public pchouls, which, 
as I understand it, are fur the children of 
poor people who cannot atfurd to pay any- 

An answer will oblige. 

Yours, respec'fully, 

J. D. Clark. 

In reply, I beg to say; 

The school tax is higher than it was last 
year, because at the aunual school meeting 
the voters decided, for the benefit of the 
children, to raise a larger sum this year than 
they did last year, and to spend it in pur- 
chasing new desks, seats, and in making 
other permanent improvements, and in pay- 
ing two addiiioual teachers and rent rooms 
for them, and in paying the necessary inci- 
dental expenses, in order that 2:21 of their 
children, in Miss Haggerty's and Miss Per- 
ry's rooms, could attend school a whole day, 
instead of a-half uf a day, as they have been 
doing for the last year. 

Your proportion of this additional tax is, 
I assume, $-l'2 55, and I assume that you 
have to pay it, because you have practiced 
medicine in this nCighborhond fur a long 
time, and have accumulated in this school 
district a large property, including nine 

You occupy one of your houses, and rent 
to tenants the other eight. Because there 
are good schools in the neighborhood, are 
you not receiving more rent tor them, and 
thus gelting your money back t 

I am not entirely clear as to the meaning 
in the remainder of your letter. Whether 
you think me a "mean" man fur sending 
two children to the public school, or whether 
you intended bo to stigmatize nearly every 
family in the district. 

If you intended, because I send children 
to the public school, to characterize me per- 
sonally as " mean," it would be unnecessary 
to '■ oblige" you with au answer; but if you 
intended to include almost every household 
in the district, an answer could he fitly given. 

The language seems to include many be- 
sides myself; but that view is a little con- 
fusing. Five of your houses are on Trinity 
Place, renting for $:(no each. The tenants 
send children to our public school. 

Shill we assume that families that pay 
you $U0O per annum for house rent could 
not aflord to pay anything for their chil- 
dren's schooling? Or shall we consider that 
you let your houses to people that you know 
are "moan"? Or would we be justified in 
thinking that public schools are not, and 
were not, intended to be exclusively a ren- 
dezvous fur pauper children, and that you 
are writing letters on a subject you know 
nothing about? 

For fifteen years I have lived w ilhin a few 
hundred feet of your residence, and if you 

er attended a school me 

dollar in money for 
any public purpose, that has not been forced 
from you by taxation, it has failed lo come 
to my kuowlcilge. 

It will, no doubt, seem to some of your 
neighbors, as it does to me, that your brand- 
ing almost every family on Slaten Island as 

unfair and "moan," couies from entirely 
mercenary motives, and that you are trying 

to hide your manhood behind a dollar, and 
the dollar appears to ho ample for the pur- 
ls it not posfible that y«u have been so 
engroesed in yeur vocati<m that you have 
bpcoine " rusty " cdncerning the traditions, 
ibe genius, and the laws of government un- 
der which you live? 

Sir William Berkely. Royal Governor of 
Virginia from lUJl to 1(;<10, in reply to the 

ny, said, "Thank God! wo have no free 
schools." Doctor, have you heard that some 
very interesting events have happened sinceT 
C. W. llvviT.— School Bulletin. 



AS A Wrestler.— Great 
commanders have not, as a rule, been not- 
able for the possession of extraordinary phy- 
sical pow»r. Washington was an exception, 
being a man of great strength. In his youth 

test, and, growing weary of the sport, threw 
himself at the foot of a tree to enjuy his 
book. By-and by he was challenged to try 
a fall with the hero of the rcpasion. At first 
ho declined, but fiLdiug his refusal attrib- 
uted to fear, he entered the arena, and, 
without taking off his coat, grappled with 
his opponent, and after a brief struggle 
hurled him to the ground with such force 
that the best wrestler in Virginia was in 
much the same predicament as the iJuke's 
wrestler when he tried conclusions with Or- 
lando. Liter on in life, while watching 
some young fellows contending at throwing 
the bar, ft^'ashington asked to be allowed to 
try what he could do; and, grasping the 
bar, sent it flyiug through the air, to land 
many feet beyond the limit attained by any 
of the competitors. And slill later, when 
he might be said to be gettiug old, be 
showed that he had not lost his strength of 
arm. Taking a morning ride, he saw three 
of his Workmen vainly endeavoring to raise 
a large stone. Jumping off his horse, he 
pushed the men asido, and without any ap- 
parent etfjrt, lifted the stone to its proper 
place, and then remounting, rode on. 

A Lawyer's Novel.— Prof. Swing, of 
Chicago, in an address at the Acton, Ind., 
assemblage, approved of jidiciuus novel 
reading, and tuld this anecdote: " I heard of 
a Chicago lawyer once wliose wife read two 
novels to bim when he was sick, and he 
said to her : ' I have been entirply too much 
wrapped up in law, and have forgotten al- 
most everything else. When I get well I 
shall lay aside my statutes and write a nov- 
el,' and so he did. The first chapter told 
about a nice young man and a pretty young 
woman. The second told how they fell in 
love. The third, a very pretty chapter, told 
how they took a wr^lk together in the even- 
ing, and bow they gut outsido the town he- 
cause the sun went down and they couldn't 
see the corpuration line. It was a very ro- 
mantic story, but he spoiled it in the next 
chapter. After the lovers were appropriate- 
ly seated in the shade of a spreading oak, 
although it was night, the young man said : 
* Adelaldi', I can no longer conceal my feel- 
ings. I love you madly, distractedly, wild- 
ly. I cannot live without you. Your image 
is in my heart by night and by day, and 
without you my life is incomplete.' Now, 
that was all very pretty, but — would you 
believe ilf — the awyer commenred that 
maiden's answer lo that burning declaration 
with : ' The other party responded substan- 
tially as follows,' and that took away all the 

Jails and State prisons are the complement 
of schools; 80 many less as you have of the 
latter, so many more you have of the form- 
er. — Horace flfnnn. 

Fine Oblique Gold Pens. 

We have recently examined and tried a 
lot of oliliqiie gold pens made by B. Gries- 
haber of Detrnit, which appear tu be all that 
can be desired in Ibat kind of peu ; the 
points were firm, iiue, clear and smooth, 
and in every way worthy of commendation. 


^■^'fc5i8^ ^-^s^" 

What is Said of the "Guide." 

p«raoiii. No olh«r BtlnioineDl aaiUla an er|UHl DiimDer or 
young ladle* Kn<t genllamea to pojtilloni of prolit and ad- 

toma arroneoiisly tuppoie II i« do more a gin Ihan good 
reading, ipelling, grammar, or any oilier ittlBlnniPDl, 


Jevolfd axolu-ively to ioXrxcii.m and ooi-le. for plain 
writiDg. offband Bmirifhlrgaod kitenng. Not the l«B.t 
imporlAOt part of Ibe ivork ii Ilia enKraved examples of 
iDCorraot ilylee of vrlling, wiih mlw fur avoiding or cor- 
recting Ifaem. A copy of ibe " Guide" uill be aeol free 

seat out by any otber persja'e paper ; i 

Queer Book- keepixo.— Our readers 
are doubtless fatiiiliar with the olJ anecdote 
descriptive ot ibe original way iQ which a 
cerlaiQ country uiercbaQt kept bis books. 
A custuiner once iisaeited that he never pur- 
chased the "one cheese" charged to him in 
his bill. The merchant lucked over hia one 
book, which was day-book, journal, and 
ledger. " You're right," he said. " It should 
have been one grindatone; I forgot to put 
a dot in the circle." In hia book-keeping a 
circle stood for a cheese, but a circle with a 
dot in its center meant a grindstone. Queer 
as was this sjetom of kt-cp'ng books, it is 
paralleled by the following entries made in 
1817, IBIS, and 18IU, and copied verbatim 
from the books of Scott &. Laurie, dry gooda 
merchants in New York : 

The tailor in Chapel Street owes 48. 

A black girl owf8 12 ISc. 

Fat man, Cuetom House officer, 1 pr. gloves, 

The woman who lost her ehawl at her 
brother'fl funeral, 1 pr. gloves, 2b 6d. 

A colored woman in Auihony Street owes 2s. 

A liltle girl, 7 Thomas Street, eundriea, 3a. 

A m\es, 29 Anthony Street, owes seven and 

The girl over the way owes eleven pence. 
And a girl that eciuinla owes eeveu pence. 
— I'ouMs Companion. 

Who should Subscribe ior the 

Every lady or gentleman who would 
make an effort fur the improveineot of their 
wriiiug at, bouie or in their place of busi- 

Evcry teacher and pupil of writing in our 

Every parent who haa sons or daughters 
whom ho would have become more inter- 
ested or efficient iu their writing. 

Every school- officer who would Lo fa- 
miliar with the highest standards of writing 
and best inethodfl fcr its iustructiou. 

Every admirer of good practical or artis- 
tic pcuicausbip. 

If you want a good and durable pen of 
medium fineness, send thirty ceots for one- 
fourth gross of "Ames's Penman's Favor- 
ite," No. 1. 

A Story of Justice Waite. 

Suspected of diuno a Confidence Man 


When Chief Justice Waite staried to go 
to Bultimore to keep an engagi'inent the 
other afternoon, and had reached the ticket- 
office, he discovered, to his horror, that he 
had only a few pennies in his pocket. He 
had neglected to provide himself with money 
for the trip. He looked around the waiting- 
room of the station, and he saw no one he 
knew. What was to be done must be done 
(juickly. His engHgement was au important 
one, BO he filed up in the line to the ticket- 
office, and when he reached the agent the 
Chief Justice smiled an awful smile across 
the full width of his enormous mouth and 
asked the ticket-ageut if he knew himf 

" No, I don't," snarled the agent, " and 
what is more I don't want to. What do you 

" I want a ticket to Ballimore and return. 
I am the Chief Justice of the Snpreme Court. 
I have no money with me. It is purely ac 
cideotal. I can give jou my personal check.' 

" Ob, I know you. I know all the bloods, 
but that dodge won't work oo me. I have 
jost had two members (f the Cabinet try tn 
bilk me out of tii-kets, and no Chief Justice 
dodge gets me. Take your ugly mug out 
of the window and get out of the way of 
people who have money." 

The Chief Justice glared. He could not 
fine the young man fi>r contempt of court. 
He felt che«per and worse than if he had 
been a real fraud, and he blushed and per- 
spired so that the agent had bis firm belief 

The Chief Justice dashed out of the sta- 

ideutify him. He had only five minutes left. 
At the ertrance to a saloon he accosted the 
proprietor wiih the frantic imjuiry of, " Do 


I kno- 


" Yer bet yer head I do, yer Honor," said 
a thort-haired, freckled- faced man behind 
the bar. " Yer are the boss of the Shuprame 
Coort. I see ye ivery day goiu' by here 
the care." 

"Will you cash my check? I have no 
time to explain." Here the Jus'ice grabbed 
a piece of paper and a pen on a desk near 
by and began to write hurriedly. 

" Shure I will. I have seen ould boys off 
on a tear before get out of money. Trusht 
ine, sorr. It is a $20 ye want! Here it is. 
Will ye have a drop before ye runt" 

But before any further explanation could 
be made the Chief Justice bad grabbed the 
money aud was running across the street. 
In some way the ticket-aaent had learned 
of bis blunder during the Judge's absence 
and was alt politeness when he saw the 
money. Mr. Waite barely made the train. 
— Washington Letter in Chicago News. 

Return if not Satisfactory. 

Remember, that if you on^er either our 
"New Compendium of Practical and Artis- 
tic Pcnmansliip," or the "Guide to Self- 
inslructiou," and they are not salisfactory, 
you may return them, and we will refund 
the entire amouut paid. 

Siagle copies of the Journal sent • 
receipt of price, IU cents. 

Penmanship op British Royalty. — 
An expert in handwriting as oxpres&ive of 
character has "written up" the marks of 
sundry British etatesinen The members of 
the present cabinet, with the exception of 
Sir Charles Dilke, do not write bad bauds. 
The caligraphy of ibo late Loid Beacons- 
field was elegant, bolJ and dignifiid. But 
of all the wriliug of ministers, that of the 
4 Ider Pitt stands pre-eminent for its beauly 
and symmetry. L'ko Addison's, his hand- 
wriliug reseuibled copperplate. 

Tlie royal family of England have gener- 
ally written good hands, ihat of her present 
Majesty bclog remarkable lor its ease and 

gracefulness. Her predecessor, King Wil- 
liam IV., wrote legibly and well. The writ- 
ing of Queen is Urge and majestic. 
She eigued herself " Aune U." The first 
letter of the name was usually a moderately- 
sized capital, but the succeeding ones grad- 
ually increased their dimentiuDS until the 
final tetter reached aometiuics almost an 
inch in height. Her irate MHJesty was wont 
to rise on her dignity in n uch ihe same way. 
Mary of Scotland eignrd herself neatly and 
prettily, " Marje the Quetn." B<.th of ihe 
Charleees wrote plainly ard "like gentle- 
men." The same may bo said of the four 
Georges, although that of George I. is 
rather stiff and pidantic. There is a good 
deal of pompous display in the writing of 
Queen Elizabrtb. Her signature especially 
is resolute but showy. —£'a:. 

Normal Penmanship Depaiim't, 

ilarrby. Cb,B W. Qi 

blilgioglon. W. L Purki 

AikiD. C.S. Pool. 


Writing and Measuring Ruler. 


■|]<1 pnietbemblgbly: a •kI 

SptiDtwtui ObUiiUB Peobt 

11.00 per doHo. AddTMs. I 


YOtjn nnme written on n do^eu mrd*. In nn nt. 
PHS.frt «iyle. foraSwDtf. W. IlUKl.liY. P. 1 



W , 'V™ '; «V„7 s" i "'i' sv "t'c": iStr ■ 

Principal of Caoada Bu'in.M Colipge, Ctaalham, Oat. 


Learn to Write. 

Fi»aho\A\ag. Slant Spacing. Shading, elo., and if rightly 
used will make yoa a corrtct and tUgcmt ptnman. Tha 
Compendium ia motosed io ornameuul caae. Sample 

AddreM J. R. UOLCOMB II CO., Atwat&k Block, 



*X1) OHIO. 













25 p«r gnu. 




imm .1) 




. 11.' Ill 

Sla, .,/e 





O lb«l 

,.".", Wj 










"freiH (torn 
Ullto, N. Y. 



over Ih, L. S, jjpQp yg ^ POSTAL. 

The Cost of "Going to Lav 

Stories, tbe moml of wbich is, " Dm 
;u Iftw," are numeroua, l>ut Dot so oum 
19 to leav 

1 for a 

ia§ " the Gnd like Daoiel," which is told by 
the Boston Globe. When Webster was at 
the zenith of his c&reer, the Globe says a 
gentleman wailed upuu him one day to en- 
gage him for the defeoso iu an important 
cace at law, the amouat at stahc io the ptiit 
being $80,U0I). The eeutlemaa asked Web- 
ster what the retaining fee would be. 
" A thousand dollars." 


By DIO tEWlS, A.M., M.I>. 

A Mardsohr Volcmk. ISmo.. Pull Gilt. SS. 
I: o/ IhrilHng JxnMr. It tvill m 

" A thotisa 

nd dollars!" 

exclaimed the 

old ^eotloDia 

"Yes. Uu 

think for a i 

noment what I 

engage to do, 

»\t. I do Dot 

mly hold my- 

oi'lf at your service in this matter, perhaps 
for A. mouth or more, but I debar myself 
fr.iin accepting any offfr, no matter how 
larfft>, from the plaintiff." 

The applicant was satisBed with this ex- 
planation, wrote out a check for the amount 
and gave it to tbe great expounder, who, 
after he bad put it in his pocket, said: 

"I will now give you a bit of advice 
gratis. If yon can compromise this business 
upon fair terms with the plaintiff, you had 
better do so." 

The client expressed his thanks and took 
hid leave. In a few days after, the gentle- 
mun called upon Wnbster again, and told 
hiiu that a compromise had been effected, 
and the nialter satisfactorily settled. Web- 
ster duly congratulated his visitor on the 
result, and would have turned to other bus- 
iness, but the visitor seemed to have some- 
thing further on hia mind. 

'■Of cuurse," be ventured after a patiae, 
"I shall not require your aervices, Mr. 

"Certainly not, sir." 

" And— how about the thousand dollars I 
paid youT" faintly asked the gentleman, 
who was not quite reconciled to paying Buch 
a sum for services which were never to be 

"Oh, ah," responded Daniel with a bland 
smile, "You don't understand It is very 
simple. That was a retaining fee— called in 
law a 'retainer.' By virtue of the contract 
I also become a retainer. What should I re 
tain if not my fee?"— 7>es Moines Trade 

The Original Manuscripts. 

Few people know that the original Dec- 
laration of Independence is kept in the Li- 
brary of the State Department. It is in a 
cherry ca?e and under glass. But tbe doors 
are thrown open all day long, and strong 
rays of light are eating up its ink day by 
day. The Declaration is written on parch- 
ment. Tbe t*xt of it is in a hand as fine as 
copperplate, and the ink of this part can still 
be j>lainly read. The signatures, however, 
are written in a different ink, and they are 
very fast disappearing under the action of 
tbe light. The buld signature of John Han- 
cock is faded almost entirely out. Only a 
J H and H remain. Two lines of names 
are entirely removed from the paper; not a 
vestige of ink remains to show that names 
were ever there. Ben Franklin's name is 
entirely gone. Roger Sherman's name is 
fast fading. I could not find the name of 
TImmas Jefferson, and Elbridge Gerry has 
lost its lasi syllable. Robert Morris, Benja- 
min Rush, Charles Carroll, an-l John Adams 
have been scoured off by the light, and only 
eleven names out of the fifty odd can be read 
without a microscope. 

Just below the Declaration lies tbe origi- 
nal of it in Jefferson's writing. It is on 
foolscap, yellow with age, and worn through 
where the manuscript has been folded. The 
writing is fine and close, and tbe whole Dec- 
laration occupies but two pages. The ink 
is good, and it remains as fresh as when it 
left the quill of Jefferson over one hundred 
years ago. It is full of erasures and inter- 
lineations, some of wbich are iu Franklin'a 
handwriting, and others in the strong script 
of John Adams. These show but little 
change, however, from the Declaration as 
adopted by the peopU.— Author's Seview. 

Peirce's Business College. 


Shading T Square. 

ntiallj d 

. Baptiit 

end 'ChurliV. 
Chnreih. HilI»bo 


V J « 



Iminglon Colleg 


'>,'"h'.' ; 






will etliicale in right pr 
Seerttary of the JVeto 


A .iGKiil 











Dlgestlon": '"New Oj-rntiMstlrtt" {223'iUiulra- 
- • >>WeHk LiingH" ({irolusely illui 

'"'" 'counting-room CO., id.. 

29 WARREN ST. ( P. O. BOX 2126), N. Y, 

The Presses are Working off 

the tupply will be equal to the demaud if you order now. 
A lilver dime will take a ropy &I eoy time within 15 
days. Tlis DirteUiry contains new arlioles ol vital im- 
jiortance to eTeryooe inlereited in penmanabip, pTomi 





Single Copiei, 10 cti. (silver) ; Six Copies, SO cts.; 
Fineen Copiei, $1. 

C. H, RANDALL, Publisher, 

Fairmont, Nebraska. 

Everyone Wants a Copy/ 
'*-i^- On/y a Silver Dime! 


The Office of the NEW SHORTHAND CO. 


rOK SALB^ Half iolereit la one of Ihe most faverably 

QPECIMEN8 A 8PE0IALTY.— Send 36 oonlg aa 



SEND 10 cents to A. E. Dkwiiurst, and rec«lTe e 
gant samples of his card-work. 


Penmen's and Artists' Supplies. 


AmessNew CompeDdiam ofOra'l Pennianshlp. . . 5 00 

22x?e, p«T sheet, by express 30 

French B.B.. 24x34, |- _■■ 75 

Black Card-board, 22x28, for while lok... '.!!!"!! 50 

Black Canls, per 100 25 

Whatman's Dra wing-paper, hot-press, ISiSW^J .15 il"o 

■; ■_■ 'I 19x24!! !20 2 ao 

3lx5a!! l!75 30 00 

Blank Bri8ti.l Board Cards, per 100 25 

_" " " 1,000, by express . 2 00 

Ornaiiental Cards, 12 designs, per paok of '^ o&rds, 

by mail -^o 

Gillott's 303 Sleel Pens, per gross l as 

Amess Penmens Favorite No. 1 per gross 1 00 

g " . " '' '■ igrow box 30 

The New Spenoe'rian ComponmJiin,''fci.' 3,'3." 4! ^ ^ 

EngroMlng Pens for ietieriiig, per doi!!!!!!!!!!!! 25 

^w-qnilTPen. veryflne.for drawing, dos 75 

WimamsB and Paokards Gems 5 00 

Oongdon's Normal System of Flonrishing 90 

SpoDgeRubber, 8X2 in,, very superior V.'. ",!!!!!! 50 
Roll BlBokboards. by express, 

No!a " 'aix3| '■ !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!.!!!!!! 1 75 

Stone Clolh. one yard wide, any length per yard, 

46 loohes wide, per yard. sUted both sides , 2 ■.:) 

Liquid Slating, the best in nje. for waUs or wooden 

boards, per gallon g cxj 

B?° No goods sent by mail until cash has been re 

receive attention. DANIF.L T. AMES?" 
price*! Holcomb PubllehlDg Ui 

Sent seoiire y packed by esp ess o any part of the 
Uo ed S a es or CanodA. Address for oircntar giving 
prices and desonption D T AMES, 

We give herowi h Spec mens of T nting, photo, 
square, with the rapidity of free hand lines. 

i)>ectfaUy, C. E. SiCKEt.£, 
and Draftsman, Am Bank Note Co., H. T. 

NBW YORK, Sept. 9, 1880. 
I, Eeii.—Dtar Sir: One of yoor patent T 
een in oonilont ose by me for soma time 

I. ApplelOD dt Co. 

d by every drafte- 
s Utdvenity. 

W HURLEY does an exclusive card buaiut 
1 therefore able to fill orders promptly, i 


The unde 
by cord and' 

pen work I will lurnish cabinet-size phologreplis of the 
following suhfcts lor $1, vix: "Idle Uonrs — a pen- 
drawing of bir )s, froit and Howers ; Coat of Arms of 

1 DOZEN cards. "00 twoalike." ••tegaot sample of fine 


Barcher's Assorted Colored Inks, 

Expressly prepared for the use of Penmen ,™l 

ienl on reoelpl ot »l. 



lau lluiiae, Chicago, ] 
e cents : Iwenty-Sve. 35 

VISITING Cards written and sent by mail nt tbe fol- 
lowing ralM : Spenoeri&n Script. 35 cts. per dot.— V 
per htmdred ; 12 dUTereat designs, rao-slmilBs of pen-work, 
50 ole.; pen.flourished. #2. Samples, 25 cts. Nothing 
free. B. F. KKLLBir, 305 Broadway. New York. 

Kindness vs. Harshness. 
"D! D! T> stands for dunce!" Si> 
spake one of " Her Majesty's Soliool In- 
apectar.'*" to a small boy, at an examiuatinn 
of a schonl in Slieffipl.I. EnBlanfi. Tim 
inappctnr ( who had eoni<» from Lnmloti fo 
test thfl schools of Shfffieia, that he inigbt 
eompare them with tLose of the Mclropo- 
lis), in order lo examine a laree clnsa of 
boys in arithmPlic iu a way that jihf'iiM 
prevent thetn from aiding one anolhcr, di- 
vided them int.i> four arrticmf, by axsigaiug 
to them in Pucpession the letlors A, B, C, 
D. One problem was to be given to all 
the A's, another to all the H'd, and so <>u. 
A modest liule boy. who had failed to ap- 
prehend what letter had been assigned to 
him, raised his hand. " Well, what do 
you want?" paid the inspector, impa- 
tiently. " Pleaee, sir," answered the 
trembling lad, " what is my letter f " Then 
followed the brutal words, "D! J) .' D 
stands for dunce ! " The boy dropped to 
his seat overwhelmed with mortification. 

I looked at that inspector with feelings 
of amazement and indignation, and my 
thoughts { for obvious reasons unexpressed ) 
ran thus : " You have the honor of beng 
one of her Majesty's School Iub[ ectors but 
yon are not a gentleman. Ym have 
oruelly insulted a helpless boy What 
right have you to call hira a dunce whom 
you never saw before this moment? If 
you do not know what decent civility de 
mauds of you in the discharge of your 
duties, you are the dunce, not that b >y and 
if you had justice done you, this would be 
yoiir last day as a school inspector 

This inexcusable language of that man 
in authority brought to my mind similar in 
stances of incivility on the part of some 
teachers that I have known. Indeed the 
abuse of children by impatient and un- 
gentlemanly teachers, is so common as to 
demand attention and severe rebuke. If 
children are to be trained up to manners of 
civility and eonrtesy, tbeir teachers ought 
surely to he models of true politeness and 
gentlemanlioess. A li.)y is a small man, 
and improper treatment affects him in pre- 
cisely the same way, if not the same degree, 
that it affects a full-grown man. An insult, 
whether inflicted upon a boy or upon a 
man, deserves condemnation. In fact, it is 
a meaner thiug to insult a boy than it is to 
insult a man, for the latter can defend him- 
self, the former is helpless. To call a pupil 
a dunce or a blockhead, is nothing less than 
a shameful outrage. If he be one by na- 
ture, he is to be pitied, not to be blamed ; 
if he is not one, and is so stigmatized by 
the teacher, he is a slanderer and deserves 
expulsion from the oflice which he dis- 

The success of a school depends largely 
upon the relations which exist between 
teacher and pupils. Independent of all 
the prlnc^iples and methods of education 
that may be a<lopted in a school, the bear- 
ing of the teacher towards his pupils is an 
element of vast importance. Mutual con- 
fidence cannot exist in schools unless mu- 
tual kindness and courtesy are constantly 
practiced. If the teacher is harsh, satirical, 
overbearing ; if he fails to sympathize 
with all bis pupils, to he patient and kind 
towards the dullest of bis charge— he is 
sure to be regarded with dislike or even 
with bitter hatred, and as a necessary con- 
se«iuence, Lis influenee for good, morally 
and iutellectuhlly, is weakened, perhaps de- 
stroyed. A teacher's acts and words in the 
schoolroom ought to be such that if evert/- 
thing he does and every loord he utiers were 
to be faithfully reported by the daily press, 
he would have no occasion to feel ashamed. 
When a teacher thinks he has cause to 
punish or rebuke a child, let him imagine 
that the parents of that child are sitting by, 
and then let him do and say no mure than 
he is quite willing they shall see and hear. 
Were this done by every teacher, I believe 
that there would be a wholesome improve- 
ment iu the manners and language of many 
■choolrooms. — T/« Educationist. 




Bryant & Stratton 
Counting-House-Book keeping." 


and Pabllo and Pri<rHie Sohuola, for iDlri>di:otioii and r»« 
DeaoHptlTA List oon ren-ly. CorrMp'>''tt"°'« loTilod. 


Seat Poil-p^d OD rei>eirl of -Jo oen'li. 


119 AND 121 William Street, New York 


American Popular Dictionary 



to eolicit Biibgriptiona to the PenMAS'b Aut JOURkal 

PenmflMhip |5 oo 

Waiinmi-and PaokaiJe demi.";;;!;;!!;;;;!!; 5 00 
CoDtfdon ■ Norawl Lettenng and Flonriihiog, each 

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ijtaDdanl PiacUt'al Peomaniblp, by the Speaoer 

Amea'e Copy-elipa, periheelof iouerciiee!!!". 10 

Marriage Certifloat«, 18z32 '",\ i oO 

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Flonriahed Eagle, 34X.18 » 

Centennial Piotnre of PnarreM, 22x25 50 

'^ 28«40 1 00 

Oniameptal and FloorUhed Oorda, 12 deal^u, nev, 

IW, by mail '. .■.'".".";"' 

1000 " 14 50 ; by espreu 

aoribere tor the Journal, and selUag Ibe above woi 

Shorthand Writing 



OF ( 

B. M. WORTH I nor ON, 


Ip Mer\ 0" 
rratlon* <ir pie 
IT tbat among 

nmn ipnrhle* with 


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n doll»r-blll, po8taI-iiot«, or money- order. Inctoie ilamp fiirmmple ropy 

E. K. ISAACS, Editor and Publif^hei', 

A.1l.l-PCTm.n nod T.acber In tb» It. I. N. Scl.o.ii. 

V AI.PA K A r SO, I N D . 





For Sale by all Stationers and Booksellers. 

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Per doE. Per 31 


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Address, PROF. A. W. DAKIN, Tully, New York. 



vill be mailed June lit. SubBoribe now and invite your friend* to do likswiie 

'"c^/V. CRANDLE. Editor and Publisher. BUSHNEU. ILL. 

Place to secure a Basinrss Education, ur prepare 
to teach Spt^ucerian P^amatiBbip, ie at the Sptn- 
ctrian Businest CoUegt, Cleveland, Ohio. Over 
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attemlance. lil.tJOO eiuce organ izal ion in ISo't 

Students entered at any time. We call Bpecitl attention to our Short Business and Writing 

Course during the Summer. Send stamp Tor cataln^'ue and circulars. 

4--it SPENCER, FELTON & LOOM IS, Proprietors, 236 Superior St. 



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The Spekcebian ScniPT Ruler has 
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Price-list of SPENCERIAN SPECIALTIES sent on application. 

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Invll.. your hII.bIIod id ih« following lau pciceJUl ol 
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Marlonvllle, Onondaga County, New York. 

atntral Xtwtpaptr Subieription Agrnt. anil 

Inki. ««.. ero. Mall«iry"so^'l<.' "' "* " ' "' '"' 
ttpeclnl Ofter.— The aliove .W-oeat Hand bnok wil 

y Uadiitff ptriodicat. U. S. etanii* 

Aiilographs — Cards 


If to, will you favor mt with a tri"! wder t 
I am amJiiUnt I can ptta»e you. 

•omMt otjle poMible. By .^ndlog [.rirw of the M>1» 

f«"o«Te^tly ild!lr"«^rt. Ju'ii will receive caMs Xy rrtorn 
mail, and in ffm.d oKler. a. I lake particuJar paiai in ^ 
ing them up, and pay pMlaRe Iq IuU. 

Number of card* in eacli parkage ■ 16 36 
Style A. Plain whitp or cteam, fio hI ^naliry % .42 « 90 

■■ a! SUk'"n.'l'«hn l.i."el^ bMOlirul. ; ! .CO 1.80 

'■ H. Eijrlit-i.lvl.«velr gilt, elo .fO 129 

■' I. "Ellie, e late»i «iyl»i 60 1 Sd 

" J. Pen H..uri.lie<!. ei>peciallj; for ad- 

Address llDea, exlia TB .43 

CARD CASES.— Thnje d»irinr to obtain leatliv 
CBSM lur lliair cnr>U can Bnd. in the Mlonlog:. •omeiliicg 

No. I. Russia leatber, four pockets $ 26 

" 3' " " bMtqQalily 40 

" 4. HoTOOOO " 45 

WANTED a good IWa egeot in ev»ry school to 
Boli.-ii ,<i<\<-Tt, (or wrillen cards Samiile-book, o.ii.tBitiing 
til I'RKii samples, with reiluoed pncfs sent lor HRy l-ceot 
.luini's Students in commerriBl coll^ires make money 
haud^amely. caovassiDg at ihe rales offered. 

AH ordtn prnmrtly and carefully filled Canadian 


ai5 E, 50tU St., New York. 

CF°Snmrle cards, shnmnK^ajvomlerja com man of 

WORCKBTiR. Jannary 'J9lh, 1884. 
I coru'tUr L itadarau one of the vxott ikillful card, 
wrtlert (i tlie country. Sptcimtn-cardt from hit pen 
Mrtainly turpan in vmooUintst, j^niee, and arlutic 'fftd 
any that I liavr. ever teen. A. If. HiNMAji. 

Ur. iladaratt it no doubt the finett cardwritfT in tht 
country, and it would pay anym^. whrther uting cardt 
or w)t. to get a dalfar't worth qfhi' tmrk, timplg to ttM 
to w)ial extent tkiU with the pen oan be developed 

E. K. Isaacs, Ediior of Tht Chirographer, 

ilr. Madaratt : Ymir Utitr with eardt received. 7 hey 
are eUgant. and ouhj aervr. to confirm xohal it growing 

uriUt the tvcift to equal ywr mert'f you wOl he Jlooded 
wUh • ■ gr- enbacki." Very truly, H. W. SUAYLOa. 

Special OfFerfor a Short While. 

On receipt of |l and ten 1-ceiil iliimpa, the loUowing 

Bevel-edge Cards with aaine, n-oi tb COo. 


An tinaurpaasetl apecliuen of bold business- 
writing. In lh« •liiipo of n letur, on tbe best 
qnullty of paper, ia being sent out, to any a4' 
drcaa, for 28 cents, Wllb Hpeclmeii of door- 


215 E. 50th Street, Nevi York. 

Only a Silver Dime I 

Everyone Wants a Copy I 


NEW YORK. MAY, 1884. 

Vol. VI 1 1.— No. 5. 

Lessons in Practical Writing. 

Number V. 


Copyrighted by A. H HlDiUBn 

Much of the beauty of email writing is 
due to parallel lines, or lines exleniUng in 
the same direction. In the following Ex- 
ample Ko. 1 the lioea slant in varioas di- 
rpolioiiB, while iu Example No. 2 the lines 
of a kind are parallel. 

L>.jt /'■//// ^^//// /y;^^^/' 

III Kxample No. 3, where the curved lines 
slant in various directions, the letters ap- 
pear irregular, while in Example No. 4, 
wliere the curved lines are parallel, there 
is system aod regularity. 

In our last lesson we direeted attention to 

the slant of straight lines, hut in this we 
hold that more faults in writing are due to 
the curved lines than the straight. Curved 
Hues of uniform slant produce UDifi)rm spac- 
ing, as may he seen by the illustrations in 
this lesson. While in some letters there 
are exceptions to the rule, we believe that 
mniJt of the beauty and uniformity of small 
letters are secured by parallel upward and 
parallel downward lines. Especially should 
they bo parallel where they extend through 
the Brst space or that occupied by the short 
letters. Beyond one space, as in loops, 
the curves tend in the direction of the 
straight lines. While practicing after the 
folluwiug. one should give a uniform direc- 
tion to all upward lines as well as count 
upon the up-strokoa. 

By couuiiug upuu the up-strokes more ac- 
curacy of direction will be secured, as well 
as shorter and more -perfect turns at the 
base line. Tliere is no one thing that is 
the cause of so much inaccurate writing ae 
the rounding of turns at the base of letters. 


fi, f(- 


Right here lies the point which accurate 
writers are most particular about, as well 
as the point where amateurs fail. To pro- 
duce the turn with accuracy and ease ne- 
cessitates the slowing of the down-stn«ke 
at the turn to almost a stop, then a quick 
up -stroke will produce the desired short 
turn. Careful attention to this point will 
effect a wonderful improvement in the writ- 
ing of all who have never given it special 

Although for many years we have been 
searching for 8Uperii)r methods of criticising 
penuianship, we have found nothing that 
has proven so effeciive in detpcliug errors 
as the one we will now present, and which 
we commend to all who wish to write with 
positive accuracy. 

A space is the opening between, at least, 
two boundary lines. In the following il 
lustration the small openings which end in 
points we term minor spaces, and the 
larger openings with rounded ends we term 

M/m/r sfAccs major spAces 

As these major and miniyr spaces are found 
in nearly every perfect letter one's aim 
should be to form theqe openings perfectly, 
for where they are imperfect the letters 
must be so. In the following { hymir\uhy ) 
it will be seen that the letters are compoied 
of lines which bound major and miruyr 
spaces and loops. The dots are seen in the 
major spaces, and the arrows point towards 
the minor spaces. 

arrows ; the o by the small o, snd I will 
represent the loop. 





Until one has mastered the ability to shape 
these openings with precision he cannot 
bring bis writing to perfection. Here is a 
woy for those who have the xoilX. Bfsides 
these openings there may be seen below two 
others which we will term the o and the 
LOOP. The UAJOR spaces will contain dots. 
The MINOR spaces will be shown by the 

By the use of the above four spaces 
nearly every part of any word may be per- 
fectly criticised, and when one can write 
through words making these four openings 
perfect there will be little else essential to 
the most positive accuracy. Whenever one 
is determined to weed out every error in 
his small writing we commend practice 
upon the above four spaces. The excellence 
of this method is due to the fact that in 
studying the openings we train the eye to 
perfection of form. While it is true that 
lines must be governed entirely by the form 
one has in mind, then not through a knowl- 
edge of lines but through a perfect knowl- 
edge of forms is the way to success. 

The capitals used with names in this les- 
son present the following features. They 
are composed of graceful curves, are of 
uniform height, slant, and shading, and are 
about the same width. Their general pro- 
portions are aboUv three inches in width by 
four in length. The oval or egg-shape is 
frequently seen. The shades upon the cap- 
itals are nicely tapered, and are strong 
enough to give a pleasing effect without 
appearing conspicuous through being over- 
done. The small letters are one space dis- 
tant from the capitals, and about one-third 
their height 

Replies to Questions 
Sent to A. H. Hinman, Worcester, Mass. 

rMr. Hinman will be pleased to receive 
and answer through the Journal all prac- 
tical questions relative to writing during 
the couiiouance of his lessons.] 

G. H. S.— Pupils who write a sprawl- 
ing hand can be made to overcome the 
habit by practice upon tall and very con- 
densed writing. This will straighten the 
up and down lines, strengthen the writing, 
and correct the main fault — sliding too 
much to the right. To straighten a bent 

stick — bend it as much the other way. If 
one's fingers will rest upon the paper, keep 
them off until the hand can be carried light 
enough to let them slide. If the wrist 
drops to the paper, keep it nearly two 
inches above until it will feel natural and 
easy an inch above. " Pa" used to check 
fon with misery. I therefore know from 
experience the value of correcting any 
wrong tendency by an opposite extreme. 

B. P. — Your weak writing is owing to a 
lack of a strong free movement of the fore- 
arm and fingers. Take a lot of smooth 
newspapers; cut each leaf into fourths for 
practice - paper ; select a strong, coarse 
business pen ; and with free-flowing ink 
cut and slash large (capitals and bold-shaded 
writing with a strorg, hold forearm and 
finger movement. Don't regret breaking 
pens : you need the strong, free movement 
this will develop, and it will not be gained 
as quickly by gentle practice. 

E. M. J. — No ; penmanship don't pay. 
Depending upon it to pay insures failure. 
Business ability pays, Goods don't pay, 
but making people want them through ad- 
vertising and creating a demand pays. 
Brother Ames aud others who make money 
owe their success to getting people to buy 
what they have to sell. Bitsiness is the 
horse; penmanship, the buggy: the pen- 
man rides only when he drives business. 


Members of the B. E. A. of A., 
Attention ! 

Tq Business Educators and Pentiien : 

Since the meeting of the President and 
Executive Committee of the Business Edu- 
cators Association of America, in Rochester, 
February 2J, they have been in constant 
correspondence respecting what should be 
done to add value and interest to, the com- 
ing Convention. The contemplated excur- 
sion to the Thousand Islands will,. probably, 
be made after adjournment, or else a trip to 
Niagara Falls the Saturday previous. To 
accommodate members wTio desire to attend 
the National Educational Convention at 
Madison the date of the Rochester meeting 
has been appointed July 17th instead of 
July lOih. The »-ecently published circular 
from the Executive Committee will, on re- 
ceipt of address, be mailed to any who have 
not received it. It is hoped that, as an aid 
to the committee who are doing their beat, 
business teachers and penmen will freely 
offer any suggestions which may in any de- 
gree contribute to the general success. 

A. H. Hii 

AKI .JOl'lSVAl" 

the bluoui 
if there ^ 
whicb he 

A Fight for a Fortun 


People whose tniDcIs are one-eyed, those 
who never see the per contra side of the 
ledger of facts, cslled Mr. Ciithhert Clacy a 
miser. Hia house on the Camden Town 
border of KcfzentV Park was a smnll resi- 
dence for a buLdred-thousand-pounder, and 
very faded and grimy. The arrangements 
of the previous tenant for window floral 
rere oonspicuously neglected, 
Clacy hated flowers, which in 
re no better than weeds, since 
les not develop into food. He 
blossoming of fruit trees as a 
aste of the force of nature, for 
any beauty in the blossom, 
utly denied, the fruit was nuoe 
tbe better for it. If he had had the order- 
ing of nature the trees would have borne a 
fruit crop in spring as well as in autumn, 
and there would have been no season of 
blossom. The furniture of the house and 
the dress of Mr. Clacy were plain and 
shabby. The most liberal "Old Clo'" 
would not have given a set of cheapest jugs 
in exchange for bis coat, waistcoat, trousers, 
and hat. His charity, as he often boasted, 
was limited to the compulsory payment of 
poor ratps. He did not eonceal hie love for 
gold. Yellow was the only color he ad- 
mired. Sometimes when he did not feel so 
well as usual he would have a golden bath 
— that is, he procured four or five hundred 
sovereigns, spread them on hig bed, and 
rolled in them. He said it was a sovereign 
cure, but he did not intend the remark to he 
funny, because he held humor and laughter 
to he frivolities that involved a waste ol 
vital force. He did not buy newspapers, 
because it would be foolish to part with 
precious pence for the sake of knowing 
what his fellow -creatures were saying and 
doing. In his walks he never passed a piu 
or a piece of paper, and during twenty years 
he had picked up pins and waste paper that 
sold for four pounds eleveo shillings and 
eleven-pence halfpenny. 

But a miaer is a man who loves gold so 
passionately as to deny himself the com- 
forts and even the necessaries of life. That 
was not the case with Mr. Cuthbert Clacy. 
His outJr garments were shabby, hut for 
the preservation of health he wire the best 
flannel next his ekin that money could pur- 
chase, and his boots were of the finest lea- 
ther and best make, because it is sanitary to 
be well shod. He paid his cook thirty guin- 
eas a year, because good cooking pleases 
the palate and atrrees vrith the stomach. He 
drank costly wines and he smoked cigars of 
the dearest brands. He denounced mar- 
riage as a senseless and ruinous folly, and 
so he was a bachelor of seventy winters ; 
but besides an efficient housekeeper and a 
professed took he fed and paid two serv- 
ants, that he might have due attention. 
No_ Mp. Cuthbert Clacy was not a miser. 
He was avaricious, which is perhaps not an 
uncwmmou failing; he was very fond of 
himself, which is probably not a rare phase 
of affection ; but be did not rare for appear- 
ances and the opinion of society, which is 
certainly an exceptional peculiarity. The 
main difference between him and those who 
called him a miser was due to hie not caring 
to seem what he was not ; he was content 
to be an uDwhited sepulchre, whi e they 
were assiduously whitewashed sepulchres. 
If he had dressed well, gone to church reg- 
ularly, and subscribed a few pounds to ad- 
vertising charities, he would, despite his 
avarice, have lived in the odor of respecta- 
bility, and, like other hundred-thousand- 
poundere, been profusely lickspittled. 

Gold is scentless, but it has the power of 
attracting th*. patchouli-perfumed incense 
that fills the hearts of the decorous yet 
most devoted worshippers of the Yellow 

^ Mr. Clacy had but two relations, Miss 
"" i Rispin, the only child of his only and 
nd Conrad Claoy, the only 
child of hiB only and deceased brother. Miss 

Rispin, after a short career as a family gov- 
erness, bad been her uncle's housekeeper 
for nearly twenty years, and consequently 
she must have been rather a matured spin 
ster. She was of the lean kind, and prob- 
ably no system of feeding wmild have fat- 
ilar figure, sharp feat- 



deep-set eyes, a mont zpalons Hud capable 
housekeeper, and also useful as secretary 
and companion. Early in the morning, all 
day long, and late at night Mii-s Rispin was 
at hand to wait upon her uncle. She wrote 
his letters and kept his accounts. She was 
silent unless asked a (|ueslion, and that was 
just the sortof rompauinu to suit Mr. Clacy. 
She had begun with a salary of i.'20 a year 
and never suggested an increase, and that 
also suited Mr. Clacy. Gossips reported 
she was to inherit the bulk of her uncle's 
property, and that she had several offers of 
marriage, hut she njecled them curtly and 
scornfully, and that pleased Mr. Clacy. In- 
deed, he liked her so well that when she 
had an attack of illness he was anxious 
about her recovery, because, as he said, he 
did not know how he should be able to re- 
place her as housekeeper, secretary, and 

The nephew did not suit the uncle as 
well as the niece. Ci'urad Clac-y was a bar- 
rister of seven years' standing, yet the en- 
tries in his fee-book were few, and as he 
had inherited only £5,000 when he came of 
age, with a taste for suppers and society, he 
was poor, and Mr. Clacy did not like poor 
people, for he regarded them as dangerous. 
" Don't tpll me that a man can be poor 
and hoqest. He may not eteal, but that is 
because he can't do so without being de- 
tected and punislted. Our cat is honest, 
but half-starve her, and see if she wouldn't 
be at the food when the pantry door was 
left open." 

Still, Mr. Clacy did not cut hia nephew, 
but asked him to dinner once a month, and 
even intimated an intention of leaving him 
the whole of his property. 

'■ Look here, Conrad ; when I am gone 


nd I 

dtcoased ■ 

too old to enjoy i 
come first go first 
am very lucky, ai 
last of my relatioi 
That prospect t 

ould rather it went to a Clacy. Only not 
penny for you while I live, and I will live 
I long as I can. I may keep it till you are 
t, eh ? Besides, Conrad, 
8 not always the rule. I 
id I may live to see the 
8 buried, eh I" 
o delighted him that he 
laughed, it being tbe first time for many 
years that he had been guilty of the frivol- 
ity that involves a waste of vital force. 

The cousins were apparently on turtle- 
dove terms. They kissed when they met 
and when they parted. She waa " dear 
Eliza," and he waa "Conrad dear." He 
always brought her a little present, and she 
knitted him cufls and mufllers. He circuit- 
ously hinted that if it were not fur the stern 
anti - matrimonial principle of their dear 
uncle— they always deared their affluent re- 
lation to each other— he should ask her to 
be his bride, and she also cirouitously in- 
timated that the actual reason why she re- 
mained single was that she loved Conrad 
dear so fondly that marriage with any other 
man was impossible. When dear Eliza was 
ill Conrad dear called on her, and was so 
affected that he had to turn hi 
and apply cambric to tbe tear 
left eye. When Conrad dear was thrown 
from a horse dear Eliza hastened to his 
chambers with eyes as inflamed as if she 
had been chopping large raw onions. 

But the cousins really hated each other 
with the bitterness begotten of rivalry. All 
rivals, commercial and professional, with 
the exception of authors, actors, and barris- 
ters, hate each other, ab tmo corde even as 
competing lovers do, but no rivalry, not 
even the rivalry of love, is so rancorous as 
the competition for a fortune bequeathable 
by a beloved relation 

rival. Dear Eliza had happened to have 
her ear close to the keyhole of the dining- 
room door when her uncle told Conrad dear 
about his testamentary intentions, and from 
that moment she hated her cousin with an 
indescribable intensity, and she also hated 
her uncle; yet she was more attentive than 
ever to her dear relation, and more gush- 
ingly affectionate to Conrad dear. 

Conrad returned bate for hate. His uncle 
might change hie miod. Dear Eliza was 
with him coustantly, and she might influ- 
ence and persuadfl him to leave his property 
to her. He called her a fawning cat, just 
as she called him a despicable sycophant, 
and he thought how happy he should be if 
the name of Eliza Rispin appeared in the 
death announcements. At one of the month 
ly dinners Mr. Clacy said: 

" I was very unwell last week, but Eliza, 
who is better than the doctor, soon brought 
me round. I tell you, Conrad, I don't and 
I shan't forget her cleverness and her devo- 
tion, eh I" 

Conrad made an agonizing effort to smile, 
and he felt like choking as he said : 
" Bless her lor her atteuiion to y< u." 
So Mr. Clacy had been ill, and dear Eliza 
had not sent for him, or even ttjid him of the 
illness ! What did that mean t That she 
had secured the property and wanted to 
keep him, Conrad, away from hie uncle at a 
critical time f 

As Conrad was walking home he mut- 

" The fawning cat ! I shall lose the for- 
tune unless I do something ti spoil her 

As dear Eliza was undrer-sing she paused 
to shake her fist at a ph<itograph of Conrad 
dear, and exclaimed : 

" The despicable sycophant t I shall be 
beggared, for the cards are against me, but 
trumps do not always score the trick. Oh, 
how joyful 1 sh.fuld be if I had to put on 
crape for the wretch! But there is no 
chance of that. I must fight for the odd 
trick !" 

Miss Rispin had played whist with her 
uncle for twenty years, and as visitors were 
few and far between they bad to resort to 
the device of double dummy. That i» why 
she often compared the game of life to 

niece and nephew. Would dear, dear uncle 
make a will f Had he made a will T Would 
the will, if there was a will, be in favor of 
dear Eliza, or bequeath the property to 
Conrad dear, Mr. Clacy adhered to his 
resolutions with unyielding pertinacity, and 
therefore it was certain tbe fortune would 
not be divided. The loving niece or the 
loviug nephew would get tbe whole of it. 
Mr. Clacy sent for his solicitor, and when 

that gee 





ss Risp 

about t< 



n alo 

e V 

pith his 

but her 

uncle t 



o r. 



ugh I 



/. talk 


about n 




e is no 

why you 


jt he 

ir V 

hat I 

If hoi 


s always paid to whom ho 


, the unknown pert 

ffho ; 

xiety is long ( 

uspense ; 

petitor knows that a will has been made in 
hie favor he is tormented by the poeaibility 
of another will being made in favor of this 

effort -of -nature" theory would be 
freshly and gratefully remembered. There 
are several ailments to which the human 
body is subject that are, much to the com- 
fort of the patients, described as efforts-of- 
nature, so that disease is regarded aa an 
assurance of health and of longevity. Mr. 
Clacy had been troubled with attacks of 
gout, not the poor man's gout, but the un- 
miserly variety that favors the rich and il- 
lustrious, and is supposed to be fostered by 
a liberal diet and a plentiful partaking of 
generous wine. In the interval between the 
twinges he consoled himself with the effort- 
of-nature theory. 

" I tell you, Eliza, that the pain is awful, 
but gout is an effort of nature and keeps the 
system healthy. You can't live to a hun- 
dred without some drawback." 

Mr. Clacy was seized with a uon-effort- 
of-nature illness that made his doctor look 
grave, and suggest further advice : and the 
day after the consultation Miss Rispin 
the doctor. 
[ would rather know the truth, how- 
dreadful; so tell me, is my dear, dear 
jnly earthly friend, in danger f " 
"The report, my dear Miss Rispin, is, I 
am sorry to inform you, unfavorable. Your 
uncle will rally from the present attack, 
but we are afraid that another atUck is 
likely to follow, and from that the chance 
of recovery will be very slight." 

An hour after Miss Rispin had left, Mr. 
Conrad Clacy called to ask the same qoea- 
lion, and he received the same reply. 
Great and painful was the anxiety of both 

What a dreadful minute for Miss Rispin ! 
She was a shrewd woman, and deserved the 
eulogy of her uncle, who had often de- 
scribed her as a thorough man of business 
who ought not to have been bom a woman. 
It instantly occurred to her that if the prop- 
erty was to be hers, the instructions for the 
will would not be given in her presence. 
Surely the fortune for which she had plot- 
ted and toiled twenty years would not be 
hers .' She was somewhat relieved by what 
her uncle said to the solicitor. 

" I think, Mr. Skinner, I shall get bet- 
ter f" 

" I hope BO, ray dear Sir, and I am sure 
you will. A cheerful confidence wins the 

" Of course you wish me well, and so 
does the doctor, for I pay you both hand- 
somely. But I want to be prepared for the 

" You are quile right, Mr. Clacy. It 
leaves the mind easy, and an easy mind 
helps the physic. My will was made many 

' party. Such a 
1 copy it and put 

called . 

"What I want you to do, Mr. 
is to draw me out a form to give e 
I am possessed of to oi 
will can be short, and I ci 
in the name of the party." 

" Certainly, Mr. Clacy. Such a will can 
be written on a single sheet. It is the duty 
of a solicitor in this matter to obey instruc- 
tions, for your testamentary power is un- 

" And I mean to do ae I like. It is hard 
that a man cannot take with him what be- 
longs to him, and it would be still harder if 
be couldn't leave it according to his fancy." 
" Precisely, Mr, Claoy. You have an 
incontestable legal right to bequeath the 
whole of your property to one person." 

" And in my opinion it is a moral duty. 
A legacy does no good, and a divided prop- 
erty is spoiled. An undivided fortune is the 
making of one party. But I can't talk any 
more. Send me the copy I require." 

When the form came, Mr. Claoy directed 
Mis« Rispin to send it to Conrad, who was 
to get the opinion of the best counsel on it, 
and to pay for the opinion. 

" Eliza, the arrangement is simple, and I 
am pretty sure Mr. Skinner's form is cor- 
rect, but I won't risk anything going wrong 
with the fortune for the sake of not spend- 
ing a few extra guineas in law. 
pose the lawyer gives bad advi 
sake of getting a job in the future ! Ah, it 
is shocking to have to leave your precious 
property behind you !" 

Mr. Clacy did not intend to torture his 
affectionate relations, for he did not care 
enough for bis fellow-creatures to wish to 
please or to tease them ; but the course he 
adopted was most tormenting. Dear Eliza 
and Conrad dear looked very old and wan, 
because they were, so they said to each 
other, distressingly anxious about their 
dear, dear uncle. 

The position of Conrad became very try- 
ing. Mr. Clacy had told him not to call so 
often, and that if he was wanted he would 
be sent for. 

" That fawning oat is poisoning hia mind, 
and I shall be ruined. I wish it was law- 

ful ■ 

But dear Eliza was very kind. She m 
only wrote almost daily aa to the progret 
of dear, dear uncle, but frequently called o 


Conrad dear. Ooe day sli** wae a long time 
ulune in her coiniiu's cbtUDhnre, aod auiueed 
hereeir by Kmkiug over his papers. The 
object of Uie nail was to invite Conrad dear 
to dinner and a rubber ; fur dear, dear uncle 

jiuoh better, he c 

uld play } 

After tbe 


R-hen Coi 

eharp with you, 
Conrad, but I did Dot mean it. As Eliza 
says, you are a good fellow, but of conne it 
is only huinaa nature to think about what 
may be soon coining, and not to feel fond of 
a person who is to be your heir." 

Those words were hopeful, yet Conrad 
was not completely reassured ; and as he 
walked home deep in thought he muttered : 

" It is a trick of the fawning cat to speak 
well of me, for she hates me aa I do lier." 

Instead of immediately retiring, Mr. Clacy 
sat in an easy-chair and smoked Iiis cigar. 

" Depend upon it, lEliza, when a man can 

case this is important and can't well wait 
till he comes again I'll see what it h about. 
That won't be opening another party's let- 
ter, because it's already opened. It might 
be a letter asking hia terms for doing a 

" Uncle dear, you are bo thoughlful." 
groan — a yell. 

matter f 
d for the doctor ? Oh, 
lome brandy T 
The diabolical villain! 
and read it aloud, for 
I fooling me." 

from her uncle 

" Oh, unci 
Oh, dear, shall I s 
dear, will you havt 

" Doctor t No 
Just read that uoi 
perhaps my eyes f 

Miss llispin took the m 
and read as follows : 

Conrad Clacy, Esq.: 

Dear Sir: — I have seen our friend, but 
he declines. He baa already a heavy stake 
on the old gentleman changing his mind, 
and he will not do another pout obit at any 
price. Yours truly, James Duckem. 

for there is the fact. Just take me to my 
room, (or I have a little business to do." 

In Mr. Clacy's bedroom was an iron safe, 
and from that be took an envelope, sealed 
and indorsed ; " To be opened after my 
funeral— Cuthbert Clacy." 

** This, Eliza, is my will, by which I give 
and bequeath all my mortal property to 
Conrad. I put it in the fire." 

When the paper was burned Mr. Clacy 
rubbed his hands together and chuckled. 

" What a maddeuing disappointment for 
the scoundrel who sold the post obit and for 
the fellow who bought it. Now, Eliza, I 
am going tliis very night to write out a new 
will, leaving the fortune to you ; but I will 
revoke it and leave it to charily if you ever 
tell Conrad what has happened." 

" Oh, uncle, you know I always obey 
you. But do take some rest now." 

" It would be tiuie enough to-morrow, or 
years hence, but I shall make the will to- 

I I were at nine all, and the game dead 
against me. Honors did not count, so I have 
won by the odd trick. Well, I have only 
managed to let him find out what Conrad 
has been doing. I only took the note from 
Conrad's chamber, aud dropped it io sight 

i of my uncle. How fortunate that it is to 
be concealed from Conrad! That inakes me 
safe. And though uncte feels better, I am 
sure he won't last long. Oh, I am so jolly I" 
In her niglitdress she did another little 

] dance before she extinguished the candle 
d got into bed. 

For I 



ne the 


ipetiQg cousms were 
happier. Conrad supposed a will 
leaving the whole fortune to him was id 
Mr. Clary's safe, while Eliza knew the will 
bad been burned and that the new will, 
making her sole inheritor of her uncle's 


The above representa a page of the new " Guide," loAtcA is tfiven free, in paper 
for one year'$ subscription to the Pkntuan'b Art JOURNAL, ai 

t ( in cloth, S5 
I here given as 

■a), as a premium to everyone remittint/ ^1 
for flourishing and letterin<i. 

enjoy his cigar he is pretty well mended. 


I that t" 

" What, uncle dear V 

" Lying at your feet." 

" Nothing, uncle dear." 

" Well, if I am not blind you are." 

Miss Kispin looked again on the grouEid, 
stooped, and picked up a letter. 

"I beg your pardon, uncle dear, but I 
didn't see it." 

"Who is it from?" 

" I don't know," said Mies Rispin, read- 
ing the address on the envelope. 

" Then open it and see who it is from. 
Here ia a pretty state of business, an un- 
opened letter carried about and dropped." 

" Uncle dear, it ia not a letter to you, but 
to cousin Conrad, and he must have dropped 

ihe \ 

" Now that vexes me. A man who drops 
a letter by accident may drop a fortune. 
What are yon doing 1" 

" Putting it into an envelope to send it to 

" Are you madt Leave alone the wear 
of the pen, and the cost of the ink and the 
envelope, are we to pay a penny postage 
because he ia careless. Give it me." 

Mr. Clacy bestraddled liii 

Pith hif 

There ought to b 
a and Conrad, and 1 

"Ob, the wretch!" exclaimed Mr. Clacy. 
"Talk of a cannibal! why, he does wait 
till you are dead before he eats you." 

" Oh, uncle dear, you will make yourself 
ill. Do tell me what is the matter." 

" The matter ! You have read that note 
and dare to ask me what ia the matter, eh t " 

" I am very sorry, uncle dear, but I don't 

" Perhaps you don't know what a post 
obit is, eh ? You are a woman of business, 
and you look me in the face and tell me 
that you don't know the meaning of post 
obit, eh!" 

Miss Rispin looked painfully puzzled. 

" I auppoBo it must mean a kind of Poat 
Office Order." 

Mr. Clacy groaned, and aaked for a wine- 
glass of brandy and water. 

"There, 1 am myself again. A post obit 
is a bond for the payment of a certain sum 
of money after the death of a certain party. 
Perhaps that scoundrel Conrad has given a 
post obit for ten thousand pounds, payable 
after my death, and may not have got more 
than live hundred for it. I once bought a 
post obit for one hundred pounds at a shil- 
ling in the pound. Oh, the scoundrel, the 
scoundrel, to anticipate my death and duck 
and drake the fortune." 

" Oh, uncle, I can't think that Cousin 
Conrad can be so awfully wicked." 

" What you think is of no consequence, 

night. Eliza, if some day that scoundrel 
Conrad came to you starving, and asked 
you for a penny for bread, would you give 
it to the scoundrel who has treated me as 
he has done t" 

" No, uncle, I would notgive him a crust 
to save him from death." 

"Eliza, I don't believe in women being 
angels, but you are pretty near one. Leave 
me while I write the will, aud tell one of 
the servants to come to me, as I must send 
for witnesses. Since the will is to be in 
your favor, you had better have nought to 
do with the making of it." 

Mr. Ctaoy was a resolute man. Before he 
went to bed he had made the new will, 
sealed it in an envelope, and given it to 
Miss Rispin. 

" You will take care of it, I know, and I 
won't have it in the safe for fear the scoun- 
drel should get hold of it, if anything hap- 
pened to me, which I don't fear, for I feel 
c|uite strong again." 

It need hardly be remarked that Mies 
Rispin was nut addicted to the amusement 
of dancing, yet that night, as soon as she 
had entered her bedroom aud locked the 
door, she performed a pas de sail. 

"I can't help it. I am so happy. Oh, 
you delicious bit of paper !" 

She kisaed the will and had another 

" How well it has worked t Conrad and 

property, was in her possession. Though 
each one was somewhat more assured, 
neither the one nor the other enjoyed an 
entire hour of freedom from miserable anx- 
iety. Miss Rispin had heard her uncle say, 
before the discovery of the ^os< obit, that he 
liked to leave the fortune to the name of 
Clacy, and might he not forgive Conrad 
and make a third will? Conrad was afraid 
uf the influence of Eliza, on account of 
her constant atteodance on his uncle. He 
was more horrified than surprised when he 
discovered that his suspicions about Eliza 
were well founded. 

Mr. Conrad Clacy received at his cham- 
bers, which were residential as well as pro- 
fessioQul, a call from a young woman whom 
be at once recognized as ooe of his uncle's 

" Dear me ! Do you bring bad news 
about my uncle ?" 

" Which I don't, as I left that place on 
the sudden two nights ago. My name is 
Bella Spoke, and if I ain't the et\\i&l to the 
party. Miss Rispin, which turued me out, ae 
far as money goes, anyhow I ain't an alli- 
gating old screw, which she is." 

" Very unpleasant, to be sure. I am 
sorry you have lost your place." 

" Which I ain't, Mr. Courad, for there is 
more places than parties waotiug 'em. And 
why I have took upon myself tu come here 
is owing to the circumstance which I told 

to the party I walk with, aod he eaid it 
woe the unly tbioe which ia correct for to 
tell tho gent, which is you. Aod, of course, 
being her poster of letters lo you, I could 
find you out. For, though Bella Spoke 
may come of parents which is 'umbly situ- 
ated, she is educated and vau read equal to 
any alligating old «crew." 

The eloquence of Bella is rather wordy 
and Dot particularly lucid, aud so it needed 
much questioning and listening oo the part 
of Conrad to get out the following state- 
Bella, who is not an alligating old screw 
to demean herself by putting her ear to a 
keyhole, heard, owing tfi the dining-room 
door being partly open, Mr. Clacy call his 
nephew a scoundrel ; then Miss Rispin read 
a letter ; then Mr. Clacy raved about a post 
something, and vow in awful language that 
his fortune should not be posted ; then he 

fetch the grocer and the baker who live 
round the corner ; then when they had 
gone, she happeued to be on the landinj 
when Miss Rispin went into Mr. Clacy': 
room and heard h'm tell her that wai 
his new will, and she was to take cart 
of it. 

Conrad gave the eloquent Bella a couph 
of sovereigns and promised her a handsome 
reward if she kept her visit to him a secret. 
He sat (or an hour after the departure oi 
Bella without speaking or moving. Then he 

" I'll consult Duckem. I may get ovei 
that post obit, which in some way or otbei 
the fawning cat has discovered, but that it 
no use unless I can gel her out ofthe house. 
I don't see how that can be done. I will 
consult Duckem, for he aud> his friend are 
interested to the tune of five thousand 

Conrad now frequently visited his uncle. 
Mr. Clacy had some houses at Bow and at 
Kenningtoo, let out in weekly tenements, 
and two evenings a week Miss Rispin had 
to go to Bow and to Kennington to collect 
the rent*, and those evenings Conrad came 
to chat or play double dummy whist. Dear 
Eliza diti not like it, and suggested that 
Conrad dear should collect the rents. 

" What ! Are you an idiot, Eliza ? Let 
a post ebiter have anything to do with the 
property ! I'd just aa well leave it to him. 
But the fortune can't go to the name of 

So Conrad, acting under the advice of 
Mr. Duckem, had ample opportunity for the 
process of mind-poisoning. Cunrnd was not 
sanguine of success, though bis friend cou- 
stsntly assured him that mind-poisoning is 
very easy, and failure in such an attempt is 

Mr. Duckem ia right. If body-poisoning 
were as common as mind- poisoning the 
world would be rapidly depopulated. Is 
there a man or woman who cannot recall at 
least one instance in which his or her mind 
has been prejudiced against relation, friend, 
or acquaintance by slander— sugar-coated 
slander? Not generally coarse slander, but 
given in smallest homeopathic doses. Some- 
times a plum of praise which contains only 
a grain— nay, the fraction of a grain— of 
deadly poison ? Strongest proof of the 
strength of love is that it often, though not 
always, resists the insidious foe to peace. 
The mother loves the son who is stoned by 
the virtuous world, and husband and wife 
continue to love despite the calumny that 
may be whispered or insinuated. Even love 
is sometimes not an antidote, but Mr. Clacy 
did not love bis niece, and therefore there 
was no ditEculty whatever in poisoning his 
mind against her. 

Conrad began to talk about bis cases, 
and told his dear uncle several interesting 

"What a lot of clients you are having, 
Conrad. You must he pretty often in the 

"No, uncle. Miae is chamber practice, 
which is not so showy as court practice, but 
it pays better. I am getting quite a big 
lepulation for advising on delicate 

To the professional eye this is a. world of 
horrible skeletons." 

He recited the case of a rich man who 
was, so his friends suspected, being killed. 

" Do you mean murdered T" 

" Weil, that is hardly the case from a 
professional point of view. You see our 
client is elderly and ailing, and without re- 
sorting to improper drugs, or any definite 
act, it is possible for some one about biiu to 
shorten bis life. That is a very common 

" Murder 

" Weil, morally, murder, no doubt. Have 
you noticed the number of widows that 
there are t Most of them pretty warm in 
the region of the pocket." 

"What of that, Conrad, eht" 

" This is my conclusion. Husband gets 
ill, as we all do. Fond wife will attend on 
him. Thinks it would be nice to come into 
the property. There are plenty of ways of 
finishing off an invalid without getting into 
collision with the criminal law. That ac- 
counts for the many well-to-do widows, 
though men are stronger than women." 

"And your client is being murdered by 
his wife, eh f " 

" No, uncle, he is a widower, and came 
into a fine fortune on the death of his wife. 
But his supposed heiress is nursing him. 
Now, after what happened with his wife, 
he ought to he on the alert, but it is human 
nature not to expect to be done unto as one 
does unto others." 

" What are they doing to himT" 

" We have not yet found out, and per- 
haps we never shall. All we know is that 
there are symptoms that cannot bo medi- 
cally accounted for on the fair-play theory." 

" It is enough to make a man feel afraid 
of everybody." 

" Well, uncle, for a rich man to have the 
of his property about h 

' You are right, Conrad. What shall I 

"You cannot, do better than you are 
doing. Dear Eliza is a good, trusty girl, 
and has nothing to gain by your de- 

That shot made Mr. Clacy groan, and 
Conrad left him. On the next occasion when 
uncle and nephew met, the latter said : 

" I have seven hundred pounds to invest, 
and I don't know what to put it in." 

" You seven hundred pounds! Nonsense." 

" Yes, I have. I received the money an 
hour before I came here. It has been for 
two years out on mortgage." 

Conrad took some bank notes out of his 
pocket, aud Mr. Clacy took them and eag- 
erly looked at them. 

" If I am not non compos you are. Why 
should a man with seven hundred pounds 
on mortgage do a post ohiif" 

"Post obit! Oh, I know what you mean, 
uncle. Professionally I am obliged to advise 
on such matters. I have one foulish client 
who has floated a lot of them, but he did it 
to save himself from penal. You wonder 
why I did not try \he post obits f Well, in 
that case it was too risky. But, in confi- 
dence, I have two five hundred pound bonds 
ju another life that I bought at ninepence 
n the pound." 

For five minutes Mr. Clacy did not 
ipeak, then he took out his pookethook, 
selected a letter, and read it. 

It may be only professional. I think I 
3 been a fool. Conrad, do you know 
this letter!" 

Conrad took the letter and read it. 

" Yes, it is a note from Duckem about a 
post obit for the client I told you of. But 
how did you get it?" 

About two months ago when you were 
here you dropped it." 

Conrad thought for a uainute and then 
shook his head. 

No, uncle, I never put professional let- 
in my pocket. It must have been 
taken from my chambers; but I can't tell 
you why .>r by whom." 

' I can. I not only smell the rat, but I 

the animal, head, body, and tail. Con- 

rad, I was led to think you had been doing 
a post obit on my property." 

Conrad laughed. 

" Excuse the laughter, uncle, but it IB so 
funny. How could you suppose that a 
lawyer would bw such a fool ? But I 
am also rather vexed. I would rather be 
thought a rogue than an idiot." 

'■ Oh dear, oh dear, when I put this and 
that toKetiiifr I feel as if I was being fin- 
ished off, aud the verdict serves me right. 
What shall I do, Conrad?" 

Forget the incident." 

'But I ha 

< dou' 


> what has dear 

^n be told 
rived Mr. 


Come to-morrow, Conrad. I'll give her a 
journey. And mind, not a word about this 

" Very well, uncle. 
Eliza to do with it!" 

" Dear Eliza! I'll dear her." 

What happened the next day 
in a few words. When Conrad 
Clacy was having an after-dinn 
the nephew waited in the dra' 
which adjoined ilie uncle's bedr' 
conversation opened with Conrad staling 
that they thought they had discovered how 
the client he had spoken of was being 
killed. He was being put into damp night- 

" That is quite a common dodge. It is a 
sure killer, and it can't be fnund out." 

" That might account for my awful rheu- 
matic pains. One minute, Conrad, one 

Mr. Clacy left the dining-room and pre- 
sently returned, looking pale and scared. 

" You have saved me, my dear boy. I 
have put my night-shirt to the fire, and it 
smoked — yes, Conrad, ii smoked." 

In the morning Mr. Skinner arrived and 
informed Miss Rispin that she must at once 
leave the house, that her uncle declined to 
see her, that her salary would be paid up, 
and that she would have a present of ten 

Miss Rispin went forth enraged aud de- 

" Some trick has been played and I am 
ruined. Cnnrad, the wretch ! What has 
he done ?" 

Three days later Conrad put a sealed 


"That is his last will, 
As Eliza is out of ibe way, I am secure. It 
was a difficult game to play, but I have 
won. Ah, you fawning cat, you alligating 
old screw, as the excellent Bella calls you, 
it's tit for tat." 



a scene which will perhaps 
make the result of the fight for a fortune 
less mysterious to the reader. 

Conrad's chambers. The hour ia mid- 
uight. Enter Conrad. On the table of the 
inner room, which serves him for snuggery 
and sleeping, is a note, which he reads. It 
ia from dear Eliza, to inform him that she 
had called to iuquire about their dear uncle, 
and to have a chat with Conrad dear, before 
leaving townforavery,very long time. Con- 
rad looked at his iron sale, smiled, and mut- 
tered that the fawning cat did not know 
what was in there, and if she bad known 
could not have got at it. Yet he took his 
bunch of keys from his pocket, opened the 
safe, took out the sealed envelopw indorsed, 
" To be opened after my funeral — Cuthbert 
Clacy," put it back again, and looked the 
safe. Then he put a tablespoonful of Scotch 
whisky into a glass of milk that was stand- 
ing on the table and drank the mixture. 
Conrad was precise in his habits, aud every 
night he drank a glass of milk fortified 
with a little Scotch whisky. The heir to 
H hundred thousand- pounder ia disposed to 
take care of bis health. He undressed, 
turned down the gas, got into bed, and was 
soon sleeping profoundly. 

From the clerk's olhce emerges Miss Ris- 
])iu, and enters the room wherein Conrad is 
sleeping. There is a scared look about her 
face ; even her lips are pallid, but she does 
not tremble. She searched the pockets of 

the sleeper and looked more scared, and 
also enraged. She came lo the bed, put her 
bony hand and arm onder the bolaler, and 
found the bunch of keys. Conrad dear was 
sleeping so soundly and the movementii of 
dear Eliza were so gentle that be was not 
dicturhed She turned up the gas, opened 
the safe, took out the sealed envelope, and 
thrust it in her pocket, and put into the 
safe another sealed envelope, of precisely 
the same size, and similarly indorsed. She 
looked the safe, unlocked ihe doors of the 
chambers and left them ajar, rinsed the 
glass out of which Conrad had drank his 
nightly mixture, replaced the bunch of keys 
under the bolster, turned down the gas, and 
departed. The shutting of the heavy outer 
door did not disturb Conrad dear, who con- 
tinued to sleep profoundly until nearly nine 
o'clock in the uiorniug. 

Wilhiu two months the long- looked- for 
event took place, and Conrad inserted a 
pathetic obituary notice in thu dnily news- 
papers : 

" At his residence, near Regent's Park, 
Cuthhert Clacy, Esq., in the seventj -fifth 
year of big age. beloved and venerated by 
all who knew biiii, aud deeply lamented by 

After the fuueral there was a cold colla- 
tion. Miss Rispin, a moving ma&s of crape, 
was attended by Mr. Talons, her s.dicitor. 
Mr. Conrad Clacy was accompanied by Mr. 
Duckem, his solicitor. Mr. Skinner, the so- 
licitor of the deceased, was also present. 
Dear Eliza and Courad dear were efiusively 
afl'rciiobate, aud tried to look very sorrowful. 

When the meal was over, and the serv- 
ant had left the room, Mr. Skinner said: 

" After the decease of my venerable cli- 
ent, I<ommuuicated with Miss Rispin, and 
her professional adviser, Mr. Talons, as- 
sisted me in looking through the papers of 
the deceased, hut we have not foujid a will. 
Yet I have reason to believe that my de- 
parted client did not purpose to die intes- 

'* I apprehend he did not," said Mr. 
Duckem. " I produce a sealed envelope, 
indorsed, I think, in the haudwri'ing ofthe 
deceased, ' To be opened after my funeral.' 
This envelope was given by the deceased to 
my client, his nephew, with instructions to 
take special care of it. Mr. Skinner, you 
are the professional representative of the 
deceased, aud I band you the said sealed 

*' A curious proceeding, certainly," said 
Miss Rispin. " Suppose Cousin Conrad 
did not seal up the right document?" 

Conrad was about to speak, when Mr. 
Duckem said : 

" Really, Mr. Clacy, I cannot allow you 
to notice such an observation." 

" But I must speak," exclaimed Conrad. 
" it is a most cruel imputation of my cou- 
sin. I seal the envelope ! I received it 
from my beloved uncle as it is, and I do 
not know the contents. If it contains a 
will, it may be a will in favor of my cousin 
Eliza. That is the euveUipe I received 
from the deceased and as I received it." 

" I cau't think how my uncle could for- 
get me, for he has often sworn that I should 
be bis heir." 

" Perhaps you are his heir," said Conrad. 
" There is the envelope as I received it ; 
our uncle was uot in any way influenced, 
aud when he gave me that envelope, about 
two months ago, and even unto the last, he 
was of iiiost perfect »estamentary capacity, 
his shrewd inudlect being crystal clear." 

"Had I not better break tip seal and 
read the contents f" asked Mr. Skinner. 

The professional gentlemen and the cou- 
sins assented, and there was an awful half- 
minute. Miss Rispin dropped her crape 
veil. Conrad looked at the fioor, Mr. Skin- 
ner seemed so slow. Sucdi silence that the 
cracking of the bit of wax could be heard. 
The envelope was opened, and out came a 
single sheet of paper. 

"Yes, it is a will," said Mr. Skinner, 

" made in a f»irm of which I supplied a 

draft to the deceased. It is duly witnessed." 

What need for that tantalizing speech 1 

Mr. SktDQer was dreadfully tedious and ag- 
gravating. He positively breathed on hit 
epectacles, and deliberately wiped them 
before he read the docutneiit. 

The will bequeathed the whole of the 

the tesutor's dear i 

, Eliza 

jil, felt • 


Dear Eliza put up her 
knees, and exclaimed : " Oh, my more than 
father I oh, niy darling uncle I oh, how you 
loved me, and how I loved you!" 

Conrad and Mr. Duckem had glanced at 
the will 

"I swear there is Bome triek and aome 
fraud," cried Conrad, "for it was my uncle's 
intention to make me his heir." 

"I protest," aaid Mr. Talons," against 
such an unseemly remark. The will was in 
the charge of and has been produced by Mr. 
Clacy. He ims told us that tlie document is 
that which was given to his custody by the 
deceased, that the deceased was of perfect 
testamentary capacity, and that for all he 
knew the will might be in favor of my cli- 
ent who for twenty years was the right hand 
and compauion of the deceased. Now he is 
ilipH])poiDted and dares to uae the words 
' trick * and ' fraud.' That is foolish as well 

" The cat has beaten 
Duckem to Conrad. " 
fortune, and my post obit boDdi 

As Conrad walked away with Mr. Duck- 
em he faid : 

" Can we not dispute the will t I swear 
my uncle intended me to be his heir." 

"How can' we dispute the will, Clacy t 
After what you stated about the envelope, 
your ignorance of the contents, and the tes- 
tamentary capacity of your nude, the other 
side would call you as a witness in prove 
their case. You have lyst about a hun- 
dred thousand pounds, and I five thousand 

An hour later one of the servants at the 
house of the late Mr. Clacy pushed open 
the dining-room dooraud was Hstonished at 
seeing the profusely craped Miss Rispin 
dancing a sort of high jinks breakdown 
and shouting : 

whispered Mr. 
have lost the 


hurrah ! 

s game agamsl 

gamo, but though the cards 
against me, in the conquering game 1 
won the rub. Hurrah! hurrah!" 



B^ho J 

ohued with the ethical 
story-tellers wlio pro- 
amuse but to improve, 
dished as fiction, 
iss Riepin's fraud 
ilth she expected, 

indeed miserable. 

views of the 

fess to write, 

whose tales t 

will expect to hear tht 

did not briug her the 

or that she became ti 

that h( 


never quite recovered from an attack cf 
brain fever. He has fell the cruel gnawing 
of hunger, and dear Eliza refused to give 
him a shilling. He is now employed by the 
proprietor of a patent hair-dje to compose 
advertisementH, write letters, and address 
parcels, at a salary of thirty shillings per 

Woe tinto tlie trickster who fails ! 

But Mies Rispin, the successful trickster, 
basks in brilliant tunsbiue. The property 
proved to be worth £120,W}0. She enjoys 
excellent health ; sbn is not iu the least 
troubled about her fraudulent conduct; she 
flourishes like the greenest of bay trees, 
courted by society, honored for her philan- 
thropy, and venerated as a model of piety. 
— Tinsley's Magazine. 

If you deairo ti) have the very best aid to 
self-improvement in practical and artislic 
penmanship, send seventy-five cents for 
Ames's "Guide to Self-iuslruction in Prac- 
tical and Artistic Penmanship" ( 
covers) or $1 for same nicely h 
thick covers. It tells you all about writ- 
ing, flourishing and lettering, and how t<i 
learn. If you are not pletujed with it you 
may return it, and we will refund the cash 
by return mail. 

Educational Notes. 

for this Department may 
be'addreBBPd to B. F. KkllbY, ^O.'j Broadway, 
New York. Brief educational it^ms Bolioited.j 

The New York State Teachers' Associa- 
tion will meet in July, at Elmira. 

Sixty-two per cent, of Harvard's gradu- 
ates of last year are studying law. 

Oberlia College has a total attendance of 
1,474 students of which 77(i are ladies. 

The Dakota lands set apart for educa- 
tional purpose are valued at $85,000,000. 

The Hampton (Va.) Normal Agricultural 
Institute bos 422 colored pupils and W\) 

Harvard College has recently come into 
possession of the largest private collection 
of meteorites in the world. 

The value of school property in the South 
is about S(),nOO,aOO, against $188,000,000 
in the North. — College Journal. 

Twenty - six ladies graduated at the 
Woman's Medical Coll. ee at Philadelphia a 
sliort time ago. The lady who wou one of 
the prizes iu the Class was from Burmah. 

There are twenty-one Business Colleges 
in Canada, and about as many flourishing 
commercial departments of High -schools 
aud Collegiate Institutes. — The Practical 

The education of women in India has 
advanced, till now 12(i,H4J) pupils are in 
daily attendance upon tlie schools. It is 

allowed to read. — Womaji at Work. 

Charles L. Colby has given a round 
$l,O0Oj0(JO to establish a new university in 
Wisconsin. It was his father, Gardner 
Colby, who endowed Colby College, at 
WaterviUe, Maine.— 2Ac Practical World. 

Franxk— The Nalioual Library con- 
tains 2,500,000 volumes. In the cabinet of 
manuscripts are 02,000 volumes and 144,- 
000 French and foreign coins of all periods. 
The print collection numbers upward of 
2,000.000 examples, kept in 14,500 vol- 
umes and 4,000 portfolios. A special gal- 
lery is reserved for the most costly books, 
which number some 80,000. 

The New York Tribune says : " There 
are 330 colleges and universities in the 
United States, of which only twenty-four 
have more than 200 students, and only sev- 
enteen have more than twenty teachers. A 
targe number of the colleges furnish no bet- 
ter an education than can be obtained in a 
High-school of the first class. One 'univer- 
sity ' io this country has three professors 
aud twelve students ; anoiher has two pro- 
feesors and eighteen students. These pro- 
fessors can take the college home with 
them at night, and thus prevent it from 
getting into mischief." 

E^BusIneH ooWene Herat might not be inappropriate 

[ In every iuBtance where the source of any 
item used in this department is known, the 
proper credit is giv^n. A like couriesy from 
others will be appreciated.] 

The Vasaar girls' favorite Roman here — 

Don't throw dirt in your teacher's eyes. 
It might injure the pupil. 

The funny bone is said to be so called 
because it is the end of the humerus. 

Teacher : " What happens when a light 
falls into the water at an angle of forty-five 
degrees f " Pupil : ' " It goes out." — Der 

Professor : " What can you say in re- 
gard to the articulation of the bones f" Stu- 
dent ( doubtfully ): " I don't think they ar- 
ticulate very much." 

" Let us pursue (he subject a little fur- 
ther," said the medical students at the bed- 
side of a dying patient. So the next night 
they went out and stole the body from the 

V.H I ,M*\li\ VI 

" Yes, sir," said the liquor dealer, " it is 
a good law that prevents any one from 
opening a school within 500 feet of a liquor 
saloon. Schoolhouses are the ruin of the 
trade, any way." 

" Oh, mother," said the High-school girl, 
and pointing to her brother Jim, who was 
making faces at her, " compel James to 
cease those extraordinary physiognomical 
phenomena." The old lady was compelled 
to seize the back of a chair for support. — 
Oil City Derrick. 

Dr. MiCosh of Princeton, in a recent ad- 
dress to the students, said : " Our college is 
not in a good state." This is precisely 
what the little Maine girl thought who thus 
finished her prayer one night: "And now, 
God, good-by ; for I'm going to New Jer- 
sey for two weeks." 

Astronomers tell us in their own simple 
intelligible way that the gradual lengthen- 
ing of the days is due to the "obliquity of 
the ecliptic to the terrestrial horizon." This 
ought to set at rest the foolish idea that the 
days are lunger becaupe the sun rises ear- 
lier and sets later. — Pitishurgh Telegraph. 

"Yes, indeed," said the High-school girl 
to her brother Jim, " in this affair I ob- 
tained the gibbosity on Amy." "You did 
whatt" inquired the boy. " Obtained the 
gibbosity— the protuherancy, you know." 
" Is it anything to eat ?" was the next ques- 
tion. " dear, no, you stupid boy — merely 
a figure of speech — what you call ' got the 
bulge,' only that is horrid slang." — Oil Cilg 


Bv Paul Pastnok. 
I have so often been struck by the 
remarkable success achieved by true gen- 
tlemanliness, in all the wslks of life, 
that I cauuot pass an opportunity to say 
something nhout the value of cultivating so 
rare and so very useful an accomplishment. 
I sny rare, for true genlleroanlintss is in- 
deed adornecl by fow eximples There are 
traces of it iu all men, but few enjoy its full 
possessi<jn. In part, it is inherited ; in part, 
the gift of circumstances; in part, and the 
greater part, it is acquired only by careful 
cultivation. Gentlemanlioess is the endow- 
ment of few, hut it is the duty of all. All 
men cauuot bo poets, scholars, statesmen, 
or merchant priuces, but all can be gentle- 

My object is to speak of its value as an 
aid to wo'ldly success — one of the lowest 
points of view from which to study it ; but, 
after all. the most practical and efi'ective 
point of view in the survey of any question 
whicli is of interest to men in these pushing, 
utilitariau times. To all who are engaged 
in active pntfessions, especially, the subject 
in this light should be of interest — to 
teachers, to penmen, to salesmen, and to 
commercial workers of every class. 

Gentlemanliness, in ihe first place, is so 
much a retieciion of honesty, candor, puri- 
ty, faithfulness, that it goes very far in 
rocommcuding a young mau to the g'lod 
graces of every one of whom he seeks ein- 
pluyinent. Let a bright-faced, graceful, 
courteous, well-mannered lad in search of 
employment enter the counting-room of 
a merchant and he immediately wins re- 
spect and deference. He carries personal 
credentials with him that are a great help. 
Politeness is a kind of honesty, candor, and 
purity, inasmuch as it cauuot be truly pos- 
sessed without these qualities The first 
tiling to do in cultivating gentlemanliness 
is to get rid of everything disgraceful. No 
dissembler can he a true gentleman; no 
dishonest, impure, treacherous person can 
be a true gentleman. The very first thing 
necessary is to give the true spirit of a 
man— which Is in the beginning pure and 
godlike —a chance to shine out. So the 
world — even the hard, ctdd, matter-of-fact 
business world — agrees to recognize true 
gentlemanliness as a synonym for obaracter. 
And very seldom indeed is such an estimate 
false. It is so hard to dissemble true gen- 

Again, gentlemauliacss is of the greatest 
value to every young man in his work. 
All of us have more or less to do with 
others. Our life is by necessity social; onr 
business relations are largely social. Gen- 
tlemanliness is the great social lubricant 
which enables ns to deal with others with- 
out friction. It is friction which makes the 
wheels of business run hard, just like the 
wheels of anything else- An employer can 
afl'ord to have gentlemanly clerks and as- 
si-tants-he must afT.ird it. It will be far 
better fir him to have gentlemen in bis 
salesrooms than the choicest and finest 
goods with a lot of bonrish or surly clerks. 
Awe is capital for a young man — to culti- 
vate this winning geutlemanlineps. It Is 
always in demand. It is more staple than 
gnl.i, and more available than brains. A 
gentleman carries his gentlemanliness on 
liis front; a genius carries his brains locked 
up, and it takes a good while to prove to 
the world that he has them Geittlemanli- 
ness and brains make the best team that 
ever worked together: but epntlemanlinesa 
first and prepare the way for 


There is 
work where 

department of the world's 
e gentlemaulii^ess is not sure 
to make its mark. Not only in business 
and professional life, but in all the relations 
of society, in all kinds of human activity, 
the gentleman stands first. And when we 
consider what a natural endowment gen- 
tlemanliness is, how it ought to be the 
rightful inheritance of every man, the pe- 
culiar capital which God gives him to rec- 
ommend him to his fellows, we cannot but 
be amazed at the rarity of this best posses- 
sion ! How few are true gentlemen; how 
few are gentlemen at all ! It is the strang- 
est thing in the world that the world is so 
largely made up of coarse, selfish, thought- 
less, unbending, pitiless people. Strange, 
because we would all be so much happier if 
we exerciped more of that divine courtesy 
which is our natural birthright ; strange, 
because courtesy is so helpful to self as n ell 
as to others; strange, because the vital 
principle of alt religion and all conscience 
is love for others. 

I would be glad if anything which I have 
said may help the -great army of young 
men, who are entering commercial life 
through the broad gates of penmanship, to 
set a higher value upon gentlemanliness. 
I believe that it is the first requisite to suc- 
cess, as well as the expression of the high- 
est quality of the mind and soul. Let us 
have more gentlemen, and we shall have 
an infinitely, brighter, and better world to 
live in. Couriesy to all is the visible fruit 
of Christianity. 

Rapidity of Thought. 

Some recent investigations relating to the 
speed of thought are thus summed up in the 
American Journal of Arts and Sciences: 
" Sensations are transmitted to the brain at 
a rapidity of about 180 feet per second, or 
at one-fifth the rate of sound; and this is 
nearly the same in all individuals. The brain 
requires one-tenth of a second to transmit 
its orders to the nerves which preside over 
Voluntary action ; but this amount varies 
much in difi'erent individuals, and in the 
same indvidual at difi'erent times, according 
to the disposition or condition at the time, 
and is more regular the more sustained the 
attention. The time required to transmit 
an order to the muscles by the motor nerves 
is nearly the same as that re'-^uired by the 

moreover, it passes nearly one-hundredth of 
a second before the muscles are put in mo- 
tion. The whole operation requires one- 
fouith to two-tenths of a eeoond. Conse- 
quently, when we speak id au a<^tive, ardent 
mind, or one that is slow, cold or pathetic, 
it is not a mere figure of rhetoric, but an 
absolute and certain fact that such a dis- 
tinction, with varying graduations, really 

An ( .lOl KV 

Business-writing Boomed. 

Ad incide 

; of 1 

i usual interest 
aod inipnrtAcce oonurred at the Bueiuess 
College this inorDiDe. It was an inspection, 
I>y alioiit a dozen prouiiceut business, edu- 
cHtioDal, and professioaal gentlemen, of the 
new method of teaching business-writing, 
which the college has lately inaugurated. 
The gentlemen comprising the inspecting 
committee were at the college promptly at 
nme o'clock, and critically examined every 
part of the writing drill, which covered u 
period of about forty- (ive niinutes. The 
claw, numbering eighty or more pupils, 
was conducted in the business-practice hall 
of the college, and was taught by Mr. H. B. 
Chicken, assisted by Mr. C. T. Smith. 

After drilling the class, from the black- 
board, a short time on rapid, free movement 
exercises, calculated to develop legibility of 
fiirm, strength and smoothness of line, and 
rapid, easy movement in both capitals and 
small letters, the class was asked to write a 
page, consisting of a sentence placed on the 
board by the teacher. 

It is proper to state that the method of 
teaching business-writing employed at this 
college ignores the use of so-called princi- 
ples, all unpractical or flourished styles of 
letters — indeed, everything that is not nee- 
oseary to legible, rapid handwriting. In- 
stead of so-called principles, it employs 
general movement exercises composed of 
letters, or a combination of letters, so 
grouped together as to teach correct form 
and easy, rapid movement at the same time. 
These exercises, though few and simple, 
are made to embrace the form of every 
small or capital letter in the alphabet. This 
method throws overboard all forms, and 
scales of proportions in letters which have 
rendered published systems of writing well- 
nigh useleas for any practical purposes. A 
good, tolerably coarse business pen is also 
used by both the young ladies and young 
gentlemen of the college. 

In an incredibly short time the pupils 
had completed their pages, and the work 
was collected by the teachers for the in- 
spection of the committee. 

In addition to the work which was done 
under the immediate notice of the visitinj,' 
gentlemen, a large collection of business 
statements, business letters and books, were 
abo examined. It was in these last-named 
exhibits that the excellences of the system 
seemed to be most apparent. 

At the close of the lesson. Principal 
Ilrown made the following statement: 

(?ra«mi«i. — Human beings began to 
think and speak, no matter when, and it 
became absolutely necessar/ that some 
method should be invented by which their 
thoughts and oords could be 
be transmitted from one persi 
outside of the range of the hui 
Hieroglyphic or picture wr 
doubtedly Srsi invented ; th. 
handwriting ; but both the < 

Invented through pressur 
necessity, writing has existed 
is now a utility, and will nevf 
proper sense, anything but a 

As an end to be sought or attained, writ- 
tog, of itself, is nothing j but in its relations 
to the religions, social, political and com- 
mercial interests of the world, it comes to us 
as one of the greatest aohievejnents of man. 
Mirabeau, the celebrated Frenchman, 
said: "The two greatest inventions of the 
human mind are writing and money -the 
language of intelligence and the 
language of self-interest." 
Utility in preserving and transmitting 
Imnmn thoughts and commercial facts being 
the sole cause of the origin and present 
existence of handwriting, it is now in order 
to ask what are its necessary elements? 

After much consideration 1 have come to 
the deliberate conclusion that writing has 
but two necessary elements, viz., kgMlili/ 
and rajiUily. Without certainty as to its 
meaning and a good degree of rapidity in ita 

in what we ca 
mtcome of dir 

. utility. 


writing looses, in a great meas- 
ure, its utility. 

Legibility and rapidity being the prime 
characteristics of handwriting, it becomes 
absolutely necessaiy that the letters of 
which it is composed be of the plainest 
type, and the forms used such as can be 
easily and (jriiokly made. Purely fanciful 
proportions in letters, and every so-called 
line of beauty, if introduced at the expense 
of either legibility or rapidity, in just so far, 
defeat the main purpose of writing. 

The utility of writing and its necessary 
elements, legibility and rapidity being kept 
constanlly in view, the element of beauty 
may safely be allowed to take care of itself. 
The points of real beauty in a handwriting 
are these unconsciously, if at all, and are 
the endowment of nature rather thau the 
result of study. Much experience and many 
years of careful observation have brought 
me to the belief that true beauty in hand- 
writing is often destroyed by the attempt to 
teach beauty, falsely so-called. 

While all can and should aciioiie a per- 
fectly legible and comparatively rapid style 
of writing, there is a certain peculiarity, a 
distinct personality, so to speak, in the 
handwriting of most pupils which the wise 
teachers will seek to develop rather than 
repress. I think it a matter of very great 
importance that each pupil be allowed to 
retain and develop his own hand, so far as 
is consistent with systematic drill and the 
cardinal elements of writing to be always 
insisted upon. 

I very seriously object to any system of 
teaching writing which requires all pupils, 
under all circumstances, to write alike. I 
am sure that much harm will result from 
such a course. 

In these lew words X have tried to set 
forth my idea of the true object of hand- 
writing and what constitntes good |>enman- 
ship. If I am wrong in my understanding 
of the subject, then it is altogether probable 
that the means need to realize my idea are ' 
so at fault. 

I believe that many persons know more 
than one person, and it is with this thought 
in mind that I have invited you here to-day, 
gentlemen, representatives of the business, 
professional and educational interests of the 
city, to examine our method and inspect our 
work on this subject. 

Onr method, yon have seen employed. Is 
it rational » Our work, done by a company 
of young people who, for the most part, 
have not seen service yet in real business- 
yon have before you. Is it good » Your 
opinions, gentlemen, upon these points are 
earnestly desired, and whether rendered for 
or against the method of instruction and its 
product will have much weight with our 
instructors and their pupils. 

Very pointed remarks, strongly indorsing 
the method and its results, were then made 
by Prof. Turner, M. P. Ayers, Dr. Suther- 
land, J. P. Lippincott, W. H. Hinrichsen 
and others, and the committee unanimously 
adopted the following report : 

We, a committee invited by Prof. 6. W. 
Brown to inspect the method of teaching 
writing employed at the Jacksonville Busi- 
ness College, express the following as our 
opinion of what we see : 

The method appears to us calculated to 
deveh.p, improve and finish the individual 
style of the writers and preserve the dis- 
tmctness and legibility, and increase the ra- 
pidity, so important in business. 

We heartily indorse the method as the 
very best for practical purposes. 

The readiness with which the pupils per- 
formed the exercises in so short a time 
convinces us of the practical value of the 

The Art of Writing. 
As VrawRD AXD Treatkd by the F. 
OF Spsncerian Pbnmanship. 

Bv R. C. S 
Some of the account- books of Anon Har- 
mon, which were kept by P. R. Spencer, 
when a boy, are preserved. The writing in 
them shows that the Spencerian style of 
practical penmanship which he developed 
was then in embryo. For one so young 
and self-taught the writing was excellent, 
being plain, neat, firm, and easy. At that 
period, however, his duties were such that 
be had little time or opportunity for the 
special study and cultivation of the art to 
which he subsequently devoted himself. 

In his business methods Anon Harmon 
was eccentric. He paid little regard to that 
orderly division of labor adopted by me- 
thodical business men. He was noted for 
energy and force of character combined 
with an impetuous temperament. As a con- 
sequence he was inclined to require of his 
employees every variety of seiTice, especi- 
ally of those who were apt and could readily 
turn from one tiling to another, as was the 
case with y.,uDg Spencer, of whom he made 
a kind of factotum. He became not only 
book-keeper, correspondent, and salesman 
in Harmon's store, but at times carried the 
m.ail on horseback from Ashtabula to War- 
ren, Trumbull County, Ohio. For a while 
he wa.i supercargo on the schooner Travel- 
er, built and owned by Harmon, one of the 
earliest vessels trading on Lake Erie. But 
however employed and whatever his sur- 
roundings, his fondness for the art of writ- 
ing, in which he was considered a prodigy, 
was apparent. 

On his trips as mail-boy he carried in his 
pocket a lump of red chalk, with which he 
wrote signs along the route for the pioneer 
merchants, taverns, and shops. As he rode 
through the country he gathered the news 
for the eariy press of the region, which he 
reported sometimes in rhyme remarkable 
for wit and wisdom. Some of these rhymes 
are still traditional among the people. 

Among his earliest literary remains is an 
improvised diary made by folding sheets of 
inferior foolscap paper. To this he gave 
the odd title of '-The Dishwater Book," 
written in rough German text on the first 
page of the cover. The" contents of the 
book are in prose and poetry of a humor- 
ous and amusing character, written in his 
eighteenth year while supercargo of the 
schooner Traveter. 

The wriling in "The Dishwater Book" 
wiis evidently done at random, but shows 
skill, and faintly some of the features of his 
future style. When the vessel was be- 
calmed ho spent his time in covering her 
decks with a variety of writings, and her 
bulwarks with artistic designs, executed 
with a lump of red chalk. These perform- 
ances were the wonder and admiration of 
the sailors and of the people visiting the 

the prisoners had been placed in the build- 
ing it was noticed that the potatoes were 
disappearing at the rate of a bushel a day. 
At first it was thought that the rats were 
taking them, but a second thought showed 
that the idea was absurd. Sentinels were 
posted around the building, with orders to 
shoot any man caught stealing those pota- 
toes; but they didn't see any man to shoot, 
and, though they were posteil there day 
and night and no one was allowed to enter 
the room in which they were kept, they 
still continued to disa|ipcar. These pou- 
toes at that time were considered luxuries, 
and the Ccmfederate officers were nearly 
wild with rage at their repeated losses. The 
doors and windows were sealed, and private 
marks were put on the wax. The next 


J the 

. The 

[ Note-- For editorial views of the fore- 
gomg article see page 72, under title of 
Stl^dpoitu?.]" ^^""""^ '-- Different 

If you want a good and durable pen of 
medium fineness, send thirty cents for one- 
fourth gross of "Ames's Penman's Favor- 
ite," No. 1. 

His duties as supercargo, with his geo- 
graphical knowledge and rending, doubtless 
impressed his mind thus early with the im- 
portant relations of the art of practical 
writing to commerce, concerning which in 
after years, he expressed himself in lofty 
!rse in his teaching, especially in business 
illeges and in public addresses on his fa- 

A Story of the War. 

What CausedtheConfedb!iate Sweet 
Potato to Disappear. 

Mr, Joseph Wingfield, an ex-guardsman 
of Libby Prison, tell, the following story 
of hia experience while standing guard over 
the prisoners one night in Libby Prison 
in 18(13: "The building was so crowded 
with prisoners that a large number of them 
were quartered in the second story of a 
building across the street. In the first story 
of this building the officers had stored a 
large quantity of splendid North Carolina 

-It potatoes. About the third day after 

wax was all right, but another bushel of 
potatoes had vanished. It was the maddest 
crowd you ever saw. They locked me in 
and a lighted candle was put at each end 
of the room so that I could see. I was or- 
dered to shoot on sight anybody that I saw 
stealing those yams. It was terrible lone- 
some in that room. Just as fast as I would 
light one candle and go to the other end of 
the room to light the other, the rats would 
cut the first one dovn. They were regular 
Confederate rats, and a candle was a god- 
send to them. About midnight I heard a 
creaking grating noise. I cocked my gun 
and listened. The noise ceased ; I could 
see nothing but the rats, and I began to 
think the place was haunted. Presently 
the noise occurred again. I looked at the 
pile of potatoes, and presently saw some- 
thing shoot from the ceiling and fall on 
them. It was a brick, and I could distin- 
guish a rope to it. I crept a little nearer to 
get a good look at the thing, but before I 

and there was a pecl^ of potatoes sticking to 
it. It went up through a hole which bad 
been cut in the floor above, and presently 
came right down again with a thump right 
among the potatoes. J t was the must art- 
ful arrangement yon ever saw. The brick 
had about forty boles drilled into it, and 
through each of these boles a tenpenny 
nail had been run, so that when the brick 
fell among the potatoes these nails .stuck 
into every one they fell on. I could not 
help laughing at the smart dodge those 
Yankees had taken. I gently put my band 
forward and caught hold of the rope. Pretty 
soon they began to draw on il, and when 
it did not move I heard some one say, 
" Steady, boys ; the brick's linng on some- 
thing. Pull her steady without jerking." 
They did pull steadUy, and fairly lifted me 
from the Moor. "No jerk ; easy, hoys, easy," 
the director said, and they tugged away. 
I got pretty red in the face holdiug to the 
rope. I was afraid to let go, because I 
thought some of those spiked nails might 
strike me in passing. I thought of my 
pocket-knife, and hauled it out just as they 
were putting all their weight on their end 
of the rope. I cut it in two, and the end 
shot back through a hole in the ceiling, 
and I could hear a rolling and tumbling on 
the floor above, showing that the sudden 
giving away of the rope had a disastrous 
effect. I heard another voice say: "There 
now, I told you so. You've broken the 
rope. We've lost our brick, and to-morrow 
we'll be found out. Can't you see it » We 
might hook it up." Next I saw a long 
neck protruding through the hole, and a 
fellow iieering down. Then I cried out, 
"If you trouble anymore of those pota- 
toes I'll shoot." Ihe fellow's lieail shot 
through the hole just like a terrapin, and it 
was as still as death up there. I hated to 
tell on them, because it was such a smart 
scheme of foraging on the enemy, but I 
had to. When the officers went up next 
morning to examine the room, it took a 
long time to find the hole. Those Yankees 
had cut a hole about a foot square through 
the door, and it was done so neatly that it 
took good eyes to discover it." 

Sample copies of the Journal, 10 cents. 

«'i .J01IK\.VI> 

The Spirit of Progress. 
By Chandler H. Pbirce. 

" ytich ! " "Stitch ! " "Stitoh I " 

Write! Write! Write! 

Practice! Practice ! Practice ! 

But when cfiu I hope for reaultsf When 
shall I reach a rich reward t Do you think 
r can become a good penman T I don't be- 
lieve r ever cno. How soon can I I)ecome 
proficient? Do you think I can become a 
first- class penman in six inontlisf 1 <iou't 
believe I have made any progress at all 
marked for a long, long time. Is thero such 
a thing as positive improvement? Is there 
such a thing as negative improvement f 
Who can determine? Why have we no 
exhaustive works treating upon the subj ot 
ouiside of copy books, keys, and conipbn- 
diums ? Are lessons by mail at all satisfac- 
tory ? What would ycu advise me to do? 
I am solicited to teach a class in penman- 
ship; do you think I should attempt itt I 
know belter how writing should be done 
than I can execute. I don't care as to the 
expense ■of going to school. Give me lion- 
est advice. I don't driuk anything stronger 
than water, nor do I use tobacco 

Every day I read questions from far and 
near that ought to be answered satisfacto- 
rily by some of the profession. I have not 
the time to benefit mankind individually, 
but collectively I give my hand and heart to 
the readers ol the Penman's Art Jour- 

In every business, queations of like char- 
acter, as well aa all possible ones bearing 
upon the subject, suggest themselves at 
sometime to every well regulated mind. 

There is no harm in asking a simple 
question. Ttere can be no harm in answer- 
ing a simple question. There is no crime 
commitlfd in peeking to better one's condi- 
tion by legitimate investigation. There is 
uo wrong done in dispelling innocent igno- 
rance. Wisdom should be disseminated; 
and if it be in the province of any to ask 
seusiUle questions it should likewise be 
proper, just, and right to accord to all 
every benefit arising therefrom. The 
spirit of progress is strong in almost 

The young aspirant cherishes every hope, 
and is longing for the dawning of a brighter 
day when all hopes shall be realized. There 
comes a time in every one's life that they 
must leave — mother, home, and friends. 
There comes a time when progress ceases 
if we do not leave our old assnciations. 
There comes a time when the spirit of 
progress is felt urging us to renewed effort. 
There comes a time when we must not 

"Look not moDrnlally into UiePait: 
Wiwly Improve th* PreMut: 

The spirit of progress demands that 

The spirit of progress demands action — 
resolute, determined, action. 

A spasmodic effort will not win. A slight 
blow is of no avail. An occasional turo of 
th" wheel is almost useless. Practice under 
unfavorable circumstances and you cannot 
possess the spirit of progreps. Practice with- 
out the spirit of progress and you cannot ad- 
vance. How is it possible to effect progress 
if the spirit he not in the work I How is 
it possible to effect progress when doubt 
and uncertainty pervades the mind? How 
is it possible to effect progress when law is 
violated ? How is it possible to effect sat- 
isfactorily progress with the machinery 
partly out of order, The probabilities are 
so great for error, and the possibilities so 
small for iruth, that the spirit of progress 
is hemmed in on all sides to the detriment 
of every aspirant. 

Imagine, if you please, any one attempt- 
ing to write with the usual misgivings, and 

you can readily uoderstiiTui u ' ' 

results ronform to points fnuml in the 

Lower Scale. 
( Guod ;i 

U(.i)cr8c«W^ Excellent .... 4 
i Superior .... 5 

S Indifferent .... 
Poor 1 
Fair 2 

The upper scale is difficult to attain be- 
cause force, energy, determination, indomi- 
talile will-power, love for the work, and 
ambition, are not present. 

The spirit of progress embodies many 
virtues which, if not poseeesed, work disas- 
ter, disappointment, and ruin. You cann< t 
j-ucoeed without it. Mere 2>rnciice does not 
indicate progress. The spirit ai d blood 
of the times must fill your very nature or 
you are hopelessly lost. Can you upou your 
own account accomplish all this f I think 
not. While- a teacher may do much for 
you, you must possess force and vigor 
euiiiigh to carry into execution the plans. 
A physician may give the proper medicine 
and render every service in his power, yet 
will the jiatient die if no effort be made 
in his own behalf. 

There is a certain work that the instruct- 
or must do which the instructed cannot do 
There is a certain work tliat the instructed 
can do tliat the instructor cannot do. The 
physician has his mission to perform ; the 
patient his. There can be no exchange of 
duties; there can be no violation of law; 
each mult know his work and perform it as 
best he can. The light of true criticism, 
bearing upon honest, manly effort, is sure 

Demand and Supply. 

MomiDff Talk lo ibe «tiiclei.l. of the SpMoerian Buii- 


The competition between buyers and sell- 
ers is ihe great practical fact arising from 
demand anil supply. Into this competition, 
as students of business, you are preparing 
lo enter. You will enter this department of 
human interest and activity subject to the 
laws which govern trade — the laws of de- 
mand and supply. The thoroughness of 
your preparatory knowledge, coupled with 
natural good sense and trained judgment, 
will determine, more or less, the measure of 
your success. Wbat you will be able to 
achieve as business men and women will 
depend not alone upon the industry and 
perseverance with which you pursue your 
objects, but upon the knowledge and the 
clearness of foresight by which you are 
guided and directed. The resources of the 
mind and of knowledge must be brought 
into constant exercise. It is biain as well 
as brawn that subdues to man's use the nat- 
ural resources of the earth ; hence, educa- 
tion and mental training as well as physical 

But in pursuing our examination of that 
great law of trade, demand and supply, we 
may say that the competition of buyers and 
sellers is one which makes men exceedingly 
keen and cautious. If the supply be large, 
it is the interest of the seller to put upon 
the market only so much as buyers will 
take at a price which will not only save the 
sellers from loss but yield him a reasouablo 
profit. The seller will, therefore, endeavor 
to BO place and distribute what he has to 
offer in the market as to conceal from the 
buyer a knowledge of the fact that the 
supply is in excess of the demand. Were 
the seller to throw upou the market at once 
the whole supply in full view of the buyer, 
the effect would be to make the buyer aware 
of the fart that the seller must a<;eept such 
prices as the buyer might bo disposed to 
offer; in other words, the buyer would take 
advantage of the overstocked condition of 
the seller. It is true that the neceai-ities of 
the seller often compel him to submit to 
sacrifices, and, consequently, he will offer 
to the buyer at prices much below the cost 
of production ; and, hence, the seller pock- 

I i-^-i, HTiil the buyer reaps the benefit 
..f the Pcller's oeceRsities. On the other 
baud, a buyer who is looking for a supply 
of hii wants will naturally withhold from 
the knowledge of the seller the extent of his 
neccssiiies. He does this from consideration 
«■>( private interest. Where the necessities of 
the buyer are very pressing, and this fact is 
known to the seller, he will naturally take 
advantage of the circumstances, and exact 
from the buyer a price much higher than he 
could otherwise demand. 

You see, then, the relative position of 
these two classes, each seeking in their 
dealings with one another to promote bis 
own priviite interest— the one desiring to 
obtain the highest prices, and the otlier to 
purchase at the lowest. Out of these ap- 
parently contiicting interests between two 
great classes in community develops a prob- 
lem which touches every human being who 
enters into the competitions of life. Not a 
person who is in any manner dependent for 
the supply of his wants upon the services 
of trade can f scape the operation of the law 
of demand and supply. It is the great prin- 
ciple by which the producers of commodi- 
ties, the dealers in commodities, the capi- 
talists, the laborers, the financiers, the 
statesmen, and the consumers of the world 
must govern themselves in their several 
capacities. You are liable to occupy towards 
society all of these relations. You will cer- 
tainly occupy some of them. You cannot 
escape from the position in which the pro- 
gress of Ihe world has placed yon. This 
position you must fulfill, and if y<m do it 
well it will be because yon understand the 
position in which you find yourself. If you 
fail it wil) be, perhaps, bf cause you are 
ignorant, or because yon are indifferent, or 
because you are negligent, or because of the 
ignorance, indifference or mistakes of those 
with whom you are in relatmns that make 
you more or less dependent upnn them. 

In view of these thoughts you must turn 
your minds toward that future which spreads 
out before you and stretches on to the end 
of life — that future in which you are to 
live and to act. That your part in this fii- 
ture may he well performed, and that yon 
may for yourselves and tor others secure an 
ample competence as the fruits of your labor 
and your intercourse, I have called your at- 
tention, I hope wiih some care and thought, 
to this subject which may well be made the 
study of your lives. 

The Art of Snubbing. 

Everyone can be rude, forbidding, inso- 
lent and snubbing ; but to only the studious 
and gifted few is it given to wound a friend's 
selMove with so slight a touch and so tine 
a point as to be almost imperceptible at the 
moment, the only thing certain in the matter 
being the wound — whicii remains. It takes 
no artistry to contradict flatly, to sneer 
openly, to put down an interlocutor as a 
fool who may or may not know his own 
folly. This is the bludgeon style of warfare 
— the savage's method of braining his foe 
and of cooking his food in the ashes of the 
fire. The art consists in the grace with 
which the weapon is used; the lightness of 
hand with which the thrust is made ; the 
smallneae of the visible aperture, and the 
depth of the corresponding wound. The 
man or woman who has attained perfection 
in these methods has ever in possession one 
of the most deadly ot all those poisonous 
needles, the scratch of which festers to the 
death, while invisible to all eyes but the 
sufl'erei 'b. 

You have lately learned a quite new faot, 
whether iu the physical sciences or in his- 
torical criticisms it dues not signify ; but it 
is new, has not yet been published, and 
your authority is incontestable. You are in 
the presence of a snubber when you bring 
out your lately acquired treasure and make 
a present of it to all around. "That all? I 
knew that long ago," says the snubber, who 
has never heard the question discussed. 
'* That is no such wonderful thing to tell. 
If, now, you bad told us of the elemental 
principle of life, or who was the man in the 

1 why a tree 
- you would 

Iron Mask — if you r<mld expla' 
grows and who was Junius - 
be worth listening to. But thin — this is 
not worth the time it takes lo tell I " And 
as all persons save the exceptionally kind- 
hearted and the exceptionally generous- 
minded, like the sport of snubbing as much 
as foxhunters like cub hunting, you are at 
once set down amid a shower of small sneers 
as a mere retailer of second-hand goods — 
as one who tries to pass i ff old lamps for 
new, who offers stale facts, "which every 
schoolboy knows," as the latest discoveries 
made by the great leaders in the world of 
mind — all to get for yourself the kudos 
which belongs to the chosen vessel of com- 
munication. S<>inetimes you are snubbed 
by a dead blank silence. Yon have said 
sometliing for which it is desirable you 
should be put down. So you are put down 
by the crusbiug force of negative disdain. 
What you have said is not worth the trouble 
even of a reply, still less of contradiction. 
We d«> not answer the cat when she mews, 
nor think it always necessary to conviBce 
our Polly that crying " Go to bed. Jack ! " 
at noon is a futile exhortation. You rank 
no higher than the cat or the parrot; and 
what you have just said hears no more 
weight than the mew <>( the one, the prate 
of the other. And aa you cannot talk with 
no one to listen and no one to reply, the 
snub does its work, and you are wounded, 
Hs it was meant you should be. And some- 
times you are snubbed by direct and un- 
compromising contradiction. It may be 
very nicely put if your enemy be well-bred, 
or it will be brutality, and rudely flung in 
your face if he or she be ill-mannered. 
Whether nicely put or rudely flung, you are 
contradicted all the same — bea'en back by 
the surging waves which sweep your own 
strand bare, but bring no substitute for that 
which they take away. 

Cousin-german to the snub of silence is 

that of ostentatiously changing the cou^er- 

sation. You are assumed lo have flourished 

a red rag in the face of your companions, 

and good breeding rebukes you by a sudden 

diversion and wheeling round away from 

your post, so that your aggressive flag shall 

not be seen. You really are too iropraoti- 

I cable, they seem to say. There is no modus 

I Vivendi possible with you ; yon have never 

I learned to run curricle, 

and the only way to tr 

1 front rapidly and leave you plattte i 

I isolation. They must prove to you that 

■ not with you, though they are too 

ad well- bred to say so openly. 

they snub you with a courteous 

3 the sole reply to what you have 

d immediately open another topic 

lesaway from that which 

you had begun. — The Queeti. 


Napoleon Is said to have written badly 
to conceal his bad spelling. The mantle 
of illegibility is a cover for many tins 
flgaiust orth' graphy. 

A newly married lady was telling another 
how nicely her husband could write. "Oh, 
you should just see some of his love let ersl" 
"Yes, I know," was the freezing reply; 
" I've got a bushel of 'em in my trunk." 

A young man who had been wooing a 
Vermont girl for some time, and had made 
her several presents, asked her one day if 
she would accept a puppy. He was awful 
mad wheu she replied that her mother had 
told her if he proposed to her, to say No. 

A young gentleman, after having paid 
his addresses to a lady some time, popped 
the question. The lady, iu a frightened 
manner, saiil : " You scare me, tir." The 
gentleman did not wish to frighten the 
lady, and consequently remained silent for 
some time, when she exclaimed, "Scare 
me again 1 " 

) change 


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"■ t°ujl"'"' relun 

ooflo 110 

nearly aa pouible 

New York, Mav, 1884. 

Writing and Teaching as Viewed 
from Different Standpoints. 

On another page, under the cajition of 
"Busioess-writing Boomed," is an article 
copied from the Jacksonville ( 111.) Daily 
Voxtrier. While with ranch contained there- 
in wo agree, there is also uinch which if not 
wrong in itself is open to an inference which 
wonld be exceedingly pernicious. With Mr. 
Brown's definition of what constitntes good 
buBiness-writing and its importance, we are 
in most full accord. But when Mr. Brown 
objects to "purely fanciful forms," aa he is 
pleased to refer to systematically engraved 
copies as presented in copy-boohs, and a 
uniform and analytic method of instruction, 
be, in our judgment, is misled, probably 
through his peculiar standpoint, to say that 
to which no educational body in the civi- 
lized world would assent ; nor, in our opin- 
ion, would the very committee invited by Mr. 
Brown, were both sides presented to them 
under circiimstauces to call for tlieir un- 
biased judgment. The fact is, Mr. Brown 
is instructing young mm and momtK who 
have the advantage „f years of previous 
training, and who themselves exercise judg- 
ment and a command of their faculties be- 

A^^- %a/n^ fiM^'^^^Zyn.di^^^ 




yond the young pupils in the various grades 
of our public and private sohoob Again, he 
is assisted by teachers who are skilled and 
experienced specialists, who can pkre bo- 
fore their pupils model copies, and pro- 
U()UDce intelligent and helpful criticism. 
Under these circumstances he is securing, 
as wo have reason to know, excellent re- 
results in plain writing. 

But in the vast majority of our public 
and private schools how different— there, 
and specially in the primary and intenne- 
diate grades, first lessons are given by 
unprofessional teachers of writing to chil- 
dren in large classes in very limited time; 
Iience, the uiniost system in copies and 
methods for iuslniction is required. To 
attempt to vary methods and copies to the 
whim of each child would be the very cli- 
max of absurdity. Brother Brown's plan, 
here in our judgment, would not work re- 
sults which would win the laudation of 

In our business colleges and by special 
teachers of writing, having pupils advanced 
in years and altainmenis, and where by in- 
dividual iustruotion time and method may 
be suited to the circumstances of each pu- 
pil, different and more progressive methods 
may be adopted. In this class of eohoola 
UTiting is, beyond a question, as a rule, 
much more successfully taught than it can 
be under tlie methods necessarily adopted 
in our public schools; and it should be so, 
as, in the former, it is taught as a speciality 
by a specialist; in the latter, as one of 
numerous branches having equal claims, by 
a teacher without pretence to special chiro- 
graphic skill ; indeed, a very large propor- 
tion of the really good u-riters of to-day 
have laid the basis for the same in a busi- 
ness college, or under the tuition of a pro- 
fessional teacher of writing. In these 
schools the philosophy and importance of 
the correct movement is more thoroughly 
understood and effectively taught, without 
which the most perfectly constructed writ- 
ing can never become good business-writ- 
ing; for to be good, writing must bo written 
in a rapid and tireless manner, which only 
the combined forearm and finger move- 
ments are capable of doing. 

As regards Brother Brown's plan of as- 
sisting a pupil to develop a personality in 
his writing wo do not conceive this to be 
properly within the care or attention of a 
teacher. We have yet to know of the 
teacher who could lo impress hie instruc- 
tion upon his pupils aa to prevent such 
an ultimate development. Why take the 
trouble to assist or teach that which he 
could not prevent if ho shcmid tryT Might 
as well assist or teach breathing, or to bal- 
ance whUe standing. Personality in hand- 
writing wiU take care of itself. Again, 
Brother Brown claims to teach "business- 
writing." In this wr think he is mistaken; 
by teaching good forms, rapid and easy 
movements, he teaches good practical writ- 
ing, which if appHed to business purposes 
becomes good business -writing. West Point 

teaches military eoience, not war; she 
makes no prelence that her graduates are 
generals; neiiher do law, medical, or theo- 
logical schools pretend that their craduales 
are professionals. It is the after experience- 
schoolroom theory vindicated by successful 
practice — that develops the general, jurist, 
doctor, theologian, or business-writing. 

Good business-writing is good school- 
room writing rounded, individiializpd, and 
80 fired by long and habitual practice as to 
become, through the sheer force of habit, 
the unconscious product of the hand. Could 
practice be so extended, and under the 
proper circumstances as to arcomplish this 
in the schoolroom, then it might bn busi- 
ness-writing; and even then the business 
part is the acqui8ili<in of hahii, and cannot 
be taught any more than can that peculiar 
air and mien that comes to the man from 
long dealing and mingling in circles of bus 
inees Different pursuits require quite a 
different style of writing. All these cannot 
he anticipated and provided for by a teacher 
of writing. When he has assisted his pupil 
to acquire a good, symmetrical, legible, and 
rapid hand, he has performed his whole 
duty. Since the occupations, hahiis, and 
ivironmonts of after life will inevitably 
shape a hand peculiar to, and characteristic 
of, each individual, aud in which scarcely a 
isible trace of the school hand will remain ; 
Bvertheless, each hand in general quality 
ad exuXUmt v.\\\ range much as did the 
ihool hands, except in so far as they have 
been influenced by motives, such aa having 
been engaged in occupations where the 
quality of writing was in a large measure 
the orilerion of success, such as being an 
;ountant, engrosser, teacher of writing, 
., in which case the style of writing will 
itly excel that where ihe motive has 
m much less or wanting, as in the law- 
yer, journalist, salesman, etc. 

The Identity 
Between Writing Written with the 
Right and the Left Hand. 
It is a method quite frequently resorted 
to by persons accustomed to write with 
their right hand, and who for some purpose 
wish to disguise their writing, to do so by 
using their left hand. This method, to 
the caaual observer, is usually very effect- 
ive, aud specially so where the left hand 
has had little or no training; yet, when 
subjected to a really expert examiner of 
handwriting for compariion, the identity 
between such writings would be at once ap- 
parent. That such would be the fact will 
be obvious, when we consider that the hand 
is only the implement of the mind, and that 
whatever be the style of one's writing it 
has lakeo shape and peculiarities according 
to the mind's conception; and though the 
riglit hand as the chosen and favored ser- 
vant may become skilled greatly boyoud 
the unemployed left hand, if from disability 
or other cause the left hand should be c*illod 
into use, it would be the servant of the 

same mind, be guided by the same mental 
conceptions, and he controlled by the same 
will; hence, the only difference between its 
performance and that of the right band 
would be that resulting froui its inability, 
for want of practice, to obey wilh equal ac- 
curacy and facility the command nf its mas- 
ter, the mind. It would aspire to the same 
models, and struggle to obey the same com- 
mands, and its performance would d'ffer 
only in its grace of execution, tlie same as 
Yankee Doodle is Yankee Doodle whether 
performed by the greatest master or tortur' d 
by the merest tyro. 

We h.Hve known several instances where 
persons accustomed to write with their right 
hand have from some cause substituted the 
lefi baud: In all cases where the same plant 
w,i8 maintained the writing of the left hand, 
aa it came to be written with a facility ap- 
proximating that of the right, has assumed 
a correspondingly close resemhiauce. It is 
said that late in life Thomas Jefferson lost 
the use of his right hand to such a degree 
as to cause him to substitute his left hand 
for writing, and that after a short time wri- 
ting with his left hand was scarcely dij- 
tinguiehable from that formerly written with 
his right. 

Above we give specimens written with 
the right and left hand, inclosed in a letter by 
W. 0. Haworth, of Knoxville, Tennessee, 
Mr. H. naturally writes with his left hand, 
aud states that he has made very little ef- 
fort to write with his right hand. He had 
no knowledge that the specimens were to 
be thus used, and hence could not hava 
written them with reference to sustaii-ing 
any theory of ours respecting the identity 
that exists between right aud left hand 
writing by the same person; yet our read- 
era will not fail to obt-erve how completely 
it does BO. Not only does the same peculiar 
types of letters appear in each, as in the 
capital P, /* and d in "hand," the jj's xn 
"penmanship," the capitals in the auto- 
graph, but the initial and terminal lines; 
also the spacing of words is identical, the 
difference consisting alone in the facility 
with which the writing is executed. 

Lessons in Box and Package 

In obedience to solicitations from many 
readers we shall begin, in the next, June 
number of the Journal, a series of articles 
with alphabets and specimens for boii and 
package marking. We shall make these 
lessons of solid utility to all persons hav- 
ing to do with any line of box marking. 

How to Remit Money. 

The best and safest way is by Post-office 
Order, or a bank draft, on New York; next, 
by registered letter. For fractional parti of 
a dollar, send postage-stamps. Do not Msnd 
peraonal cheeks, especially for small soms, 
Dor CaoadiAn postage-gtampa. 

Marriage, Ovation, and Honors. 

Adam waodered alone thruDgb the bow- 
era of Edea. Becoming weary in his luoe- 
tiaeu, a deep sleep fell upon bim ; when 
he awoke, lovely woman stood by bis side- 
She Bmiled upon Adam; he emiled iu re- 
tana ; and man has continued to smile upon 
woman as bis helpmate and companion 
since the days ofAdim down to the pres- 
ent era of recorded time. 

In the city of New York, April 24tb, 
1884, in a pretty church, stood a fair one, 
MisR Lottie Hill, by the aide of Silas S- 
Packard, and in the presence of a larfi;e 
congregation of witnessea the Rev. Dr. 
Lloyd united the two io the holy bonds of 
matrimony. From the churfli the cele- 
brants and many friends drove to the St. 
Denis Hotel, where a brilliant reception 
was held, attended with gajety and appre- 
oiable enjoyment. An elegant weddmg- 
breakfaet was served, and the host and 
hostess were showered with the congratu- 
lations of the guests. 

Among those present from abroad were 
the Hon. Mr. and Mrs. A. J. Rider, of 
Trenton, N. J.; Col. J. E. SouM, Philadel- 
phia ; Dr. aud iMrs, J. C- Bryant, ButlUlo, 
N. Y ; W. H. Sadler. Ualtimore, Md.j Mr. 
and Mrs. Chas. and Miss Claghorn, Brook- 
lyn ; Judge and Mrs. Larremore, Brook- 
lyn ; also, Mr. and Mrs, Austin Packard, of 

Among guests resident of New York 
were : Col. Thomas W. Knox ; Gen. C, B. 
Fisk ; Mr. and Mrs. L. N. Hunt ; Mr. 
and Mrs. William Allen Miller; Mr. and 
Mrs. J. D. Odell; Dr. and Mrs. Slreeter; 
Mr and Mrs. H.H.Bowman; Hon. Mr. and 
Mrs. H. A Spencer; Dr. Kmg ; Dr. Got- 
thi»l; Mrs. Barlow; Chas. E. C.dy. preb- 
ideut of the B. E. A. of A.; Mrs. A. L, 
SimoLson; Mr. Byrou Horton ; Mr. and 
Mrs J. X. Kimball; Mrs. Sarkett ; A. C. 
Lobe.k; Mr. and Mrs. A. W. Randall; 
Miss Van Duzer; Mrs- Strat on, widow of 
H. Dwight Stralto-j, was also present with 
her daughter. Miss Stratton. 

The ubiquitous H^porter of the Journal 
regrets not beiug able to mention all of the 
great number who attended the wedding 
and the feast. 

The occasion called forth an ovation on 
a grand scale from the students of Packard 
College. Should all of those who have 
graduated from the institution since it was 
founded be summoned, and meet on such 
an occasion, it would require a fleet of ships 
to carry them upon an excursion. Upwards 
of one thousand members and friends of the 
college chartered the iron steamer Pegasus, 
with music and banners, to see President 
Packard, his bride, and little adopted daugh- 
ter, Mamie, on the steamer Republic, as far 
on the way to Europe as Sandy Hook, some 
fifteen miles from New York. As the two 
steamers passed down the Bay and out iu 
sea, cheers and loud hurrahs went up from 
their crowded saloons and decks. When 
the Hook was reached the steamers dipped 
their colors, adieus were shouted to the 
voyagers, and the Republic speeded away 
toward her European destination. The 
Pegasus turned her p.-ow toward Gotham, 
and in the shadows of evening reached her 
moorings, and landed the merry home- 
voyagers. No one connected with the edu- 
cational interests of our country has, per- 
haps, ever before received ovations and 
honors on so grand a scale as those ac- 
corded to President and Mrs. Packard. 

H. E. Dickerson, of Hiawatha, Kan., was 
married at Atchison, Kaa , Mareb 5th, to 
Miss Amanda Wallace, one of Ohio's fair 
daughters. Dickinson Is a brilliant yonng 
writer, and has made many friends in the 
West who unite in wishing him joy. 

" The Guide " { iu pajwr ) id now offered 
free as a premium to every person remit- 
ting $1 for one year's subscriptiou lo the 
Journal. Or, handsomely bound Id cloth, 
for 25 oeota odditionaL 

Movement in Writing. 

A short time since, while conversing 
with one of the most successful teachers of 
practical writing iu the West respecting 
systems and methods of instructing iu writ- 
ing, he remarked, with considerable energy, 
bis plan was movement, movement^ move- 
ment. " For," said he, "with a rapid and 
graceful movement, forms at least legible, 
will take care of themselves." While we 
are in most full accord with his estimate of 
the importance of movement, we believe 
that oaro should also be taken to cultivate 
correct, taste and a true conception respect- 
ing the essentials of good writing. 

It is our eiperience that a vast proportion 
of the nn professional teachers of writing 
have no true conception of the muscular 
movement. Only a few months since, at 
the close of an Address before a large body 
of teachers at an institute, we requested all 
who understood or made use of the muscu- 
lar movement to raise their hands. Not 
five per cent, raised their bands ; and of 
tboie who did, not one could give an ex- 
planation sufficiently lucid to ennble a pu- 
pil to understand and practice it. Nor is it 
scarcely possible to do so in words alone ; 
an example, at least, is necessary ; and it 
was our plan, while teaching, to place our 
bands upon the hand and elbow of the 
learner, and thus aid to impart to tbeir fore- 
arm the proper muscular motion. This we 
found to be the 
ive method for 
true idea of th< 

secure its acquibition. And throughout auy 
course of instruction given, every lesson 
was initiated with a practice upon move- 
ment exercises of some form. This plan 
we would Commend to all teachers of writ- 
ing, especially with pupils in advanced 
grades. We are doubtful if it is ever ad- 
visable to attempt to deal with the muscu- 
lar movement in the primary and low 

The very best form of movement for ini- 
tiating the movement is the oval 


us and fffect- 
the pupil a 

An excellent series of schoolroom obarta] 
for examples and instruction have 

lately introduced by Prof. C. C. Curtis, of 
St. Paul, Minn., in connection with his 
series of copy-books, which have attained 
to a well-deserved popularity in Minnesota 
and the West. The following are several 
of the exercises reduced from charts, 22x28 
inches, and used here by his permission. 
Also in the New Spencerian Compendium 
are a large variety of superior movement ex- 
ercises. We are in full accord with these 
combined letter movements, and believe 
that they cannot he too extensively prac- 
ticed. Remember that good writing is 
movement, movement, movement, with 

The King Club 

For this month comes from Bryant's Buai- 
nesB College, Indianapolis, Ind., and num- 
bers thirty -three, and was sent by E. J. 
Heeb, who is the teacher of penmanship in 
that. Institution. Mr. Heeb has the reputa- 
tion of beiug a good teacher of writing. The 
Indianapolis Educational Weekly says : 
"Prof. E. J. Heeb is one of the most ac- 
complished teachers of penmanship we have 
ever seen. Under his direction the writing- 
hour loses the lifeless aud labored aspect so 
common to writing-olaeses, aud becomes a 
scene of delightful enthusiasm and excite- 

The Queen Club numbers twenty-six, and 
was sent by William Allen Miller from 
Packard's Business College, New York. 

The third in size numbers twenU/one, 
and was s( nt by W. S. Sandy, principal of 
the commercial department in the Newark 
( N. J.) High School. A club of eighteen 
comes from W. H. Patrick, of Sadler's Bal- 
timore (Md) Business College; fourteen 
from J. R. Long, Danville, lud. Clubs of 
thirteen each came from W, H. Cr ■sskill 
and Pape Claeke, Charlottetown, Prince 
Edward's Island. Smaller clubs have been 
more numerous than ever before daring the 
same season of the year, while single sub- 
scriptions show a large increase over any 
previous year. 

Lost His Equilibrium. 

We had anticipated a communication from 
Prof. S. S. Packard, to appear in this num- 
ber of the Journal, but in its place we re- 
letter of apology mailed from 
which he says ; 
"I have been trying for some days past 
to find the necessary tquilibrium to write 
something for your Journal, but it has 
been quite impossible, and ev»n dow this 
old ship is rolling and tumbling about with 
such strange fantastic sweeps and curves 
( not Spencerian ) that it is very difficult to 
say whethor you are standing on your feet 
or your ( mine I mean ) head, or whethtr 
you are simply rolling yourself. I doubt if 
I shall be able to get aojthing ready for 
your next issue, for not only are my hands 
and legs rolling around loose, but my brain 

is ia a perpetual whirl, and I have really no 
thougbts at all. I Hm a vrry poor sailor at 
best, and I now seem at my worst." 

Mr Packard promises to make up for his 
delinquency in our next issue, before which 
time, we trust, his equilibrium will have 
been not only restored, but that he will be 
rejoicing in all the delights that ran possi- 
bly be anticipated from such a tour as he is 

Announcement of the Convention. 

The announcement of the Sixth Annual 
Convention of the Business Educators aud 
Penmen of America has been printed by 
the Executive Committee, copies of which 
may be had by addressing L. L. Williams, 
Rochester, N. Y. 

The convention is to convene on July 
I7th, and continue until the 23d. It is an- 
ticipated that there will be a very large at- 
tendance, and that the pruoeedinge will be 
latly iuteresting. As yet we 

have not heard from i 

uy pen 


apeoting their attendauce, aud the part they 
will take, as we should. No active teacher 
of writing, or professional penman, can 
aford to stay away. In their announce- 
ment, the Executive Committee say the 
penman's section will be atl'.prded facilities 
unequalleil at any previous meeting. Abun- 
dant opportunitips will be afl'orded the pen- 
njen lor full atd free discussions, both with 
aud apart from the business educators; and 
it ie fully believed that the coming meeting 
will prove by far the largest, the most en- 
joyable aud prutitable meeting yet held. 

The value to result to every one present 
from such a meetiny, in personal acquaint- 
ance and interchange of views and experi- 
ence, can scarcely be appreciated or over- 

No More Specimen-copies Free. 

For years after its publication it was our 
custom to mail a sample-copy of the Jour- 
nal free to all applicants, and while we 
might willingly continue to do so to all 
who apply with the intention of subscrib- 
ing, it is quite impossible that we should do 
so to the thousands who apply simply to 
gratify at our expense their curiosity or de- 
sire to get a thing of value for nothing. 

Since the Journal has become so widely 
known and popular, postal-card requeeta 
for specimeu-cupiea have so multiplied that 
to comply with them all would be little 
short of ruinous to any publisher. And, 
besides, each number of the Journal is 
worth its price, and we know of no reason 
why persons wishing one for any purpose 
should not remit ten cents, which certainly 
is a trifle to them, but no small sum when 
aggregated as it has been at this office. 
Henceforth there will positively be no copies 
mailed free, except to actual agents, to be 
used in soliciting subscribers. 

Back Numbers. 

Every maU brings inquiries respecting 
back numbers. The following we can send, 
and no others: All numbers of 1878 but 
December; all for 1879, except January, 
May and November ; all numbers for 1880; 
all uumbers for 1^81 ; all for 1882, except 
June; all for I8S3, but January. It will 
be noted that while Mr. Spencer's writing- 
lessons began with May, the second lesson 
was in the July number. Ouly a few copies 
of several of the numbers mentioned above 
remain, so that persons desiring all or any 
part of them should order quickly. All the 
51 numbers, back of 1883, will be mailed 
for $4, or any of the numbers at 10 centi 

Tell your friends, aud tell them to tell 
everybody, thiit if they are iu any way in- 
terested in good writing the best investment 
they can make is to send $1 and get the 
Penman's Art Journal one year and a 
splendid "Guide to SelMust ruction in Prac- 
tical and Artistic Ponumnship," worth $1 
as a premium, free. 


""T'l (' 



[ Under thie ht^ad nnewera will be ^ven to 
»ll quBBlioiiB— the rvtpWvn to which will be ot 
value or geuerii] inrerfst to readera. Queetioiie 
which are penoDal, op to which auswere would 
1)11 witlmut tjuavral iutercsl, will receive no at- 
l*.iilio». Thiu will explain to many who pro- 
pound qtiesiiuns why no answera are givwi.] 

C. S. Uockinghatu, N. C— If ih« young 
pHDinan will eend you sfiecimPDS of aourisli- 
ing will yiiu print them iu your excellent 
paper t If bo, please aoswer through the 
JoPftNAL; I would like to see what ibey 

A.7is.— We shall, from liroe to 
lieh meritorious epecimens of peouianBhip 
from either young or old peni 



3 of 

aeeing their specimens, that they would be 
published. Very few of Ibe multitude of 
specimens received contain all the requi- 
sites fur publication. Many lack in merit j 
others are too delicately executed with inks 
oolored or t<io light. It sliould he hurue in 
mind that ooly jet black lines can be photo- 
engraved, and that desigoe to produce a 
good etfect should be rfduced one-half in 
engraving ; and beaidee, we very much pre- 
fer to receive specimens of good, plain writ- 
ing rather than nourished birds, lions, etc., 

It is not the purpose of the Journal to 
offer special encouragement to aspirants in 
that line of peninanship. Much time is 
wasted upon useless flourishes, which might 
far belter be devoted to the acquisition of 
good, practical writing. Flourishes have 
no market- value, except with a very limited 
class of pen-anists, and then it is of little 
account compared with really good writing, 
lettering, and skill of design, while good, 
practical writing is the greatest use to every 
person, and its market is never overstocked. 

A. J. W., Sacramento, Cal.— If a person 
sign a tictitious name to any written instru- 
ment, would ibat he forgery f 

An$. — Yes; if in doing so there is any 
intent to defraud J legally there is no "for- 
gery " apart from a fraudulent intent, and 
with that one may forge even his own sig- 
nature. Should he sign his name in an al- 
tered or disguised manner, with the view of 
afterward denying its genuineness, or make, 
after the manner of a forger, an exact fac- 
simile by means of a tracing or mechanical 
means, it woi-ld be a forgery precisely the 
same as if a copy of another person's signa- 
ture had been made. 

E. D. S., Camden, N. J. — I have been a 
subscriber to the Journal since January 
last, and I am highly pleased with it. I 
am told by one of my friends that some 
time since there was given, through the 
Journal, a series of articles and copies for 
box and package marking. Aa that is a 
subject in which I am interested I should be 
greatly pleaded if you would again offer 
some advice with copies upon that subject. 

Ans. — Mr. S. is one of several who have 
made similar requests, and as the idea ac- 
cords with our views we will, in the next 
issue, give the first of a series of such ar- 

Who should Subscribe ior the 


Every lady or gentleman who would 

make an effort for the improvement of their 

writiug at home or in their place of busi- 

Every teacher and pupil of writing in our 

Every parent who has sons or daughters 
whom he would have become more inter- 
ested or efficient in their writing. 

Every school-officer who would be fa- 
miliar with tho highest standards of writing 
and best methods for its instruction. 

Every admirer of good practical or artis- 
'ic penmanship. 

Opportunity, soone 
who wish and work. 

r later, i 


Exchange Items. 

With the May number the Art Amateur 
concludes the fif'h year of its publication. 
The number is admirable. It has eight sup- 
plemental pages of designs, a frontispiece, 
" Morning Prayer," from C- S. Pearce's 
salon picture ; the profusely illustrated ar- 
ticle on the National Academy exhibition; 
and the first of an invaluable series of arti- 
cles on '■ The Modern Home," treating of 
the vestibule and hall. The work of Solon, 
a famous French ceramic artist, is deecribed 
and illustrated. Other articles of much 
intertist are on spurious old faience, the 
drawings of the old masters, the Pastel ex- 
hihirion, and "How we lost the Castallani 
collection." The Art Amateur deserves a 
liberal patronage. Price, $4 a year ; sinele 
numbers, US cents. Mr. Montague Marks, 
publisher, 23 Union Square, New York. 

The CaUigraphtr's Quill is the title of a 
bran new eight paged penman's paper, to 
be published monthly by C. H. Randall, 
Fairmont, Neb., for $t per year. The first 
number is edited with ability, good typog- 
raphy, and is welt filled with interesting 
matter. A conspicuous feature is a large 
number of portraits and life - sketches of 
well-known penmen. Mr. Kandall strikes 
out vigorously as if impressed with the be- 
lief that he has an editorial mission to per- 
form as a driver of the " quill." He certainly 
has our best wishes. 

The Normal Criterion, published month- 
ly by Maxwell Kennedy, principal of the 
Macomb ( III.) Normal College and Busi- 
ness Institute, is well filled with educational 
matter of interest. Mailed one year for fifty 

Health and Home, which is among our 
most interesting exchanges, has for many 
years been published at Port Chester, N. Y., 
by W. H. Hale, M D., who has lately trans- 
ferred its office of publication to Washing- 
ton, D. C. It is published monthly, and is 
mailed for fifty cents per year. 

The Lithographer, published weekly by 
the Lithographic Publishing Co., Chicago, 
III , f.-r $5 per annum, is a beautifully got- 
ten-up paper, which is devoted chiefly to 
the lithographic art. It contains much that 

The Student's Quarterly is an attractive 
aod iuteresting though unpretentious sheet, 
published by the students of the writing 
department of the Oberlin ( Ohio ) College. 
Its editors, by an oversight, omitted to 
mention the Penman's Art Journal, but 
we trust that it will live, and the editors be 
more thoughtful next time. 

The Business Educator, published by the 
New Jersey Business Collage, Newark, N. 
J., reflects credit, both in its style and mat- 
ter, upon the institution from whence it 

The Chirographer, through whose attrac- 
tive columns the versatile and aspiring gen- 
ius of our friend Isaacs beams forth monthly, 
comes regularly to hand. Auy ot our read 
era who would win the smiles of 
Isaacs can certainly do so by just i 
one dollar for a year's subscription, and 
they will get their money's worth. 

The Chirographic Quarterly, No. 4. 
published by H. W. Kibhe, Utica, N- Y., is 
received, and is a gem of artistic skill and 
editorial taste. It is mailed one year for 
twenty-five cents. The single number be- 
fore us is worth the money, as any reader 
of the JooENAL can demonstrate to their 
entire satisfaction by remitting to Mr. Kibbe 
ten cents for a copy. 

The Cosmopolitan Shorthand Writer, by 
Bengough and Yeieh, Toronto, Canada, 
monthly, for one dollar per year, is among 
the very beet of the many shorthand maga- 
zinea. Its literary make-up is excellent, 
while its illustrations sparkle with the true 
genius of wit and humor. 

The Western Penman, formeriy published 
at Cedar Rapids, Iowa, by A. N. Palmer, 
has iransfered the office of its publication to 

Chicago. 111., where it will be published by 
Worthineton and Palmer, 81 North Clark 
Street of that ci'y. In tho publication of the 
W. P , hitherto, Mr. Palmer has evinced a 
degree of editorial talent which gives prom- 
ise of success in the editorial field. 

Responsibility for Mail. 

The risk of sending properly directed mat- 
ter by mail is very slight; and in all cases 
where the remitter will hand the same to 
the postmaster for examination, and seal 
iu his presence, we will be responsible for 
losses; and on the statement of the post- 
master that he saw the money inclosed and 
duly mailed, we will consider it the same 
as received by us. Persons directing books 
and packages to be sent by mail may have 
the same registered by simply remitting 
teu cents extra. All auch packages are 
aent at the risk of the person who orders. 

Profeeaor E. G. Folaom, one of the -pioneer 
fuuuderH of bueine^B collegf-s in thin country, 
and for many yeara the popul ir managar of 
the Albany { N. Y.) BueineeB College, has 
lately disposed of his interest therein, and re- 
tirt-d fr(.m active labor sb a teacher. In 1878 
he sold a half-intereBt to Mr. C. E. Carhart, 
who aHsurnvd the entire charge of instruction, 
and under whose management the college hae 
made rapid a '.Tuucfment. Mr. Folsom now dia- 
poaeB of bJB remaining intereBt to J. R. Carnell, 
formerly of Tn y, N. Y. Mr. Carnell was for 
Bome tt*n years principal of the Troy Bueiness 
College, and which, under hiB control, eslab- 
lished throughout Northern and Eastern New 
York a wide reputation for practical work. 
MeBBre. Carnell and Carhart will now consti- 
tute the new firm — Mr. Carhart ab president 
of the college, and Mr. Carnell as secretary. 
These young men are both experienced teach- 
ers; by profession, practical acGOUUtauta ; and 
ate, among buBinesB educatorB, acknowledged 
leaders. For the doming Beason considerable 
improvements in the course of study, arrange- 
ment and furuisbing of rooms, etc., are already 
under way. Two entire floors in the Kidd — 
now WooBter— building will be occupied as 
schoolrooms, offices, businese exchanges, etc. 
Prof. Folsom will remaiu with the new firm ub 
lecturer ou accounts, finance, businesa ethics, 

A. N. Palmer, who has for some time past 
been connected with the Cedar Rapids (Iowa) 
Business College, has lately become associated 
with B. M. Worlhington iu the management 
of the Lakeside Businesa College in Chicago. 
The Cedar Rapids GazetU. in a eomewhal ex- 
tended personal item respecting Mr. P . aays ; 
" The city loses one of ita moBt sterling young 
men iu Mr. Palmer's departure, and society 
one of its most valued members." 

E. J. Wright, formerly connected with the 
Evansville (Ind.) Business College, has aold 
his interest therein and removed to Dakota. 


C. C. Curlia, who couduots buainees colleges 

m. Paul and Minneapolis, Minn., and who 

(he author of a series of copy-bookB and 
school charts, which are iu general uae in his 
own and other Western States, has lately beeu 
East on businesa in connection with bis p b- 
licalions. Mr. C. is among the most euter- 
piiaing and auccesaful bueioeas college men 
nf the We I. 

H,W. Ellsworth, anther of the ■' RlUworth- 
iftn .Syalem of_ Copy-books," 22 Bond Street, 
New York, has lately copyrighted something 
new — a copy - book cover and protector. 
It combines with the cover a blotter, pen- 
wiper, illuatraliona of position, and ^consider- 
able valuable inetruutiou to teacher and pupil. 

G. Bixler anuouncee the opening of a pen- 
art Bchool at Sparta, Ohio, on the l!)th of Au- 
gust next. 

H. C. Wright, of Wright's Business College, 
Brooklyn, N. Y., Is one of the palenteeB of a 
Noiseless Railway Lock, which appears to be 
a neefol and important invention. We hope 
there may be "millions in it." 

The Daily Tinu$, Batavia, N.Y., paya a high 
compliment to G. B. Jones, of Bergen, N. Y., 

who has been special teacher of writing in the 
public schools of toat city during the pant 
year. It aays; " Mr. Jones ha« given perfect 
satisfaction during bis term as teacher. His 
work was thorough, and hi^ method ofinalruc- 
lion was such that the pupil waa always inter- 
ested and every one under bis charge made 
rapid stridea forward. Prof. .Foues is an ad- 

Thoa. Powers has been employed as special 
teacher of writing in the public achools of 
Walertown, N. Y. 

[ Persons sending specimens for notice in 
thia column should see that the packages con- 
taining the same are postage paid in full at 
Utter ratf». A large proportion of these pack- 
ages come short pai<l, for Buroa ranging from 
three cents upward, which, of course, we are 
obliged to pay. Thia is scarcely a desirable 
consideration for a gratuitoUB notice.] 

Noteworthy specimens have beeu received 
aa follows: 

A. H. Sieadman, penman at the Toledo (O.) 
BuBineas College, a photograph of a well- 
execnted pen-and-ink design for a prospeotua 
ol the college. 

W. H. Patrick, penman at Sadler's Balti- 
more (Md.) Business College, a letter. 

W. W. McCelland, penman at the Cuny In- 
litute and Business College, Pittaburgh, Pa., 
, letter and club for JOURNAL. 

N. S. Beaidsley, special teacher of writing 
in the public schools of Council Bluffs, Iowa, 

L. C. Havener, Boston, Mass., a lettA* and 

G. B. Jonee, Bergen, N. Y.. a letter. 
William J. Althers, 137 Avenue A, New 
York, a letter and cards. 

H. W. Kibbe, Utioa, N. Y., a letter. 

E. Schwann, Oltumwa, Iowa, a letter and 
photo of nourished lion. 

F. J. Tolland. Petersburg, III., a letter. 

J. H. Bryant, penman at the Spenoeriau 
Business College. WaBbington, D. C, a letter 
and specimens of leH-baud writing by several 
of hit* pupils. 

D. A. (iriliilta. Waxahachie, Texas, a letter. 

G. W. Fox, Cedar Creek, Neb., a letter and 
apecimena of writing, which are very credit- 
able. He aays: "I bav*; acquired my peu- 
mansbip, through the aid of the Journal, 
during the lw\ years that I have been a sub- 
scriber. I should not now know how to do 
without it." 

A. W. Dakin, Tnlly. N. V., a letter. 

A. E. Peck, Dallas, Tex., a set of busiucBB 
capitals and a tlouriahed card. 

R. S. Collins, Kuoxville, Tenn., a letter and 
cardB. He says : " Friend Hinman, In his 
lesBone, is giving us Bome excellent hinls. I 
look anxiously for the coming of each uumuer." 

M. J. Harty, St. Louis, Mo., a letter. 

C. C. Maring. penman at the Chatham (Ont.) 
Busineas College, a letter. 

D. T. Hemming, Lompoc, Cal., a lettei-. 

G. W. Allison, Newark ( N. J.) Buainess 
College, a letter. 

Chae. E. Ruat, Brandon, Vt., a letter and 
flourished bird. 

J. R. Carrothera, Spencerikn Businesa Col- 
lege. Cleveland, O., a letter and several card 
specimena. He says : " Your Journal is 
better and better every month. It should be 
iu the hands of every penman in the world." 

S. J. Breakwell, Highwood, 111,, a letter. 
He saya : " I believe the Journal to be the 
beat penman's paper published." 

W. L. Parke, La MoUIe, III., a letter. 

Fred. M. Johnson, Boston, Maas., a letter. 

J, M. Pai-sons, Bryan, Tex., a letter. 

An J .iOI KN.vlJ 

J. E, Depiic, Cold WrIbi-. Midi., a letter uiid 

J. N. McBride, Vienna. Md.. incloaea. wiili 
u spvcioifln of his praeent writing, one written 
fire moutlis Hince, at wlitob lime be begaii re- 
ceivittg the JOURNAL. The improvement w 
very marked, which he attributes entirely to 
the JoUKNAl., 

A. D. Small, Grand Valley. Pa., a letter. 

J. M. Ooldamith, arliat - penman and ac- 
couutant, Moor's Biwinees Univeraitj. Atlan- 
ta, On., a letter and oliib of eiibsoribere tu the 
JOUKXAI,. He eaye : " Each number of the 
Joi'liNAt, given ample evidence of your deter- 
miniitiuii Id give its readers ' value received.' " 

W. H. Lolhrop, So. Boston, Mase., a tetter. 

T. B. Flack, Cedar Falle. Iowa, a letter. 

E. Hall, Sidney, 0.. a letter. 

G. W. Elliott, Elliott's Business College. 
Burlington, Iowa, a letter. 

W. S. James, Columbia Commercial College, 
Portland, Oregon, a letter. 

Autograph Exchangers. 

t lolJiD 

Id accordance with a euggeation in a 
previous numbtr, the foil* »vpiufi;- named per- 
Bona have eignified their willingnepB or 
desire to exchange aut'igraphe, upon the 
Peircerian plan, as set forth in the August 
oumber of the Journal : 

C. C. CoohrftD. c 
J. M Sbopherd. I 
C. J. Woloott, Sberma 

A High S 

. Plttuburgb, 


ard ep 

. Roan 


; Va.. 

a leuel- 







a letter 


hI good Kpecimene 



S. D. (Jnichess, Wright's Business College, 
ilrooklyn, H. Y., a letter and an elegant set ol 

A. M. Hargis, Gem City (Quiocy, 111.) Busi- 
lees College, a letter and Hourished bird. 
A. N. Palmer, 

iship, send for Amee'a Guide- 

"It is a book that should be in the bands uf 
every person who desires to excel in penman- 
ship." — Vermont Art/ua and Patriot. 

' This 

should bav< 

( K L Wiky, SI ClaiMviile Obio. 

Hall and^ 

Ira K. Harris, Allston, Mass., a letter and 
t:arde. which, for a lad of sixteen years, are 
liighiy creditable. 

D. E. Blake, of Miisselman'e Gem City 
(Qaincy. III.) Business College, a letter, card, 
and several well-executed speoimena of dour- 

C. H. Peirce, of Peirce's Business College, 
Keokuk, Iowa, several sheets of well-executed 
figures showing the high rate of speed attained 
liy his pupils in figure-making. 

E. W. Bloser, of Michael's Pen 
Business College, Oberlin, Ohio, 
ilub of thirteen aubscribera to the Joi. 

D. L. Hunt, teacher of writing in the Rush- 
I'ille (111.) Union School, a latter. 

E. F. Fraeber, National Business College, 
Wheeling, W. Va., a letter and a skillfully- 
executed piece of flourishing. 

L. M. Klechner, Light Street, Pa., a letter, 
Houi'islied bird, and cards. 

F. S. Healh, Epsom, N. H.. a letter and 

A. J. Taylor, of Taylor's Business College, 
Kochvster. N. Y., an elegantly-written letter, 
in which he says: "I received your work on 
penmanship, 'Guide to Self-Instruolion,' for 
which please accept my thanks. It is certainly 
a valuable work, worth a hundred times its 


,nd I i 

suiprised that you can alford 
premium to each subscriber of the Journal. 
I am more and more pleased with the JoUll- 
NAL, and wish it the success which it richly 
deserves. It should be in the hands of every 
teacher and every young gentleman and lady 
desiring to ac^juire that knowledge of penman- 
ship which shall be of practical use to them. 
I shall do what I can in spreading its cirou- 


Compliments of the Press to the 

*' Guide." 

The ftiUowing flatteriug oientiona of the 

" Guide" have appeared since the issue ot 

the April number of the Journal: 

"Mr. Daniel T. Ames, the well-known ex- 
pert in handwriting, and editor and publisher 
of the Pknman's Art Journal, besides num- 
erous works on penmanship, has just issued 
' Ames's Guide to Self-Instruction in Practical 
aud Artistic Penmanship." It is a book of 
sixty-four large pages, elegantly printed on 
the Knest quality of plate paper, and is devoted 
exclusively to instruction aud copies for plain 
writing, off-hand Hoiniebiiig, and lettering. 
There is no other work, of anything like equal 
cost, now before the public that will render as 
efficient aid to either teacher or learner, in all 
the deparlmeota of the penman's art, as will 
this book. Of the sixty-four pages, thirty-two 
are devoted^to instruction aud copies for plain 
writing, fuurteen pages to the principles and 
examples For nourishing, and sixteen pages to 
alphabets, package marking, and monograms. 
The 'Guide' is sent postage free, in paper 
covers, for ".'j cents, or handsomely bound in 
stiff covers for $1. It will be found invaluable 
to teachers aud studentn of penmanship, being, 
as its title implies, a perfect guide to self- 
instruction." — Geyer's Stationer. 

" It is a good and reliable work, containiog 
excellent copies in both plain and ornamental 
penmanship, with clear inslruclions."— TA* 

" It supplies such hints and models us have 
been of use to many learners."— f/te Student. 

"It will render most efficient aid to both 
teacher and learnei."— TAe CalUye Journal. 

"It is elegantly printed and handsomely 
bound, and is a complete guide iu all the de- 
parlmeuls of penmansbip."— Farm, Home and 

" It has excellent diagrams, rules and direc- 
tions for sell-training iu writing."— i/owi« and 
School Visitor. 

"It is a valuable work, and should be had 
by everybody desirous of improving their 
writing."— T/ie Diadem. 

■k is something which every 
I as every teacher of penmanship 
being profitable to both. The 
instruction in every style of 
penraauship — plain, business and ornamental. 
We cheerfully recommend it."— Grand Arjmj 
Scout and Soldiers' Magazine. 

" This is a very handsome volume, designed 
to teach, without any other instructor, prac- 
tical penmanship. Every position and move- 
ment is iliuBlrated and so clearly described as 
to be easily understood. The exercises begin 
with the simplest forms, and culminate at the 
close in some very elaborate and artistic work." 
— Inter Ocean, Chicago. 

"It is a useful work, possessing many fea- 
tures which will commend it to the learner." — 
Chicago Bvening Journal. 

"Its author has displayed considerable taste 
and ability in its preparation, and it is indeed 
a bandy and useful little work."— jf'Ac Philo- 
mathean Review. 

"The 'Guide' is elegantly printed on the 
finest quality of plate paper, and contains 
many copies for plain writing, offhand floui- 
ishing and lettering. Some of these designs, 
the rustic alphabet in particular, are very 
beautiful. "-^i*^eiu Orleans Journal of Education. 

The Art of Writing. 

Few young persoDS see anything wonder- 
ful in the art of writing, yet it is really one 
ol the most curious inventions in the world. 
From being long familiar with it we have 
ceased to think it strange. But to savages 
acd other untaught persong it seems a kind 
of uiagic. 

Mr. Vt^illiama, ia his accuaot of South 
Sea Islanders, tella an amnsing story of the 
surprise of a native at seeing some writing. 
Mr. W. was building a church for them, and 
one day he had come to work without his 
fqiiare. Wishing to have the instrument, 
he wrote to that eflect upon a chip with a 
piece of charcoal, aud handing the chip to a 
chief who stood near, he said to him, 
"Friend, lake this to my house aod give it 
to Mrs. Williams." 

plied the chief with a 
' She will call me a fool 

Compliment to Printbrs— John C. 
Rives, of VirgiDia, in a n-ceiitly published 
letter on the subject o| public printing, haa 
a word of sugupsiion to writers for the 
press, anil >i compliinont to the compositor, 
whose duty it not iinfrequontly is to make 
sense out of very senacless chirography. 
N"ne but a writer for the press can com- 
prehend how much truth there is in the 
veteran [(rinter's remarks. Mauy Members 
of Congress — and eke not a few greater 
men— must have been surprised at the re- 
spectable figure they cut in print, without 
thinking of the toilsome labor nod the ex- 
ercise of the better talent than their own, 
which had been expended l.y the journey- 
man printer in putting into good shape the 
message or report of a speech furnighed 
them. Mr. Rives says: 

"I have seen the manuscript writing of 
most great men of the country during the 
past twenty years, and I think I may say 
tliat not twenty nf them rould stand the 
test of the scrutiny of one half the Journey- 
ineu printers employed in my offico. This 
fact will be vouched by every editor in the 
Union. To a poor 'journeyuian' printer 
many a 'great man' owes his imputation 
for scholarship ; and were the humble com- 
positors to resolve, by concert, to set up 
manuscript in their hatds — even for one 
little week— precisely as it is written by 
the author, there would be more reputa- 
tions slaughtered than their 'devils could 
shake a stick at ' io Iweuty-foiir hours. 
Statesmen would become * small by degrees 
and beautifully less.' Many an ass would 
have the lion's bide torn from his limbs. 
Men, whom the worid call writers, would 
wake up mornings and find themselves— 
famous as mere pretenders, humbugs, and 



t," said Mr. W., "take it 

earnest the 
What must 
to say ; the 

"Take thai!^ 

look of surprise. 

if I carry a chip 

"No she will I 

and go 

Seeing that Mr. W. was i 
chief took the chip, but asked, 
I say?" "You have nothinj 
chip will say all I wish." 

With a look of wonder and contempt he 
held up the piece of wood, ami said, "How 
can this speak t Has this a mouth?" On 
arriving at the bouse he gave the chip to 
Mrs. Williams, who read it, threw it away, 
and went to the tool-chest for the square. 
On receiving the square, the chief asked her 
how she knew this was what Mr. W. wanted. 
" Why," she said, "did you not bring me 
a chip just nowt" 

" Yes," said the chief, •' but I did not hear 
it say anything." 

" If you did not, I did," was the reply. 
The chief leaped out of the bouse, and 
picking up the piece of wood he ran through 
the settlement with the chip in one hand 
and the square in the other, holding them 
Mp as high as his arms could reach, and 
shouting as be went, "See the wisdom of 
these English people I they can make chips 

Mr. W. explained to him as well as be 
could, but the affair still seemed to the poor 
savage so very strange that he tied a string 
to the chip, hung it around his neck aud 
wore it for some time. 

To tbink right write right. 


'I Aooouuta, Cor- 



SHAYLOR'S compendium or PBNMANSUrp 
Pjf^B. *1- llluslraled CUoalum free. Av> eleganl 

400 +r^^!^"bZ^ti^^?^s^ 

^jflihiR 50 page* of paper. Jor J5. Paincs'a Busixus 



LUlness c 
good i 

«t. a powlion 0lth«r to 
lIcRe, or the oommer- 
uiitulion. Can teach 
Eight yM»- Mperi. 

«U, J. B. OAUrHKLL, 




Usblog Co., 133i Uvk«t SL, i 

((Mjememlvts^tije (Bmril (Lmmtiet d {LMmwmzh-^U rt tiff (!:Ifl'nrtirl!wniWE l^ifltlTrPj 

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1 G 1 Jjl J T^toHHi 

vaatit-ilimmc'i': owittKjwi'wiwi ficw f^iwi-OH^ |^oc tltf tint of out J«tKpliJ (ca^a.a 
_^^^^ii_^ "^ \]i0 iJirtutftte fljaniriiT,- i-mfiimtlE yrarttmlut nHnirs Jje^'iva^ UvcU&e inl)w iittHislr^.iiiTrai&fiwprrljntJiiif -— 


AiijurtM ^'dltlr. .^tram^n 

3nmf B ^icnis 

, 3ulini'.3imca, 

^jBttfniiwrf, Jn».(!5J!i.aniiimu-.-, 

v^ jlkHl|eml5iinn 

',gp5 Bqa^DWAy' 

The above cut is photo-eiigr«?.d from pen-and-ink copj, eiecuted al lh« office of the JODKNAI-, and » a page from the department of Engioewng in "Amee'» 
New Compendium of Practical and Attlelic Penmanship," -^hich i. univereallj acknowledged to be the meet compreh.n.ive and practieal guide, in the enii™ range of the 
penman . art, ever a complete cour.e of in.trucUon in Plain Wri.iug; a foil oouree of Off-hand Plouriihing; upward of forty .landard end ornate 
aipnaoeli. and over twenly 11x14 plates of commercial deeigns, engro.eed reioliitione, memoriale, cerlilicatei. title-pages, etc., etc.; in all, SKVENn' 11x14 inch plates 
II contains numerous examples of everj species of work in the line of u profeesional pen-arlisl. Price, by mail, J5 ; mailed free, as a premium, to the sender of a club of 
twelve subscribers and «12 to the JomiNAl. We hereby agree that, should auy one, on receipt of the book, be dissatiafied with it, they shall be at liberty to return it and 

we win refilnil trt tt.un, ,1,„ r..ii „ . -..IJ ^ •' ' '* 

Enlightening a Colored Man. 

An Evaotvillu, IdiI., paper publishes the 
folluwing interview bctive»ii Mr. C. J. Mur- 
phy, uf Brrish Electric Light Compaay in 
thitt city. nu'I >i colored i;eiitlei 
qiliriu); turu of miud, which will intereet 
rutuiers ^f 7Ite Electrical World: 

A ooli,red geutlemau, who from his doines- 
ticttted appearance might he regarded as a 
member in good standing in the Lime Kiln 
Club, wallted timidly into the clootrio light 
id after hie 
snrroundings had been 
in, ventured timidly to ai 

" Boga, would you pli 
what makes dat light f" 

" Yes, uncle ; that light 

" What is dat, boss?" 

" What f Electricity you 

" Yes, sah." 

" Electricity, according 
theory of the 
of forces, is a mode of 
cules of matter " 

■' Yes, sah." 

The old gentleman seemed paralyzed with 
amazement, and, assuming a still humbler 
attitude, asked : 

*' Boss, what makes dat light git brighter 

"The gravitation of the upper carbon, 
retarded by magnetic influence." 

" Dat's what I tliought made it do dat 
way; now, how does you squirt de kero- 
sene through de wires t" 

" That is not kerosene ; it is the manifes- 
tation of friction that U oflTercd by the re- 
Bietance of an imperfect conductor to a 





metal in the apparatus, caused by the mo- 
lecular disturbance induced by motion and 

The old gentleman wore a broken- up 
expression, and after collectine his scat- 
tered thoughts he wiped the perspiration off 
the end of his nose, and, completely sub- 
dued, asked if he could have a drink of 
water. After refreshing himself and thank- 
ing his informant, he was heard to remark 
in passing out ; 

" Dey hain't none of dese niggahs knows 
how de white folks makes dat light but me. 
Hey I Hey ! Yow '." 

Origin of two Expressions.— The 
origin of the terms " Uncle Sam," applied 
to our Government, and "Brother Jona- 
than," applied in the first instance to the 
people of New England, and sometimes to 
the people of the whole country, or, rather 
to the representative American, ..ften pro- 
vokes a puzzle. The question how the 
terms arose is ofieu asked. The following 
seems a correct answer : 

After Washington 
mander of the patriot 
tion, he had great d 

could he devised by h _ 

supply the wants of the army, Washingt 
wound up the conference with the remark, 
■' We roust consult Brother Jonathan." He 
referred to Jonathan Trumbull, then Gov- 
ernor of Connecticut, iu whose judgment he 
had confidence. Governor Trumbull helped 
the general out of his difficulties, and after- 
ward the eipression used by Washington 
became a popular byword in the army, and 
eventually a nickname for the nation. 

The name Uncle Sam, as applied to the 
United States, is said to have originated in 
the war of 1812. An inspector of army 
provisions at Troy, named Samuel WUson, 
was called by his workmen " Uncle Ham." 
One day somebody asked one of the work- 
men what the letters " U. S." irieant. The 
workman replied that he supposed it must 
mean Uucle Sam. The joke was afterward 
spread in the army, and this, according to 
the historian Frost, was the origin of the 
national sobriquet. 

The "Guide" is a book ol sixty. (our large pages, elegantly printed on the (inesl quality of fine plate-paper, and is devoted r.xdutivrly 
to instruction and copies tor Plain Writing, Off-hand Flourishing and Lcllering. We are sure ihal no other work, of nearly equal cost, is 
now before the public that will render as efficient aid to either teacher or learner, in all [he depanmenls ol the penman's art. as will this, 
Thirly-lwo pages are devoted to instruction and copies (or plain writing. Fourteen pages lo the principles and examples lor flourishing! 
Sixteen pages to alphabels, package-marking, and monograms. Price, by mail : in paper covers, 75 cents ; handsomely bound in stiff 
covers, $1. Given free (in paper), as a premium with the Journal, one year, for $1 ; full bound (in stig covers) (or $1.25. Live agents 
wanted in every town in America, 10 whom liberal discounts will be given. Both the Journal and book are things that take everywhere. 
With them agents can make more money, with less eftorl. than with any i.ther publication ihey handle. 


galligraphIr's quill 


Portraits and Biographical Skel 

D T. Amen.ii. A Gaeke 

Short Skel 
' Critlcis 

es o( Jo». Foeller, Jr , J. P. Stubblefleld, 

Applied to Penmanship," by C. H. Peirce. 
" Training of Hand and Eye," by W. P. Cooper. 
"A Few Facts," l>y Q A, Gaakell. 
"About Penmanship," by A. N. Palmar. 
"The Itinerant Penman," by A E PftnoM. 
"Pen Spatters," by Kweerkwill. 
"Floufishing," by J. W, Van Kirt. 

Specimens of Penmanship. 

C. H. RANDALL. Fairmont, Neb. 5-1 

,.. Uadauasz, i 


Marlonville. Onondags County, New York, 

Publtaher of Swift'b Hand books of Ink Rbcipeb. 
'■ CollDOtJoD No. 1" (50 R«cip«») CooteQU: BUok, IS 

; Red, • 

..: SyiE 

. Silvi 

Penmen's and Artists' Supplies. 

By ordering from ni, patrons can rely nol only upon 
receiving a Bupenor arUole, but upon doing «o prompUy. 

appointed coin- 

ly iu the Revolu- 

ilty in obtaining 

when no way 

and his office 

"MY FAVORITE "PEN wnt at |1,25 

k ut Alphabeta . 

Blaok Cardb 

card. 22x28 



Blaok Cards. 




■'■ S- » 

Blank B 

"' SS:: i:S » 


que Gold Pei 


A monthly Jouroal devoted to EduMtlonal lotereiU 

AutoerapKe — Cards. 
e elegantly written, thiee different ityles, 2 


Thgronghly taught personally, or by mail. A more 
thorough sjBlem of inatruolion by oorre«p(indenc« waj 

Writing and Measuring Ruler. 

□ Compendli 

ling Pen* for : 
oiU Pan, very 

wn, DoDlon & Sorlbnere 1 
igeHnbber, Zsia in,. Tory i 
Bl&okboordB, by azprew, 

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Liquid Slating, the b«tt Id n 

board*, per gaUon 

tSt" No gooda Mnt by n 

J™ ' 

ndiiB or work, upon potrtal-oarda wiu 

DOS Bboadwai, NSW YOSX. 


Barchers Assorted Colored Inks, 

Expressly prepared for the use of Penmen and 


t. Orange, Blue Crimson. Silver^hite'^Dd ( 
i 02 J one doien in a box. Sent on reoeipt o 



Silver, and White, separate, 25 cents each by 

and all other colors, 20 cents each 


IU East 52d StiBBl. New York. 



len ut %i. fli^using 

in length, of 

sonpt alpliatMts; 
r nritl^. ThiJ 

In receipt of 15 oents, before January next, I will 


Double Peuhotder, rtjcently pateutad, admit! t 




PU*IU>'» AKI JointHAL, 

903 Bnwdmy, Maw York. 

The Coming Girl. 

Will Bhe t>e heauliful 1 Tf she hangs ber 
Imir until you can't rest, and frizzes it until 
slie re90nihle« an escaped lunatic; if ehe 
wnnrii a bu^llc as large n» a caifet'a hump, 
and Rhnes a size and a hHlf too small for Iier 
feet ; if siie presscii lier waist into acureet 
so niDcli too small that te&rs gush from her 
eyes; if she paints her face with every new 
coSmetic tliat ambitious advertisers recom- 
mend ; if she cares more about style than 
Kleauliueps — iu a word, if she is waap- 
waisted, frizzlepated, and bump- backed — 
will she be beautiful f 

Will she be lovable f If she chooses to 
be p'lpuUr abroad rather than at home; if 
she spends liours before the mirror trying to 
impr<)ve on nature, and forgets all those 
nameless small courtesies which act like 
<iil on the domestic machinery, the cheer- 
ful "good morning," the pleasant "good 
night,"' the kiudly voice and snnny face that 
are such a comfort and blessing to parents, 
the forgetting of self, and the polite defer- 
ence to the wishes of others of the home 
circle. If she neglects these things — will 
she be lovable'? 

Will she he intelligentt If slie " burns 
the midnight oil"rea<Iing trashy novels, if 
she cares more for the gossip of the neigh- 
bor than for the affairs of the nation, aud 
lends a willing ear to every whisper of 
slanderous tongues, the mystery "they 
say " having cliarms she cannot resist; if 
history is "dull," biography "stale," and 
science "just too awful dry," will she be 
intelligent f 

Will she marry? If she believes with 
Betsy Bobbet, that "to get a husband is 
woman s spheah," and encourages nice 
young men as Betsy did her "sweet ga- 
zelle, the edilah of the Autjuh" ; if she is 
ashamed to have it known that she can, 
and does, successfully cook a beefsteak, 
aud hake bread and pancakes, to eat which 

nil I 

"«g 1 


had rather interview the front pate than 
the holes \n her father's socks, will she 
marry?— 'Womaris Work. 

The Usual Signs—" Mr. B.," said the 
president o( a bank to his caabier, " 1 under- 
stand you have sold your trotting-horsef " 

"Yes, sir," replied Mr. B., uneasily. 
"I found the luxury too expensive." 

" Aud you declined an invitation to at- 
tend a champagne party the other eveningf " 

"Yes, sir." The cashier was getting 

" And I also learn that you have taken 
a class in Sunday-school and have become 
a member of the church choir?" 

"Ob, sir!" exclaimed the frightened 
man, "the amount is lees than $10,000, 
and if you vrill give me two days' time I 
will restore every cent." 

Hut the president was inexorable.— 
Philadelphia Coil. 

Neither Written nor Printed.— 
Perhaps the most singular curiosity in this 
book world is a volume that belongs to the 
family of the Prince de Ligne, and is now in 
France. It is entitled " The Passion of 
Christ," and is neither written nor printed. 
Every letter of the text is cut of a leaf, and 
being interleaved with the blue paper, it is 
as easily read as the best print. The labor 
and patience bestowed in ita completion 
must have been excessive, especially when 
the precision and minuteness of the letters 
are considered. The general execution in 
every respect is indeed admirable and the 
volume is of the most delicate and costly 
kind. Rudolph II., of Germany, offered for 
it, in lliW, 11.000 ducats, which was prob- 
ably equal to «0,(J00 at this day. The most 
remarkable circumstance connected with 
this literary treasure is that it bears the 
royal arms of Eugland, but when it was in 
that country and by whom owned has 
never been ascertained. 


Monthli/, tn the interest of the "Art Callitfraphic.'^ 

Subscription. $i per year, with an elegant premium free. 


Three Couriei of Le.toni.— The itatemenl of the elmple fact that Prof. Ch.nd) 

B, Speolel EogJgocnenl.-AMWlu from Ihe leedinj .ulhon on all 
It Uie Ki..t tou. 01 yooDg people lo Ihe art of good mllos, 

Musselman's Compendium of Seif-teaching Penmanship, 

C. H. RANDALL, Editor and Publisher. 




Peirce's Business College, 

Shading T Square. 

Booept II 



Cullegpp, olaesfB and private learners can 
Ruccesefiilly adopt and use the New Short- 
hand. Il ia learned in 16 Isesons, and ihor- 
oUKhly meets the requiremeutn of education 
audbusineBB. Ii ia bai>t>d upon a new diBcov- 
vrj in stenography, which Himpli&ee and makes 
practical aud eaBilj atlaiuaDle by evuryone. 
ictor presenting 
July. Ordei 

The cIaB8-book and 'selt- 
iheNewShorihand will i 
sent in before Jaly let will he book'ed 
the retail price of $1. Address 


. half 

TUaranUt iU poi 

'Puri"^- . It tbo Sobool M?i^ 

or UiMe tot ta. ^AuSSi' ortenTo''* "' *""*' '® **'°''' 

Ho/comb & Co., Pul'lieher„ and BooksellerB, 


dreu«a of balf a duxeo of your frleiuli who &ra )>uiliD 
(orgretto " P«nmBn. .p. But. above *U. d^o^ t 


SET of Oapltali, Flonri.hln^, and Biujdm. Writ! 

Sent poat-p^d on rvoelpt of $1.75. 

*"" 305 Bruadtray, New Tork, 

r h'""d^^ ™^ '' ^P*""^"'V°So"rpi, 3/o""^r'dOT*-^ 
60 eta.; pen'-flourithed, |a. 8ample«,'M°oti.''*NoTwr 

&KLLM.T, WB Bro«i'wa7, 1 

A Romance. 
How A Waitress in a Summer Hotel 

Both the Packer boys, Robert and Harry, 
were treateil like equals by their father and 
mother. In the little village where this 
good old man lived there waa a Butnmer 
hotel, which was patronized considerably 
during the sfuson, young Harry Packer of- 
ten taking his meals there. A young girl 
named Lockwood, the daughter of & re- 
spectable citizen living near the village, 
came in to assist waiting "n the table. The 
fff-qucncy of Harry Packer's meals at the 
hotel attraptPd some attention, and his 
hrotlier Robert, or "Bob," as he was fa- 
miliarly and affectionately called by almost 
all who ever knew him, said one day before 
the father and Harry at the breakfast table 
that Harry was sweet on a little girl down 
at the hotel, and that was the reason he 
did not come to his meals regularly. Harry 
colored up a liitle, and after they had fin- 
ished their breakfast the old Judge seated 
himself on the front porch which overlooks 
Mauch Chunk and gives such a magnificent 
view of the Lehigh valley, the niuving boats 
and trains, which his own industry had 
created and brought together, and said : 
" Harry, who is this girl Robert refers to ? " 

"Miss Lockwood, father, the daughter 
of a man you know very well." 

"Are you goiog to marry her, Harry," 
Siiid the Judge. 

"I have some notion of it, father," said 

" Well, wait till I do down and see her," 
said the Judge, and picking up his old 
white hat and cane, the Judge quietly am- 
bled down to the hotel and asked for Miss 
L.tckwood. She innncenrly came into the 
office of the hotel, with her dining-room 
apron on, and seated herself beside the 
Judge. Just what he said to her, or she to 
him, ypQl never be exactly known unless 
she tells it, but when the Judge came out 
he was smiling and appeared mighty well 
pleased. He went home and found Herry 
still silting on the porch where he had left 
him. By this time the Judge's face had 
resumed its usual grave but kind expres- 
sion. "Well, Harry," he said, "that is a 
very nice girl down there, but she has no 
money. We must raise her some." 

The old Judge put down hia memoranda 
for $50,000, the mother and the othere for 
$25,000 each, and thus $150,000 was placed 
in the bank to the exclusive and immediate 
credit of Miss Lockwood; the engagement 
was announced, the wedding day fixed,' the 
marriage took place, and Harry Packer got 
the girl he liked. — Pittsburgh Post. 

A Tricky. Insurance Company.— 

Shortly after a fire the other day, a colored 
gentleman called on the insurance agent 
and said: 

" Wauls my money, cap'n." 

" I don't owe you any money." 

" Ain't yesse'f de 'sho'ence agent." 

" Ye.s, I am an insurance agent " 

" Den yer owes me money, fur my sto' 
burned up enduriu' de late fire, sah." 

" You were not insured in my company." 

" De dcbill waVt." 

" Come, get out of here ! " 

" Hole on, boss, au'lemme 'splain. Wuz 
Mr. Jones' shored in yer comp'nyf " 

" Yes." 

"Wuz Mr. Jackson's f" 

" Yes.^' 

" Wall an' good. Now, my sto* wuz jes 
botwix Mr. Jones an' Mr. Jackson. De 
walls o'dar et^'s made de walls o' my 
sto.' Ef you'd a took dar sto's erway, my 
sto wouldcr been gone. De inshoin o' dar 
own stolsinsliij'ed mine, doan yerseef" 

" No, I don't see." 

*' Don I ain't goio' ter git nothin*, is H " 

" No." 

" I'll recolleck dis, sah, an' see whut de 
cou't ous'll hab ter say," and turning away, 
be muttered : "Ef I'der knowd decomp'ny 
wuz so tricky, I wouldn'ter set de blame 
sto' afiro."^.4rAamo* Jrowfar. 

H. W. KIBBE. 7 Hobart Street, Utica. New Yort?. 

■'The Quarler/y undoiibledly islUefloeit thlogofthe klodeverjtotlen Hp."— M B. Moore Morifun Kv 

'- J d" Bria 

greallj- exceeded m 
t, Raceland, Ls. 

expeotatiooa ; it aloae 

nil delighted « 

hit"- 8. A.D.Hal 

n.LUtla Rook. Ark. 


« aa a lire-iabaonber. 

— F. P. Proil, SpriDgrfiel 





For Sale hy all Stationers and Booksellers. 

The Esterbrook Steel Pen Co., 


26 John Street, New York. 

The Famous Card-writer, 

Who is well known in all parte of the country, loishes to call your attention to the follow- 
ing price-list of written cards, which will befomid among the very finest obtainable: 


" ■•: ■■ '''^v^<il'D|'BriX[. .'.':!:::::::::' -a '» 

" C. Beye) Gold^edg. 30 ;^ 

■' P. Oilt-edge, lateel gtylw .','."." [ya 55 

!! S' f'PP*' ^-i.^^*' ^Jmetbinj new and elegant ... ,35 ft) 

H. Satin Beve|..d«e, 7ery Btyliih 40 75 

" I. Extn He&vv Bevel, e ply Briilol 35 55 

J. The £/t(<. tlie lateet itylae '.'.].. .35 'eo 

fim.lBhtflind' wl.keMed''ror'5o"enu''per dOTen,^'*'^°' eample. of the above oaMe eent lor 15 cent.. Envelope. 
Yoi^ Bitenflon l^pwlally called lo etyle E (Pen, nourished). The deaigns are original and entirely new to the 

AGENTS WANTED. I ivant a good agent in every town In the United State, to t k rH 
With reduoed mt^U^Jgl^/ '*™"'"'^ '*'"" ' ^°^^ "' eamplee, containing alarge variety ol the meet popuhir^tylee| 

AUTOGRAPHS. For 35 cent. I wiU .end ttvelve car.i. with yonr autograph written " 
' ' " S°eS" OP CAriTAis!' '°L'S?ul«d"iIS,°iSjS^Jd «7i"^^ 
M^'^r'al^ * °'°" ' ""' ""' "''""' "'■'••• '" "'°'' i """" ■•». diirei«nt .tyloe. SO ce'nf. - "uJiS'I'y'S'Si 

SPECIMF.NS OF FLOURISHING, freeh t^cm the nen M cent. e„..h .i. .. , .. 

OBLIQUE PENHOLDERS. Thai >,omn, m mi^m£ S/M^tiJSJ^^^^',^"^'^ *' ''°- 

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execott^ in thU twuntry. Hi. card.wridng U benntUul."— Phof, A, N. Palhkk, Cedar RapldB.*k.wa. "" ""^ "^^ 

?uIuo'?''"- f' 'rtSliBlT Stab' '°'°'"'''^° """^ 

PBO». H. W, rucsraoUE, Philadelphia, Pa., .ay.; •■ A. W. Dahb'. writing U met e.ooUenl." 

PROF. A. W. DAKIN, Tully, New York. 




Adapted for ubb with or without Terl-Book, 

and the oulf eet recommeaded to 


"THE NfciW 

Bryant & Stratton 
Counting-House- Bookkeeping." 


DHY ( 

BOOK. ' 


'hit Pen, kDomi by the atxive title, is manufoctored of 
be»l itMl, and CATMraUy MBlaotad. They ara parUOD- 
y aaaplod for Pnblin and Private Spbix.U and Book- 


I AND 121 WnxiAM Strkbt. Nkw York. 



AniM't Coropeadiam ot PTaotfoal and Omamaotal 

PeDmanabip js oq 

New Spenoerian Gompendiam io parta (6 paxta 

Confdua'i Normal Lettering aad Floari»hiiij, aaoh 

Standard Preotical P«niDMMhlp. by lie Spenow 

Amee'e Copy-sUpi; j^TthfkiotAQ^ki^n'.' ".'.', 10 
Family Record. 18rJ2 i OO 

Oarilerd Memorial, 1 9 jci4 '..\.\'" ".''"^, 50 

BoiiDdiDgstfi. 24.TO.. ".;;!:!;!::;;:;:: ;;;;:".;: » 

Flouriahed Eagle, 24x32 90 

OmamenlsJ and Flouriahed Carda, I3deaign>,n«w, 

original and artiatio, per pack «r 50 30 

lOJ. »y™*» M 

1000 " M »7"byVrpr^V.';!;;!""'.'!!';'" 4 00 

loribere lor the Jourhal, and aelling tbe above works. 
Send for our Speoial Rale* to Agenta. 

7-t-I. 205 Broadway, New York. 

Shorthand Writing 


Important Announcement. 

A. N Palmer, formerly teacber of penmanahip Jn the 
bDiineei ooUege and public school* of Cedar Rapid.. 

B. M. WorlhiDgton in oondiioting Ihe Lakeside BoaiQeas 

A apeoial feature o( thi« wUool \t the training of pro- 
fewlopal penmen aut) leaohera of penmanabip. It is the 

plan of this school, not only to grwiuale fins penmen, but 
Srat-olaas teaobera. 

Thoae wwhing lo make a aiitvcM o( the prufeaaion ot 


Sample copies will 

Worthingfton & Palmer, 







Rvcemmonded and uiad by more than one-half of 

Iha penmen in the Unitad State*. 

Inclose stamp for price-lUl, wilh sample ol inks wrilt^n 


Am JoiijxAi; 

FHeitd MaiaTOU .- 

t and rafiiditu of hit iwi 

G. A. aABKiLL. Editor at Fen 

On reoetpl of SO o«oti, a package of elegant anotled 


n plewwl.— SItiNATUKES. 


U\e> E.60tK St., NEW YORK. 

The Full Equipment of a Business Man. 



The Spencebian Obliqi'e Holder is approved Ly profeasional and business penineu 

The Spencebian Wbitiko Ruler has 
Full Script Alpliabt'ts — both capitals and small letters — and ten scales of measurement 

Price-list of SPENCER! AN SPECIALTIES sent on application. 

Ivisoix, Blakemaii, Taylor & Co., 

3-5 753 and 755 BROADWAY, NEW YORK. 


I take pleMore in saying lliat for grace of iorm, flnUhed qualiry of line and beauty of oombiDalion, 1 nnhe«itatingly 
say tliai your cards compare fevorably with those of tbe best peo-artisis of tb« world. Cordially youn, 
Cleveland. O., May Btb, 1881. Plait R. SPBMCKK, 

Asaocitile Aatbor of the Spencerian Syslem of Penniaoibip. 
Will write Itae foUoirlDg, freth from tbe pen, lent poil-paid : 

Perdoi. Per 95. 

Cards, plain white, good qoalily 30 .55 

best " ,a5 .65 

Alpbabel ol Off-hand Capitals '.*/"'*...'..".'.'.'.".'.'.'..! '.. .25 

Flonrished Italian .fi5 

' ' Capital* for Card-writing 25 

" '■ " variety of elyles 50 

Addre.., w. W. BENNETT, Spencerian Business College, CLEVELAND. 0. si'- 

ice to oecure a Biisinrss Education, or prepare 
teach SpeDcerian Peomanahip, is at the Spen- 
ineas ColUge, Cleveland, Ohio. Over 
•f^J yj£*J // f J j^yjy^''''^ ^^^ Btudenta during the past year, 500 in daily 
fyC^ '^ K^^.^'C^yr ' atteadance. 19,000 eince organization in 185'i. 
Studente entered at any lime. We call special attention to our Short Businesa and Writing 
Course during the Summer. Send stamp for catalogue and circulara. 

4-:u SPENCER, FELTON d LOONIIS, Proprietors. 236 Superior St. 

The Packard Gommercial Arithmetics. 


Complete Edition (Wilb and without aoswen), 32B pp., Octavo. School Edition, 2TS pp., Duodec. 

These books have marked ohamcieriaiicfi which have won for then ihe iiQVdt,>iug cummt^u 
datiou of practical teachers. Isl. They are complete expositors of practical arithmetic— having 
grown out of tbe wauls of a coemopo'itau institution, and having been satisfactorily tested by 
tbe leading teachers of practical arithmetic in this country. 2d. They are specimens of fine 
modem book-making— in typography, paper and binding. 3d. They are em»nen(iy adapted to 
self-instruction. 4th. They are very cheap. 

The School Edition ( an abridgment of ihe complete edition ) has been recently published, 
and has not been specially brought to the attention ol teachers. It is an admirable book for the 
higher clasBes in grammar schools, as also for the commercial departmenls of classieal and liter- 
ary institutions. It contains all the best part ot the larger work, and is as full in ail tbe essen- 
tial subjects as the best schools will require. 

The retail price of the Complete Arithmetic is $1.50 j of the School Edition, $i. Liberal 
discounts to schools. 

A single copy of either edition will be sent to any actual teacher or school otEcer, for ex- 
aniitiation with a view to introduotiou, on receipt of one-half retail price. 

The Key to the Complete Edition ie now ready— a single copy of which will be sent with- 
out cost to all schools using the book as a text-book. Additional copies will cost $l each. 

The Packard Arithmetics have recently been adopted, and are highly commanded, by the 
leading Commercial Schools and Bueiness Colleges of 

Kow York, 81. Paul. Baltimore, Peori»- T,«„ o, ,.^__ 

Sod rranoisco, D. 



S. S. PACKARD. Publisher, 805 Broadway, New York. 



By e 

you dMlre in purrency or poslage-slampa lo me in a let- 
Style A. Plain white or oream. gofxl quality t .42 $ .90 
" C. nilt-edRe(as8orted),al<*a]'slD8lyie .48 1.04 

" H. Eight-ply bevels, giit, eta fiO 1,29 

CARD CASES Those (l»iriDg to obtain leather 

WANTED a good live ageot in every sohool to 

All orders promptly and oorefnlly Blled. Oaeadlan 
script only accepted. U. 3. postage-st«mps laken for any 


ai5 E. SOth St., New York. 

WOBCKSTBR, Janoary 29th, 1864. 
toritert in the oountry. Spiuimen-oardt /rom hit ptn 
any Oiat 1 haet ever tun. A. H. Bikmam. 

E. K. Isaacs, Editor of The Chirographer. 

Special Offerfor a Short While. 

An unsurpassed specluieu of bold buein 
wrltlug. In the aliupe of n letter, on the I 
qualit.v or paper, in being s#>nt out, U* nny 

575 E. SOth Street, New York. 

Only a Silver i 

Everyone Wants a Copy I 


Entered at the Post-Opfice of 
New York, N. Y., as Second-Class Matter 

. F. KELLEV. Aiiooiilo Edit 

NEW YORK, JUNE, 1884. 

Vol. VIII.— No. 6 


Wo have been unable to get ready the 
matter for Hinman's leeson in time for 
this numler. It has therefore heen omit- 
ted, and in its place we give the first of 
our series of lessons in Box and Package 

Box and Package Marking. 
Lesson No. I. 
By D. T. Ames. 
Some two years since a series of six les- 
sons, \fitli alphabets for, and practicixl ex- 
amples of, box and package marking, were 
given through these columns. The many 
favorable responses received lead us to be- 
lieve that the lessons were of utility to 
many readers of the Joubnal ; and it is in 
obedience to very numerous refiuests that 
we now offer to our readers this first lesson 
of a new and second series of lessons upon 
the same subject. The ability to mark in 
a legible, artistic and rapid mauner a box 
or package is an accomplishment of scarcely 
loss importance to a olork, and especially 
in a shipping-house, to that of a good 
handwriting. With the view of making 
these lessons as practical as possible we 
have visited several of the leading commer- 
cial and publishing houses of New York, 
and eiamined the various styles of marking 
and their methods. At the same time we 
have quizzed the presiding geniuses of the 
" ink-pot and brush." 

To enumerate the varied styles of" High 
Art" emjiloyed in marking, would be as 
impossible as it would be useless. It wiU 
be our purpose and endeavor in these les- 
sons to combine the best results of these 
observations with our ideas of the proper 
styles and methods for marking. The es- 
sentials of good marking— like writing — 
are, legibility and facility of execution. To 
secure these results, forms of letters appro- 
priate and adapted to being made with a 
brush or broad-pointed pen must be adopted. 
In marking wood or metallic surfaces, and 
all large packages, a brush is the proper 
implement to use; for smaller parcels, and 
especially those wrapped in paper, a broad- 
l«.inted pen may be used to great advantage. 

The brushes used are of three or four 
■liflerent sizes— Hat, and varying from two 
to five-, igliths of an inch in width. A flat 
'■rush is tlie best, as, when carried edge- 
wise, it gives a thin line; while, Uatwise, 
llie broad shades are readily made; regular 
marking-ink should be used. The custom- 
ary form of marking-pot and brush, us well 
■IS an example of brushes for marking, is 
L'iven in the illustration on this page. 

The stencil- plat« is now extensively used 
lur marking-purposes; especially is this 
llio case in affixing brands and olassifioa- 
iHiu of goods; and also the names and ad- 
■Iresses of firms, places, etc., which are in 
ficquent use, are out in stencils, which 
ereatly improves and facilitates extensive 

In these lessons we shall present as 
'iMdards three styles of alphabets, which 
3 for marking 

The first, and that given herewith, 

tin- Back Slant Roman, and is best adapted 
lo being made with a brusli. It may also 
be made with a broad nipped pen. 

The second will be the Roman Direct 
Slant, wliicb, wliile it may also be made 
with a broad pen upon paper> is specially 
adapted to the uee of the brush, and for 
marking upon boxes where a large bold 
lettering is desirable. 

The third is what is known as Italic, 
ami may be made with facility with a brush. 
It is best adapted fur use M'ith a broad pen 
and for marking small packages or parcels 
done up in paper. The two styles, and the 
manner of their use, are presented in the 
accompanying cut. 

The following exercises may be prac- 
ticed, with either a broad pen or brush 

After which the alphabet may be practiced 
in the same manner. 

For practice use a heavy inanilla paper; 
rule, in pencil, a base and head line for 
first practice, and then practice with base 
line only, and finally with no guide line, 
as in that mauner is most marking done. 

which are graded from fine to points one- 
eighth of an inch broad. A full set will be 
mailed, from the office of the Journal, 
for 25 cents. Also the "Soennecken 
Packet Feeding Pen" is a superior ar- 
rangement for marking purposes. It is 
made in four widths for bold, large letter- 
ing ranging from about one-sixteenth to 
one-fifth of an inch broad. Sent by mail 
for 35 cents each. 

We shall esteem it a favor if any of our 
readers who are interested in this subject, 
and skilled in brush lettering, will favor 
us with specimens of their work for pub- 
lication in connection with these lessons. 
Also, we shall be pleased to endeavor to 
answer any questions of general interest 
relative to marking. 

{To be continued.) 

Anent Outing. 

By Paul Pastnor. 
I suppose that every penman takes an 
annual vacation ; if he doesn't, he ought to. 
No worker can do his best all the year 
around withoat a period of rest and recu- 
peration. I, for one, do not see why man 
ehould work any more than Nature does ; 

litahle may be procured at 
my artist's material store, and the ink 
'f most stationers. The pens best for 
ise are the broad -pointed Soennecken, 

and Nature, if you will notice, rests 
the year. 

A month, at least, you should striv 
get away from your work. If you can 

han a month, all the better. But it 
be the creed of theee rushing 
modfru times that man works out his salva- 
tion, rather than his curse, by the sweat of 
his brow. The world expects ten months, 
at least, of a man's year to be devoted to 
toil, and grudges the two months in which 
he prepares himself to endure the ten. 

Admitted, then, that eomo va-ation is a 
necessity— for even the sordid world will 
grant you that — the queslion aii:>e.-, What 
is the best way to spend the precmus time ? 
The answer is as varipd as the cir.^umstances 
of the inquirer. Dilferent kinds of work 
demand different kinds of recreation. I'he 
sedentary laborer should spend his vacation 
entirely out of doors, taking in great 
dradghts of oxygen to feed his impoverished 
blood, and filling out and toning up bis re- 
laxed muscles with moderate, increasing to 
active, exercise. The man who labors with 
his muscles chietiy should give his body a 
rest, and exercise bis mind. The tastes of 
the individual must be consulted, too. 
There are certain kinds of out-of-door ex- 
ercise which will do a literary or sedentary 
worker mori> good than any others, because 
he has a zest for them. The mind has a 
great deal to do with the welfare ()f the 
body. 'Assuming that I write for indoor 
■workers only — for penmen, and students, and 
literary men — I shall consider, in this arti- 
cle, only the different kinds of outing 
which have been found to be beneficial to 
persons of sedentary occupation. Such 
persona need vacations far more than work- 
ers of the opposite class, for the reason that 
brain and nerve tissue is mure rapidly ex- 
hausted and more slowly repaired than 
muscular fibre. Witness the rest of a 
night, or the refreshment of a goud meal, 
in Its comparative effects upon mentwl and 
physical exhaustion. 

For those who have naturally strong and 
sound coDBtitutiona, I would recommend 
Buoh an outing as may be obtained from a 
few weeks' camping out, or a walking tour. 
I have known both tliese means of recrea- 
I tion, however, to prove most pernicious in 
the case of those who were not physically 
able to endure them. The strain upon a 
weak constitution, caused by abruptly 
changing all the habits of a lifetime, or by 
1 undertaking physical feats which are only 



poBsiblo to etrong and hardy men, is often 
productive of diseaee and loss of vitality. 
Young men of frail phyeiqne, or who have 
strong tendencies to chronic disease, should 
never attempt to *' rough it," or to take 
long trips where muscular exercise is apt to 
be excesiive. The results are almost cer- 
tain to be detrimental instead of beneficial. 
For yonng men whose constitutions are of 
this nature, cauoeing, where good hotel ac- 
commodaliuLs can lie had, or bicyoUug — 
which is less exltaustive than walking— fish- 
ing, riding, or boating would be beneficial. 
They should have some exercise every day 
increasiug the amount as the strength in- 
creased, but it should never be allowed to 
become exhaustive to such a degree as to 
become hurtful. A very good rule to fol- 
low in detoroiining the amount of exercise 
to be taken is to uuto the appetite. So long 
as that remains wliarp and healthful no harm 
has been duue to the Bystem by exercise; 
but when fatigue is so excessive as to pro- 
duce indifl'erence to food at the proper hours 
for meals, then it is time to lake warning. 

A great many young men spend their 
vacations at watering places and fashiona- 
ble resorts, where the expenses are enor- 
mou8,.and where the tendency is to divert 
one's self with tiirtaliun and complete inac- 
tivity. This is very well for invalids. 
Nothing will brighten up a weakly young 
fellow like the bright eyes of a girl, and 
nothing will do him more good than com- 
plete rest and abundant, tcothsome, nour- 
ishing fond. But for rest, strong, whole- 
hearted fellows, whose purses are slender 
and whose muscles are firm, a vacation 
spent in this way must seem efi'eminate and 
unsatisfying. Let them plunge into the 
wilderness somewhere ; sleep, if need be, 
under the stars j eat coarse food; live like 
the full-blooded young giants they are, and 
thank God for their bounding health and 
strength. They will be strengthened and 
hardened for their work by this kind of life, 
aa they could be in no other way. 

Camping by lake and stream, in the warm 
summer nights, with stars and moon shining,' 
through the almost transparent tent, and 
fresh air circulating around the straw or 
bough-couch of the happy camper, is one 
of the pleasantest forms of outing which 
can possibly he imagined. It combines 
the pleasures of boating, fishing and 
" roughing it." The larder may be excel- 
lent — supplied with fresh milk, eggs, butter, 
daily, from farm houses along the route, 
with occasional luxuries in the way of poul- 
try or game, and a good, steady supply of 
toothsome fish, bread, coH'tje, etc. Still, 
some hardships will inevitably be met, and 
those who are not strong and healthy 
should beware of tenting. 

A good, slioug, easy-running bicycle is 
an excellent thing to take an outing with; 
but, unfortunately, very few men can afi'ord 
80 expensive a machine. A good one costs 
as much as a good horse. Still, a hundred 
dollars put into uue is well invested, tor it 
is always valuable property, and depreciates, 
with use, far less than almost any other ve- 
hicle. There are thousands of miles of de- 
lightful roads in New England alone, 
where touring with a bicycle is not only 
practicable but. delightful. The motion is 
exceedingly pleasant, the exercise is exhil- 
arting, and the amount of ground which 
can be covered in a day with one of these 
two-wheeled carriages is remarkable. I 
should strongly reccommend a bicycle to 
any young man who can afl'ord to invest in 

There are some things which should be 
looked to, in every form of outing. First, 
the clothing. This should be warm and yet 
light. Flannel is the beat material, with 
strong, coarse socks and shoes. Second, 
the toilet. Cleanliness is next to godliness. 
Brush and comb, tooth-brush, towels, soap, 
etc., should always have room made for 
them. Then, the mind should not be al- 
lowed to utterly cease from its ordinary 
functions. Take a book along— if but one, 
the Bible. Keep a diary. Keep aa ac- 
oouDt of your expenses. Jot down occa- 

sional thoughts. Ycm will be ui*.n) Api ly 
get suggestions than if you were shut up 
within four walls. If everything else 
should be forgotten, do not forget a few 
siuiple household medicines. They may 
save your life. Keep a clear consoienoe, 
have a good time, and you will come back 
tike a giant refreshed. 

Plain Talk. 
By Chandler H. Pkikce. 

First. — Why is there such a diversity of 
opinions regardiug the proper methods of 
teaching writing t The power in the vari- 
ous movements i The relative importance 
of each ? Thorelatiou of each to the otherT 

Second. — Is it necessary to argue the 
ijuestiou with any one, when experience 
and ability are widely different f 

Third. — Can any points be proven, when 

Fourth. — If the forearm movement is re- 
garded as the highest power by which su- 
perior results are obtained, how is it posei- 
ble to secure it in the beginning? 

Fifth.— "Wg teach the forearm move- 
ment entirely by means of movement 
exercises composed of letters or combina- 
tions of letters in whole or in part." *' We 
teach movement only so far as movement is 
involved in plain, rapid writing." " \Ye 
do not recommend the wholearm practice. 
The forearm movement being the object 
aimed at, we see no benefit to be derived 
from wholearm practice, as the two have 
very little, if anything, in common." 

5ia:(A.--" Our experience has been mostly 
with adult persons. I do not hesitate to 
express the belief that our method can he 
emph^ycd by pupils ten years old and up- 
wards. Not having had such experience 
with pupils below ten years old as would 
warrant a belief founded on fact, I prefer to 
express no opinion further than that our 
method would undoubtedly work as well 
with very young pupils as any now in use." 

Oi)inions are as plentiful as the leaves of 
autumn, and are of value iu proportion as 
the claims are substantiated by proof, which 
must have for its base facts, and these, in 
turn, must rest upon experience. Tliis ex- 
perience does not consist merely in teaching- 
power, but in executive ability as well, 
which undoubtedly implies skill in the 
formation of letters at the board aa well as 
upon paper. If we concede the fact that 
" good writing is not necessary to good 
teaching," we are guilty of a violation of 
law that no set of intelligent students ought 
to tolerate for a single moment. 

Teaching- power implies criticism, and 
criticism implies executive ability ; there- 
fore he who would attempt to teach must 
know how to write. It is possible to know 
how to write without knowing how to 
teach, but it is impossible to know how to 
teach without knowing how to write. 

The best methods of teaching writing 
are secured the same as the best methods 
iu teaching other specialties ; and to give 
an opinion when the very fundamental 
principles are wanting, is, to say the least, 
very presumptuous. The diversity of opin- 
ions is easily accounted for wheu theorists 
resort to analogous reasoning entirely to 
prove all claims. 

Prof. Henry C. Spencer, than whom 
there is no higher authority, says : '* In 
practicing capitals, employ the wholearm 
movement freely; next, use the forearm 
movement modified by allowing the muscle 
of the forearm near the elbow to come 
lightly in contact with the edge of the 
desk ; next, make the capitals a little less 
thau a space {medium ruled paper) in 
which the fingers slightly assist the fore- 
arm. In each of these movements the 
mind should he directed to the shoulder as 
the centre of motion." 

If the forearm moveTnent is the whole- 
arm movement modified (which it undoubt- 
edly is), how is it possible to teach forearm 
without reaching it through wh.dt-ariii ? If 
forearm movement is regarded as a higher 
power, then wholearm must ho a lower 

p.-Mt'i , II ,1 luw«r, 11 ahould serve a pur- 
pose, and that purpose as a stepping-stone, 
which must be taken by the average as- 
pirant. True, indeed, that occasionally a 
few may be found to reach the top by some 
reason they know not why, yet the larger 
portion must plod on, content to wait until 
all the principles founded upon law have 
been observed. 

A short way by which a good handwrit- 
ing can be acquired has not yet been dis- 
covered ; nor do I think it is possible, by 
trampling under foot vital principles that 
are known to exist, and which must be 
countenanced if the desired results are 

If the wholearm and forearm tnovementa 
have nothing in common, then perhaps it 
is wisdom to make a choice ; but this state- 
ment hears no semblance of truth ; and no 
one who is the possessor of skill sufficient 
to be classed in the upper ecale will con- 
cede it for a moment. The forearm move- 
ment is the wholearm movement modified 
(as described), and the very same muscles 
are employed in the manipulation of each. 
There is no movement used in its purity for 
the general execution of good work ; hence 
the claim cannot be substantiated by facts 
that forearm movement entirely will pro- 
duce plain, rapid writing. The forearm 
umst rest so very lightly upon the desk, in 
the better execution of work generally, that 
it not only will admit of perfect freedom, 
but of rapid changes, which consist iu mov- 
ing the arm so that the point of centre 
(meaning the fulcrum of forearm) will con- 
tinually coincide with the work produced. 

The constant changing ot position in the 
pen point in writing necessitates a propor- 
tionnl change in the rest of the forearm. 
When this change is effected, it is by the 
muscles of the wholearm, if they are Dt)t 
under control — which they cannot be unless 
by proper training— will they not produce 
the opposite of what is desired? 

The human machine will be true to itself 
so long as the intelligence that guides it 
violates no established principle. While 
forearm movement may be the objective 
point, it is just as impossible to secure it 
by direct meais as it is to acquire anything 
else of value by a similar process. 

Good writing beyond childhood is almost 
necessarily executed with a combined move- 
ment, which is generally understood as 
being composed of firearm and finger. 
Good writing may be execuled with a 
purely forearm movement, Good walking 
may be done by holding the arms straight 
yet firm against the body, But there is a 
vast difference between what mai/ be done, 
what can he done, and what is done. As 
grace and ease in walking are added by 
simply allowing an easy motion to the arms, 
so in general writing very much is added in 
many ways by simiily allowing the fingers 
to perform their function. No one can 
consistently palliate or deny that a com- 
bined movement is not far superior to any 
siugle power; but it cannot be taught sat- 
isfactorily without the proper instruction 
being given, first in each alone which com- 
pose it. It may be learned ; it may be ac- 
quired by haphazard practice after a long 
time ; but to teach it with an absolute cer- 
tainty is by far the bettor way. 

I need not be told with what movement 
any writing is executed; I know that any 
departure from form is mostly due to an 
excessive use of the forearm ; that fonn in 
small writing and figures must be produced 
witli the fingers, and that in proportion to 
the speed employed in business writing will 
the action of the fingers grow less and less. 
This accounts in a scientific manner for the 
disparity in one's handwriting when exe- 
cuted under different pressure. 

Extended movement exercises are of two 
kiuds — large and small ; one a combination 
of capital, and the other of small, letters. 
While it is possible to produce the former 
entirely by the forearm movement, it is im- 
poSHiblc and utterly out of the question to 
produce the latter with any but a combined 
movement. Writing executed entirely with 

the forearm will contain an excessive amount 
of angles, and wherever good form is ap- 
proached it will be due to the action of the 
fingers in conjunction with the muscles of 
the arm. 

The object of movement exercises is two- 
fold. If they are acknowledged as product- 
ive of the deserved results in small writing, 
I can see no plausible theory for isolating 
the " rapital-connecting" movement to se- 
cure equal results in capitals. If practice 
on small letters in movement exercises will 
produce plain, rapid writing, then will not 
practice on capital letters in movement ex- 
ercises produce similar results in capitals? 
As usual in similar cases, " the cart is be- 
fore the horse." 

Auy one capable of judging will say that 
large work should precede small work, be- 
cause it is easier. And this is very evident 
from the fart that iu large work single 
movements predominate, while in small 
work the movement is not only combined 
(with about equal proportion of eai-h), but 
the action of the fingers is so varied in pro- 
ducing good f'lrms and undergoing rapid 
changes that it requires even a skillful 
hand to meet the emergency. 

Who, capable of judging, will not say 
that capitals are easier of execution than 
small writing? If this be so, I do not un- 
derstand the policy of decrying movement 
exercises that will give the power desired 
in the production of capitals. Why are 
extended movement exercises containing 
capital letters easier of execution than sin- 
gle ca)iital3 of the same kind? 

The movement exeicises necessary to 
produce plain, rapid writing are unlimited. 
No one can say just how much is necessary, 
because of the diversity of opinions in what 
constitutf's plain, rapid writing. The con- 
sideration of age has very much to do with 
the development of a good handwriting. 
The management of our public schools 
recognize this fact, and fully set forth in a 
graded course of study what is to beaccora- 
plished from year to year in each of the 
branches taught. If intellectual deveh'p- 
inent is so wisely provided for, physical 
development, properly understood, will 
prove not less important. 

Pupils from five and six to teu and 
twelve years, as a rule, are unable to meet 
the requirements physically that movement 
exercises call forth. Pupils from ten to 
twelve may bo taught whoh-ami movements 
to advantage, but not forearm. A success- 
ful experience with pupils below ten years 
warrMUls a belief, founded on fact, that the 
inethdd of instruction suitable for adult 
persons is not iu the nature of the case 
suited to the requirements of children. I 
am frank to confess that what children are 
capable of doing is in a direct line with re- 
sults to be achieved later on ; but their 
years incapacitate them to do very much 
which age will acquire and physical devel- 
opment strengthen. 

Ode to the Stub Pen. 

If you desire to have the very best aid to 
self-improvement iu practical and artistic 
penmanship, send seventy-five cents for 
Ames's " Guide to Self-instruction in Prac- 
tical and Arti!»tio Penmanship" (in paper 
covers) or $1 for same nicely bound in 
thick covei-9. It tells you all about writ- 
ing, tiourishing and lettering, and how to 
learn. If you are not pleased with it you 
may return it, and we will refund the' cash 

A Schoolmaster Abroad. 

Once more upon the broad ocean, witli 
the ehip'a prow pointed for Liverpool. Once 
more tOBaiuR upon the uneasiy billowB, with 
the old " uaeafiy " sensation at the pit of 
the Btomach, and the old solemn inquiry 
creeping into the brain as to what great 
wickedueas in the past it may be that calls 
for this terrible expiation. And, again, the 
wonder comes that people will iuaist on 
cooking and eating when nobody is hungry 
— or, in fact, ever can be hungry again. 
How strange it seems that these smiling, 
cireening "stewards," with their piled up 
armfulls of piled-up dishes, sIioiiM not see 
the groteEcpieness of their pretended zest, 
and llie transparency of their presumptiou. 
How uncomfortably kind for the captain at. 
the head of the table, and the purser at the 
head of his, and the doclor and the chief- 
steward, and the table waiters, even to the 
cabin boy, to take such a warm ioterest in 
the "appetite" you do not have, and in 
ng the delicate dishes which you 
the very smell 

can by no poseihiiity 
whereof goes against you. 

But the sea-going battle mi 
and woo ; and in the calm, swi 

the enemies to appetite will sei 
deed, by comparison with that 
which is, for all coming time, 
great. For a voyage across 
the sea, with all Europe for 
a hunting - ground, during a 

, be fought 
t days that 
aes against 

in all their loveliQesa. And in spite of these 
disguises there are female charms of grace 
and speech which the peculiar contact of 
sea - traveling brings to the surface, and 
helps to sustain you In your faith as to the 
survival of all that is " fittest " in womau — 
which does not necessarily include the outr^ 
costumes which will probably he stored 
with the ship's company at Liverpool. 

We represent a varied conslitueucy on 
shipboard, having a sprinkling of all na- 
tumalities and most conditions, from the 
" honorable senator" of the Canadian Par 
Hameut, who disports himself with great 
modesty backed by rare intelligence, and 
who goes to England to place a promising 
hoy in the British navy, to the naturalized 
German "cow boy" who has grown rich in 
Colorado, and after thirty years of eipatia- 
lii.n returns to his home in Baden, with bis 
pockets full of money, a large diamond riug 
on one of bis fat fingers, and a big gold 
watch tethered to a heavy log-chain of gtdd 
which dangles conspicuously on the outaido 
of his vest. We call this representative of 
the breezy plains " Bismarck," for the rea- 
son that he has nothing in common with 
the great dictator, and for the additional 
reason that he hates the very mention of his 
name. "I am going back to Cbermany," 
says he, "to see the old home, and find out 
how they're livin' now. I want to look at 

and so I said, 'Go 'liead, Katrine.' 'Well, 
then, Yawkop,' says she, 'I want shoost 
so much pork as I can eat for once.' And I 
said, sorter desperate like, for I hadn't ex- 
pected she would be so hold— I said, 'Ka- 
trine, you sliall have it if I have to sell my 
shirt.' And so I found a man who had pork 
to sell, and I worked a day for a pound of 
pork, and Katrine eat it, every bit, and was 

"Aud now," say.< a fellow passenger, 
"she gets alt the pork she wants." 

" Pork," says Bismarck, " I'd shoost like 
to see her touch pork. Why, tenderloin 
beef aint good enough for her. No, she is 
a dilTerent Katrine, now, but she is a good 
vrow yet." 

There's a man on board who measures 
six feet five in his stockings, and is pro- 
portioned Hccordiugly. He dispenses Pres- 
byterian theology to a small and select con- 
gregation in New Jersey, and tells good 
stories on shipoard. He is the only person 
I have seen who is indifferent to the moods 
of this rolling, pitching -hip. His steamer 
chair never drifts from its iiiooriugs ; he is 
too well ballasted to lose his equilibrium 
while promenading the deck, and he is 
wedged in so securely at night in his state- 
room berth that the ship might stand on 
her mizzenmast without spilling him. He 
a party of Cook tourists, and 

managed somehow to keep bis tongue in 
motion for twenty minutes, and trusts if he 
said anything not meet for the occasion the 
Lord will grant him pardon. 

The only place which utterly bids defi- 
ance to condition on board ship is the smok- 



be a small affair to an over- 
worked schoolmaster, no mat- 
ter how frequent it may oc- 
cur; and all the world knows 
it cannot occur very often. 
And of what small account, 
after all, are these few days of 
discomfort when placpd against 
the other days which follow — 
days of submission and sweet 
content — of strange indiffer- 
ence 1o the r.)llin*rand pitch- 
ing of the ship, which at first 
seamed simply intolerable — 
days of rest and coolemplaiion 
— of forced idleness and grow- 
ing companionship with the 
little world that clusters about 
you and takes you into 


akes yoi 
nbrace. For he n: 

r schoolu: 

queerer man who could hold 
out against the influence and 
the charms of social life at sea. 
on this head were accessible it 
teresting to note the results, near aud re- 
mote, which follow this involuntary com- 
panionship of a ten days' sea voyage. 
There is a sort of abandon in ocean travel- 
ing, which resembles nothing more closely 
than the reckless pooling of social issues — 
the total disregard of appearances, the in- 
difference to personal contact which charac- 
terizes American sea-bathing. 

It seems to he the rule for women who 
go down to sea in great ships to disguise 
themselves in ugly and unhecoming appa- 
rel; to set at defiance all known rules of 
symmetry and harmony of adaptation of 
form and color to style and complexion; to 

reveling place for smoke, and coffee, and 
cocktails, and a " friendly game of draw 
poker," the world wags, whatever else may 
happen. Here all men are equal— except 
those who bet on the ^rong card, or " get 
left" in the "pool." For this p-.tcrie of 
goodfellows the ship is "run," and her 
daily pcorings tabulated. For them, lives 
and moves and has his being, the " suiok- 
ing room steward," that unique specimoD 
of the genus homo, who serves coffee and 
cigars " for nothing," and wa« never known 
to complain at receiving too heavy a con- 
tribution at the making-up of the purse on 
the last day. In this respect, and in no 
other, the smoking-nx.m steward resembles 
all the other stewards who draw their al- 
lowance from the ship's passengers, and not 
from the ship's company. He has the in- 
stinct of his kiud for the possession of sov- 
ereigns which he does not earn, but in all 
other respects he is as far above the " bed- 
room " or " table " steward t 
deck is above the cabin. 
This feeing of servants ( 
ocean steamers 
mysterious things of travel. 
That the whole system ia vi- 
cious and demoralizing everyj 
body knows, aud that it will 
never be improved everybody 
believes. Most people who 
travel expect to pay for alt 
they get, and to pay well. 
And tew, if any, care to be 
rely free from the necessity 


board our 
one of the 

of 1 

the iudefinit 

ng grf 


I this cbai 

venged <.n the tyranny of fashion to which 
for the greater part of their lives they must 
bow. But it isa severe trial to female beauty, 
and few there be who stand the test. Says a 
lovely little lady at my left, reclining in her 
steamer chair, wrapped up to her neck in 
rugs, and topped off with a slouched hat, to 
a chance acquaintance reclining at her left, 
" No, indeed, I don't think you would know 
me on Broadway. I am not such an awful 
fright when I am at home ; but at sea, you 
know, we must look frightful. It's the 
thing." That, I think, is an explanation 
which explains, and it only makes us anx- 
ious to meet these disguised fairies "on 
Broadway," or, if fortune so directa, on the 
Pariaian boulevard, where they will appear 

iiiit a heavy flail ^ for eight rents a day; 
aud I want to ax, ' How's thein. How's that, 
now— hern?' I want to tell 'em, but they 
won't believe it. 1 know that out in Colorado 
we have meat every day, and plenty of it." 

"Meat everyday! they don't. You tell 
them the truth, Bismarck; that you have it 
three times a day, and oftener, too, if you 
want it." 

" Do you dink I could make 'em believe 
such a story T If I should tell my brudder 
Heinrich that in America we eat meat for 
breakfast, he would shoost say, ' Now, Yaw- 
kop, what fur you try to fool me? I aint no 
egiot to believe such nonsense. Who would 
eat meat for breakfast f No, it will be hard 
enough to make 'em believe that we have 
moat once a day. Why, how often do you 
think we had meat in Chermany when I 
was a boyt Twice, aud, may be, t?iree times 
a year\ Oh, them moat days I I can't never 
forget 'em. I got married in Chermany, 
and one day my vrow, she said to me, 
' Yawkop,' said she, 'Am I a good wife?' 
and I said, ' Why, Katrine, you know 
you are good, why do you ask me? and 
she said, kinder hesitatiu' like, 'Yawkop, 
my dear husband, I am goin' to ask a great 
thing of you.' And I said, 'Go ahead, 
Katrine, don't you be afraid, ask what 
you want, and I will do it.' You know we 
had only been married a year, and I was 
a proud young feller and loved my vrow, 

will prohiibly take charge of i 
gets well underway. There is such an un- 
conscious pervasiveness with these two 
hundred pound men when they are not 
handicapped by excessive modesty. It is so 
natural to make room lor them when they 
choose to sit, and to get from under their 
feet if they incline to walk. And then their 
lungs are so sound aud their organs of 
speech so perfect, that their words go a 
great way. We have, besides, a Congrega- 
tional minister from a Massachusetts vil- 
lage, who is making his first trip across the 
ocean, and who every day blesses God that 
he is alive and on his way to Europe ; 
and yet another full panoplied Presbyterian 
clergyman from Toronto, who is on his way 
tj England and Scotland on behalf of the 
Divinity School at Winnipeg, of which be 
has charge. From the Congregatioualist, 
on our first Sunday out, wo had a short dis- 
course-that is, those of us who were able 
to he out of our berths, for Sunday was the 
best day of the voyage, and even the ritual 
service which is enforced on all Her Maj- 
esty's steamships, interlarded with a prac- 
tical discourse from a liberal Congregatiou- 
alist, eoulil not wholly overcome the invol- 
untary inertia of unaccustomed sea voy- 
agers. Evcu the reverend gentleman him- 
self confesses to having felt queer at the 
base of his brain, and isn't quite sure that 
some of the '* points " which he had elabor- 
ately prepared for another occasion, did not 
go overboard. He only knows that he 

of the de- 
mands on 8!ji|dioard — or, 
rather, the indefiuiteness as to 
the amount of such demands 
— is one of the things which 
greatly need remedying. Oc- 

found who has the courage to 
sMrul on personal rights, and 
till lime and persistence to 
tight it out. But the great 
iiDtjoriiy of American travel- 
ers, when adjured not to " for- 
get the steward," simply hold 
out a handful of sovereigns 
and shut their eyes. This is 
the least troublesome way, 
Bets the full 
If after this 

and the only way that 
requirements of the case, 
ordeal anything remains to 
he need have no di-licacy 
ating it. I thought for 
life I would probe the mati 



uld be 8 

■ lo the bot- 
there was anything that 
a guide to welt meaning, 
but inexperiencetl travelers; so I took my 
bedroom steward aside, and said, " Now, 
R-^bert, I want a few candid words with 
you in private. You have been a good 
faithful fellow all through this voyage. Yon 
have look'd out for me aud mine in the 
best way, and have done much to make 
this tedious trip tolerable; aud I am going 
to pay you what ia right and fair. Now, 
what IS right and fair! I take it for granted 
that you are hired by somebody to act aa 
steward on this ship, and that you are paid 
therefor, a fair salary. You have in your 
charge, say twenty or twenty-five people, 
and all are expected and are ready to make 
you a little present as a souvenir. How 
much shall my share bet" 

Robert looked at me in a very quizzical 
way, and said that he could trust ine to do 
what was right. " So you can," jaid I, " if 
you will only let me know what i» right." 

"Don't you really know T" said he at 

" No, I don't k 

now. I 

nform m 


" Well, there's 


of you. 

and they 

generally give us 

half a 6 


for each ; 

that would be on 

B pound 


>■ Tr"':f;;f^Vl{T .iOUKNAlJ 

" lethal all I am expected to pay ?" 
" That'e all I expert to get; but there'i 
your table-steward who will want the saint 
hdJ the bootblack ; and then the grewardesi 
will expect her fee. and the cabin-boy iri'isl 
not be forgotten, nor the deck-pteward, noi 
the amokiog-room steward." 

"But honr about the captain, and the 
purser, and the doctor, and the baggage 
rl Who payi 

We I 

-Xormal Teacher. 

' I don 

7 about the 


nd th< 

purser, but if the doctor hae looked at you, 
■nd particularly if he has given yon a dose 
of rhubarb pills, you will baTe to eee him." 
The doctor had left a dope of rhubarb 
pill? in our state room which bad been ad- 
luinrstered to the ocean, and so there was 
DO way of dodging that issue. So I footed 

up I 

I folio 


Whether any part of this reasonable gift 
to the stockholders of the White Star Lino 
was unpaid will not be stflted here. I will 
only say that nothing lees than this amount 
would enable a traveler to step off the deck 
of the steamer at Liverpool, attended by the 
goodwill of the of the magnificent 
and well appointed steamer that takes him 
across the ferry. More anon. 

Educational Notes. 

for thiB Departmei 

Girard College has educated 3,450 or 

In the city of New York then 

3 3,621 

Hundreds of Welsh miners are contribut- 
ing £5 each, by weekly instalments, to- 
wards the proposed Welsh University. 

According to the last regulations, the 
study of German has been made obligatory 
on all students in the University of Tokio, 

The Indian School at Lawrence, Kansas, 
will be ready to open July Ist. 400 Indian 
boys are expected to take a course of in- 
dustrial training. 

Eehi vii: 21, contains all the letters of 
the alphabet ( I and J being considered one 
letter). Now hunt up the long neglected 

The question of establisliing city com- 
iiieroial schools is now being agitated in 
Prussia. The business classes seem to feel 
the need of such schools, as persons who 
intend to follow mercantile pursuits are 
often not fitted for such life. A school <il 
this «lass is to be started at Flensburg in 
conjunction with the agricultural school of 
the place. — Trc.s(em Educational Journal. 

If the father wishes to give his son a 
legacy that will endure him while lifo exists, 
let him send him to an institution where ho 
can obtain a general practical business edu- 
cation, and he will have the satisfaction of 
knowing that he bas given him that which 
is better than houses, lots or farms, or even 
gold and silver; these may take wings and 
fly off suddenly, but this knowledge will 
enilure while life and reason exist. — Horace 

As "the sweet girl graduate," In her 
valediotory, confidently wrostleth with the 
weighty problems of human life that states- 
man and sage can but f^iutly comprehend, 
even so doeth the man who. wise in his own 
conceit, yet knowing nothing of penman- 
ship, essayeth to teach the writing-master 
his duty. Yea, verily, like unto these are 
the Loudon Spectator and its American 
me too's that it might bo fulfilled that was 
written: "A fool uttereth all bis mind; 
but a wise man keepeth it in till afterward." 
Proverbs xxix : II. 

'■ Is she studying the languages f " '* Oh, 
yes ; she has nearly completed the language 
of flowers, and is now practicing the lan- 
guage of Cupid." 

Professor: "What is a fraud t" Stu- 
dent: "Taking advantage of a person's 
ignorance." Projesaor : " Give an exam- 
ple." Student: " Why— er-er— one of 
your examinations."- -jffarward Lampoon. 

languages T 

rife ) 

ed with the 
asked the pmfessor 
I man. " Maybe she is." w* 
but the language she uses i 
warm to have been dead 

'- than riohe; 
t the foot of 



Educational PANcrae. 

[In everf instance wherp tbs auurt 
item used m this department is kii< 
proper credit is given. A like ■ 
othere will be appreciated.] 

kiiuwu, the 
•upieey from 

go boat- 

Jrsetf" asked 
■a," answered j 

a Yale 

volume and den 

Questioning is only one of several forms 
of instruction. To question as the only 
means of teaching is like making a house 
all roof, or a coat all tail —School Educa- 

One person out of every I,5(K) in this 
e-ountry is in a college or university. Only 
37,000 are in colleges, at home and abroad 
These in numbers are only a drop in the 
great sea of fifty millions. 

The announcement of the Liberal Nor- 
mal School, at Liberal, Mo., has come to 
hand. The inhabitants of this place make 
it their boast that they have neither a 

church I 

their limits. 

1 the equality of v 
nan principal is 

Boston believes 
as tcacliers. A W( 
ceive $2,000, the 
principal would. In such ^ses woman- 
equality and justice are identical.— Scftool 

Compulsory education is enforced at 
Matamoras. Children found on the street 
during school-hours are arrested; if the 
parents cannot give a resonable excuse 
Ihoy arc compeUed to pay a fine which goes 
into the school-fund. 

Education means progress, prosperity 
and help to the State. Ignorance moans 
immorUUity, vice, poverty and wretched- 

teaching ; 

donkey i 

When a bevy of schotdman 
riding, may they not be called 

"What stars ne' 
professor. " Iloosd 
ising pupil. 

"What is syntax t" asked the teacher. 
"A saloon license is sin tax," shouted the 
son of a prohibitionist. 

The pious deacon who spelled gospel 
g-o-s-p i-1 may have been saved by the 
spirit of it, but not by the letter. 

A Freuchi 
talk. What 
man who will teach donkeys not to talk. 

A book keeper should be a good slight- 
of-haud performer, as he is so closely con- 
nected with ledger dom&in.—PMladelphia 

" Meat me at the speliug match at Mue- 
sie Hall," was the invitation written pr.ib- 
ably by one who atapped down and out on 
the first round. 

An instructor asked a French girl why 
beer in French wag feminine. She replied 
it was probably owing to the fact that the 
boys liked it so well. 

The following excuse was written to a 
Southbridge school-teacher : " Tomie stade 
home, cuz he had no close, and thats escuz 
enuff,god nose." Tomie was "eikuzod." 
—Peek's Sun. 

Pater: "Well, my boy, and bow do 
you like college? Alma Mater has turned 
out some gond men" Youfig Hopeful: 
"Ya— as— she's just turned me out." He 
bad been expelled. 

Jfiottghtful boy to teacher : "I don't think 
Solomon was so rich as they say he was, 
the Bible says he slept with his 
hers ; and if ho had been he would have 
d a bed of his own." 

"And so your daughter is at the academyf 
nv does she get alongt » - Splendidly ; 
e IS studying aU the higher branches " 


" Why," asked Professoi 
good name of more v 
And the smart bad bi 
class said ho reckoned it wii 
He was marked tea pi 

" Johnny," said the editor to his son and 
heir, the young hopeful of the family, "are 
you in the first class at school f" 

" No," replied the lad, who had studied 
the newspaper, " I am registered as second- 

A " svreet girl graduate " wrote the fol- 
lowing on the fly-leaf of her text-book on 
moral scienre : " If there should be another 
flood, For refuge hither fly ; Though all the 
world should be submerged. This book 
would still be dry." 

"Pa, is English a dead language f" 
"Why, no, my son; English is the moat 
living of all languages." " Well, pa, I'm 
mighty glad to kuow that ; I've heard so 
often about English having been murdered " 
— Linguistical Levity. 

A Junior, as ho knelt by his bed-side, 
the other night, preparatory to retiring, 
discovered that the slats had been removed 
from hia bed, and that the bed had been 
stacked. His devotions had saved him a 
fall." Moral : Always pray before retiring. 


hand throughout the day. Take for 
E. C. Cockey, of the Western 
Union Telegraph Company. With bis right 
hand he is able to send a message along the 
wires, and with his left to take down a copy 
of the same. Very bandy, is it nott This 
prejudice against the use of the left-hand is 
dying out, as it should." 

Mr. H. A. Spencer, a son of the founder 
of the Spencerian system of penmanship, 
was seen in his study by the reporter. 

Said he: "The number of pupils whom 
I have taught to use the pen with both 
hands may be counted by the thousands, 
and may be encountered in nearly every 
part of the Uuhed States. Now, here is 
work done in this city by children just com- 
uiencing. You will see by the signatures 
that many of them are sons of the repre- 
centative society people end millionaires of 
New York." Mr. Spencer then exposed 
manuscripts, on which were shown speci- 
mens of the left-hand writing, in compari- 
son with the right-hand writing, of his 
pupils. A very young son of Jay Gould 
exhibited a tremulous signature; Paul 
Bonner's, the thirteen-year old eon of li. 
Bonner, of the Ledger, was rather dark 
and mysterious ; and other young gentlemen, 
ranging in ago from nine to eleven years, 
gave evidence of future skill in the art. A 
printed specimen of the signature of the 
thirteon-year old son of Cari Schurz, written 
with the left-hand, was executed in magni- 
ficent script. 

"This young man," eaid Mr. Spencer, 
" I consider the best ambidextrous writer, 
of hie age, in the country. President Gar- 
field, my instructor In mathematics at Hiram 
College, was proficient in the use of tlje pen 

'ith both ha 

are now 160 miles 

of shelves of 

the British Muse 

um. It must 

clerk mad to hav 

an appliciint 

ust as he is about 

o close up for 

the day, and ask for a boolt at the extreme 
end of the sliolves, and be compelled to 
walk 160 miles after it. 

Writing with the Left-hand. 

"Is ambidextrous or left-hand writing 
taught much now-a-dayst" a Mail and 
Express reporter asked Chas. E- Cady, the 
principal ol a leading business college of 
New York city, where the study of penman- 
ship is one of the great features. 

" Yes," waa the reply. " There is not an 
institute of penmanship in this city that 
does not devote more or lees time to the de- 
velopment of the chirographic faculties of the 
left-baud as well as to those of the right. 
Years ago I exploded the then prevailing 
notion that the action of the musides that 
induce the formation of script characters 
was natural to the right-hand alone. In 
fact, there is nothing natural in writing. 
Good penmanship is the result of incessant 
practice in which the left-hand may be 
trained with as satisfactory results as the 
right. And viewed from both an educa- 
tional and business standpoint, the promul- 
gation of ambidextrous instruction is cer- 
tainly desirable. In the first place, it is a 
well-known fact that persons who train 
their left-hand always become more profi- 
:n penmanship with their right. And 
iid it is to the people who earn 
5 by the uee of the pen to be able 
ith both hands 1 Penman's para- 
known, and if an accident should 
one hand the oiber is always 
ready for duty. A great many clerks down 
town are proficient ambidexterists. When 
they are tired of writing with one hand 
they change the pen and thus avoid the 
fatigue consequent upon the use of the 

) left-ba 

style of 1 

their 1 


n that Thomas Jefferson in the latter 
of his life wrote only with his 
hand. He was strickei 
the right arm, and by t 
in a few months able 
and produce the same 

formerly was characteristic to his right- 
hand. Ambidextrous writing is spreading 
of lale. Through my advice two principals 
of public schools in this city have taken 
hold of the matter with gratifying results. 
I have never made it mandatory upon pu- 
I'ils to write with the left-hand, but simply 
gave them permission to devote some part 
of tho writing exercise to an effort to pro- 
duce with the left-hand such work as they 
had been doing with the right. I instruct 
them at first to do some right-hand writing 
with a pencil, and then go over it. in ink, 
with the left-hand, and then practice with- 
out the aid of pencilled copy until a suffi- 
cient degree of perleclion has been attained. 
Can I give you an estimate of the number 
of ambidexterists throughout the Union f 
Well, only a few years ago I taught classes 
H. C. Spencer, in Wash - 
iber of (JOO students ; one, 
in Baltimore, of 123. In Galveston, Tex., 
I instructed 200; in Shreveport, La,, 300. 
I have instructed pupils by the thousands 
in St. Louis, New Orleans, and other large 
cities. Since it is desirable to see with both 
eyes, hear with both ears, and walk with 
buth feet, it is well that the art of writing, 
as a 'secondary power of speech,' should 
be produced with both hande." 

with my brotbei 
ngton, to the nu 

Back Numbers. 

Every mail brings inquiries resjiei^liug 
back numbers. The following we can send, 
and no others: AU numbers of J 878 but 
December; all for 1879, except January, 
May and November ; all numbers for 1880; 
all numbers for 1881 ; all for 1882, except 
June; all for 1883, \i\xi January. It will 
be noted that while Mr. Spencer's writing- 
lessons began with May, the second lesson 
was in tht July number. Only a lew copies 
of several of the numbers mentioned above 
remain, so that persons desiring all or any 
part of them should order i|uickly. All tlie 
51 numbers, back of 1883, will be mailed 
for $4, or any of the numbers at 10 cents 


Guarding a Billion Dollars. 

The Money Stohed in Wall Stbeet 

ED FROM Burglars and Thieves- 
Detectives AT Balls and Parties 
—Some of the Old Timers. 
" I Buppose there are Btored ia the banhs 
and safe deposit va'ilts iu Wall street and 
viciuity not far from $1,000,000,000,'" eaid 
Mr. Robert PJnkerlon to a reporter for the 
Mail and Express as he sat in a comfor- 
table easy chair iu his uIHce in Excbaage- 
place. " I may be a trlHe out of tlie way 
in my eatimate, but not very much. The 
protecliou of all this wealth requires the 
aervices of a large uumber of meu in addi- 
tion to the usual mechanical and eleotrio de- 
vices employed for that purpose. The bulk 
of this large sum of money i? stored in 
the vaults of safe deposit companies. The 
vaulls are built of fire-proof and burglar- 
proof material, and are made as secure as 
modern invention will allow. They are 
connected by electric wires with the nearest 
District Telegraph office. Armed watohmeD 
placed. Private watchmen and detectives 

No Good Bank Robbers. 

"Are there as many professional bank 
robbers now as there were formerly f" in- 
quired the reporter. 

" I don't believe there is the malting of a 
regular gaug of tirst-class bank burglarn 
among all the thieves of this country," re- 
plied Mr. PinkertoD. " Nearly all the old 
professionals have either died or have been 
arrested and put away in prison, and the 
younger men don't seem to have the inge- 
nuity of their predecessors. Look at the 
noted bank burglars who have been caught 
and shut up withiu fifteen or twenty years. 
There's Jimmy Hope, who was arrested in 
California for robbing the Manhattan Bank 
of this city ; Bob Scott and Jimmy Dualap, 
the Northampton bank burglars; R..ary 
Sims, Charley Bartlett and Eddy McGuire, 
who were released from prison two years 
ago, after being in jail fifteen years for 
"lifting" the Buwdoinham Bank iu the 
State o; Maine; George White, alias Bliss, 
for participating in the robhery of a Con- 
cord, New Hampshire, bank; Langdon W. 
Moore, alias Charley Adams, who cracked 

"Yes, it is customary fur wealthy ladies 
to employ detectives to guard them, when- 
ever they appear iu public wearing 'costly 
gems. You will find my meu at nearly pvery 
fashionable wedding, reception, piirty or 
even funeral that takes place iu this city. 
They go to the weddings dressed as guests, 
and mingle with the crowd without attract- 
ing attention They watch the expt-nsivo 
gifts presented to the neuly married pair, 
and have a care lest well-dreeeed thieves 
succeed in slyly removing the diamonds 
from the dresses of the dear friends who 
may be present. Detectives must be sharp, 
quick, and level-headed if they are to 
amount to anything in criminal work. Our 
agency takes no cases involving family mat- 
Krs. M.icli of the work dune by us involves 
the looking up of the habits of clerks in 
brtnks and business houses, and the em- 
ployes of express compauies who have Xhe 
handling of large sums of money. It is the 
rule of some establishments or companies to 
have tbe habits i.f their employes examined 
yearly. If a man is found to be spending 
more money than he earns, or is becoming 

Chief of the Secret Police Force of France 
is G. Macr, a man of great courage and 
keen penetration. He baa becu in the ser- 
vice thirty years, and is only forty-five years 
of age. Ttie headquarters of the secret pe- 
lice are located in the Palace of Justice on 
the Seine. When Napideon III. was at the 
height of his power ** The Service of Public 
Safety," as it was then called, became a 
mere political machine for executing the 
wishes o) the nobility. After his death an 
effort was made 1o purify the eervioe and 
was successful. A large number of the older 
and more experienced men were discharged 
and new men put in their places. It is now 
claimed that the young men who are now 
growing up in the service in Paris will in a 
few years become the most skillful detec- 
tives yet known. The methods of work 
used by Mace are the best yet discovered by 
experience His men are unknown to the 
public in their professional capacity. The 
old French innkeeper who serves your cof- 
fee in the morning may be in the employ •f 
the police. The detectives work with the 
utmost care and secrecy, and are rarely sus- 

Tht above cut was photo- engraved from an original specimen flourished by B. C. Clarlc, prin^al of the Erie { Pa.) Buaineti College. 

are also on the lookout for suspicious per- 
sons. Yon would think the precautions I 
have already mentioned would be enough 
to protect the property, would you nott 

There is, bow. 
Police from the 
pass along tbe 
the night, and 
strangers found 
iug, when the vaults are 
amounts of specie, stocki 
pace to and fro in the roou 
vaults open. These me 
give a signal over the w: 
vals during the night, in 
the proper authorities tha 
ly attending 
ing of an ev 

It intervals during 
. careful watch of 
beat. In the moru- 
opened and large 
B, bonds, etc., are 
ns upon which the 
n are required to 
ire at stated inter- 
order to prove to 
t they are faithful- 
tbeii' business and that noth- 
lature has happened. If the 
t given an armed posse of 

' tbe 1 

I ques- 
tion. In addition to these watchmen tbero 
are other watchmen who patrol the street in 
front of the building in which tbe vaults are 
taken out, detectives accompany the mes- 
sengers to and from the offices to which the 
property is to he conveyed. I am of the 
opinion ihat it would be a difficult matter 
for an armed mob to force its way into any 
of the great deposit companies' vaults, for 
a few men within, well equipped with rifles 
and cannon, could defy an army of despe- 

the safe of a private banking-house in Bos- 
ton; and finally, but by no means least. 
Max StiboenbruQ, one of the most successful 
burglars who ever lived. After cracking 
the safes of the Lehigh Coal and Navigation 
Company and the Ocean and West Mary- 
land Bunks he escaped from this country 
and went to Belgium, where he was arrested 
and sent to prison for a term of fourteen 
years. Besides these I might mention Joe 
Chapman, Ike Marsh, Charles Bullard and 
others. Many of these men were hunted 
down by our detectives. The young 
burglars are now exercisiog their skill upon 
jewelry safes in different parts of tbe coun- 
try. They IiHve met with such success that 
the jewelers of the United States have been 
compelled to organize themselves into the 
Jewelers' Security Alliance for the purpose 
of mutual protection. The burglars were 
first taught by Max SLhoenbrun that tbe 
Lillin safe could be opened by knocking ofl" 
one of the iron hinges of the door. They 
learned their lesson well and have profited 
by it. A Lillie safe was cracked in Brooklyn 
and another in Troy a few weeks ago by 
some of these very men. 

Detectives at Parties and Weddings. 
" Are detectives employed to protect la- 
dies wearing diamonds at parties or the 
theatre f " 

reckless in his expenses, he is warned by h's 
employer, and if be still persists in hie course, 
is dropped from his position. When im- 
portant business interests are at stake, mer- 
chants or bankers cannot afford to have in 
their offices men who have the least bit of 
irregularity attached to their habits of liv- 
ing. Opera singers and aclre-'ses who in 

precious gems, employ detectives to watch 
them while at the theatre. We had a de- 
tective with Patti for months when she was 
singing iu tlie West. Sarah Bernhardt 
would not travel without one." 

European Detectives. 

"How do American compare with Euro- 
pean detectives! " 

"The systems employed on the other side 
of the Atlantic have developed a finer class 
of detectives than we have on this side. The 
Scotland Yard detectives in London have the 
reputation of being the sharpest in the 
world. John Shore, the chitf inspector, is 
probably without his equal in the detective 
service. His men are sent to all parts of the 
world in search of criminals. The Old Jury 
Detective Force is another strong corps of 
detectives. Their work is confined more 
especially to the banking district of Loudon. 
The French detective system is more like 
that employed here than the English. The 

peoted. They have long been a terror to 
the evil-doers of France, and hav« brought 
thousands of desperate ariminals to the bar 
of JQstice. 

The First Detective Agency 
in this country was founded by my father, 
Allan Piakerton, in 1848. From a humble 
beginning tbe business has been extended 
until to-day our firm has offices in N«w 
York, Philadelphia, and Chicago, and em- 
ploys about 150 detectives. The men who 
work for us are from all classes and condi- 
tions of society. It is a mistaken idea which 
many people hold when they believe that 
one detective can do all sorts and kinds of 
work equally well. The truth is that the 
man wlio does what may be termed ' society' 
work is wholly unfit to wurk among the 
criminal classes. The one must spend moat 
of bis time with the youug blonde, drinking 
champagne and smoking Eeina Victorias, 
and tho other must consort with thieves and 
consume vast quantities of beer and cheap 
cigars." — Mail and Express. 

" The Guide " ( iu paper ) is now offered 
free as a premium to every person remit- 
ting $1 for one year's subscription to the 
Journal. Or, handsomely.bound to cloth, 
for 25 oeuts additional. 

The Book-keeper. 

Up colnmn. van bU eyes 
Theu do«-n «RHln wUh [ 

Remarks by Henry C. Spencer, 
5n the Occasion op the Gilvduatinu 
Exercises of the Spencerian Busi- 

Washington. D. C, May 2*2d, 1884. 

. The 

Professor Speucer said : 

Ladies and Gentlemen: — All bave heard 
of eiK wise meo of Hindoostan, 

Who went lo see the elephant, 

The first fell against the animal's aide, 
and exclaimed : " Bleea rae ! he's very like 
a waU ! " The second, feeling of the tusk, 
said: ''He's very like a spear!" The 
third grasped the ecjuirming trunk and 
cried: "He's very like a anake ! " The 
fourth examined the knee and declared : 
" He's very like a tree ! " The fifth touched 
the far, and declared: "He's very like s 
fan ! " The sixth began to grope about 
the beast, and, seizing the swinging tail, 
exclaioied : " He's very like a rope ! " 

This institution is in the twentieth year 
of its existence, and we are holding, to- 
night, the Eighteenth Annual Graduating 
Exercises. Its growth and progress in this 
capital of the nation have been in the pres- 
ence of a cloud of witnesses. Five hundred 
and seven of our graduates are engaged in 
useful occupations in every quarter of the 
globe. Yet the fragmentary nature of the 
ideas entertained by the community con- 
cerniug the scope of training here given 
makea the business college seem to be a 
very elephant of Hindoostan. Observing a 
single feature or fact, the casual observer 
readily and glibly describes the institution. 

A young lady or gentleman writes a clear, 
elegant business hand. "Where did you 
acquire it!" "At the business college." 
" Oh, yes 1 that is a writing-school founded 
by the Spencers"; and he kindly dissemi- 
nates this information ae an established 

fact. An accouDtant is an expert, and r^- 
oordff with ease and accuracy the transac- 
tions of a vast business. "Where was he 
trained?" "At the business college." 
" Ah I that is a hook-keeping school — very 
useful fur those who intend to follow book- 
keeping for a living," A young person is a 
successful salesman or cashier, " H<>n- did 
be achieve such early success t" "Heat- 
tended the business college." "Oh, yes! 
that is a night-school for iderks." 

Siuiilar concltisions are reached and posi- 
tively anniiuuccd through the range of cor- 
respondence, political ecoDoiny, commercial 
law, phonography, elocution, physical cul- 
ture, and the rest. It is not yet generally 
understood that it is the duty and privilege 
.if this institution to educate the whole bu- 
iiiao being for life, health, prosperity, and 

Wrecks are strewn everywhere upon the 
sea of life that might have been proud and 
gallant ships sailing safely into port, if the 
chart and compass of correct business prin- 
ciples bad been on board. No possible 
financial, professional, or industrial career 
is safe without this talisman. 

The njitiou's hero who bravely and 
quietly planned campaigns that were the 
marvels of the world; who for eight years 
of the United Stales, and 

■ tha 

■ did 

to securing a third term ; who was the hon- 
ored guest of every nation iu the circuit of 
our globe, has become the innocent victim 
of WaU Street sharpers, losing all his pos- 
sessions at a single stroke. " Tbn dear old 
fellow ! " says Mr. Beecher. " Of course 
he knows nothing about business." 

Well, why not? He ought to have at- 
tended the business college. Or, when he 
was President of the United States, with a 
salary of $50,000 a year, he should have 
sent his sons for business training, and they 
could have saved him from this pitiful ship- 
wreck in the presence of the civilized 
world. This beautiful capital of this our 
young nation should be a great center of 

pend upon legislation for tliis, and need not 
wait for people to demand it. We can lead 
them up to it, and invite them to partake 
of it. Are we doing it? 

Graduates of 1884 : We have endeavored 
to give you training that will enable you to 
avoid the dangerous rocks and shoals upon 
which so many lives and fortunes have 
been wecked. May your voyages upon 
Life's great sea be made safe and happy. 
May they prove useful to your fellow-men, 
and secure to you the honors and rewards 
of substantial success. 

A Foolish Mania. 

No, I can't go with you this after- 
noon," explained a fashionably dressed lady 
as she stood on the stoop of her residence 
in Fifth Avenue, bidding farewell to the lady 
about lo leave her, " I have my regular 
lesson iu an hour, and after that I shall be 

" Your lesson?" queried the friend. 
♦' Yes, my writing-lesson, I am learning 
to write English." 

" Why, who wrote your notes to me?" 
" I did, but they were not English. The 
writing was American." And with a 
friendly good-by nod the lady turned to go. 
She was middle-aged, richly dressed, spoke 
correctly, with an affectation of English 
pronunciation, and seemed hardly the per- 
son to begin tbe study of penmanship so 
late in life. Stopping on the second step 
she lowered her parasol and, leaning for- 
ward, said: "You see there are six or 
eight ladies in our set who are heartUy 
ashamed of their round American style of 
writing, so we formed a little club to learn 
the angular English style. We meet once 
a week in the Century building and spend 
an hour like scbotd-children over our copy- 
books." And she smiled as she recalled 
the picture of half a dozen society ladies 
in white bibs industriously learning to write. 
" But this angular style is not nearly eo 

An 1 .JOHKN.VI. 

legible as the neat round-hand you used to 
write," commented her friend. 

" Well, perhaps not. But it is the thing 
— thoroughly English, you know, and one 
must learn it. It's like the opera, soine- 
tiniPS ; not always pleasant, but always 
popular. But won't you come with as — 
join our class?" The friend deeliucd, sfiid 
she bad done with the three R's (reading, 
'riting and 'rithmetic ) twenty years aeo, 
and moved down the street as the other lady 
disappeared in tbe house. 

A visit to the Century building showed a 
prettily furnished room occupied by a score 
of desks. Over half the desks were bent 
as many ladies, each with a little white 
apron or bib tucked under her chin, as 
elderly gentlemen sometimes tuck in their 
napkins at dinner. Each pretty fat^e was 
bent close to the paper, and as each fair 
hand followed the teachers, the ptuuies on 
the lowered bonnets waved in unison like a 
field of wheat waved by the wind. The 
bare arms and liands laid across the note- 
paper were whiter than the cream-colored 
texture, and the black- mustached teacher as 
he turned from the blackboard to smile ap- 
provingly at his pupils, seemed immensely 
proud of his class. All were so eager to 
learn that his task was an easy one. 

Mr. Abercombie, the teacher, was enthu- 
siastic over the success he is meeting with. 
Ladies at the Victoria hotel, two from the 
Windsor and many of those " in the swim " 
were only too glad to learn from him. The 
lessons were given principally by mail. In 
a circular he tells why every lady — every 
real lady — should write angular " English." 
He says : 

A lady's attire, speech, manner — these 
are eloquently expressive of herself; ordi- 
narily, they indicate her social status. So 
should her handwriting express beauty and 
elegance. Above all should it express a 
pervading charm of womanliness, to culti- 
vate which is the purgose of my undertak- 

way is one of those little accomplishmeDts 
that betray the lady, like the selection of 
costumes or the use of perfumes." — N. Y. 


The general plan is based upon the old 
Italian style, which to-day is recognized 
and understood as pre-eminently an " Eng- 
lish" style for ladies. Commending iuelf 
always to a refined popular taste, its intro- 
duction is meeting with gratifying success 
at the present time, when to be "very 
English," is to be wholly fashionable. 

" But why," ventured the visitor, "should 
this style be considered more desirable?" 

" I suppose because it is English, as it 
really ia. Take one hundred English ladies 
born in the same circles— that is, the upper 
circles— and ninety-nine of them will write 
alike ; this angular hand. Take one hun- 
dred American ladies and no two of them 
will write in the same way. Why, I can 
hardly say. It has always been thought 
good form in England to write this way, 
and BO all have been taught alike, and the 
round, old-fashioned handwriting has dis- 
appeared. At the present rale of progress 
it is only a question of a short time wlien 
the curved line — not the line of beauty in 
penmanship— will be relegated to the use 
of clerks and shop-girls." 

" Then you do not have many shop-girla 

" Hardly," with a quiet smile at the in- 
nocent question. " That is hardly the class 
of— of— of— er— pet sons we desire to teach. 
Angular writing is essentially a lady-like 
accomplishment, and fitted only for the bet- 
ter classes. Who cares whether a shop- 
giri writes an up-and-down or a regular 
hand?" and tbe teacher waved, with a 
magnificent flourish, the despised classes 
into obscurity. " What they want is to 
learn short-hand," 

" And your gentlemen pupils ? " 
" We have none. Business men, as a 
rule, must write plainly and the few that 
do attempt anything out of the ordinary 
learn at their own convenience and in the 
privacy of their clube. Besides the chiro- 
graphy of men betrays an . individuality 
which is not often seen in the handwriting 
of ladies and they do not care to give this 
np. After all, the writing in an ' EngUshy ' 

Chirographic Style and Systems. 

Hints uy Americu.s. 
The man from whom emanated a style of 
writing which has justly become national 
through the institutions of learning where 
the millions are educated to conduct the 
business of the world, is, indeed, a public 
benefactor. The great number of systems 
by numerous authors more or less pkiUed 
in leaching the American style of writing, 
as a secondary power of speech indispensa- 
ble to the interests of education and busi- 
ness, have each some friends and ardent 
admirers. American writing admits of be- 
ing made large or small, open or condensed, 
in its adaptation to the multiform uses of 
literature and business. The so-called sys- 
tems then, justly considered, are methods 
of teaching the American style of writing. 
One chirographic philosopher bases his sys- 
tem on first presenting certain elementary 
lines and their modifications for the struc- 
ture of letters. Another doctor of chirogra- 
phy frames gymnastic exercises -simple, 
compound, complex and intricate— as the 
basis of hia system of teaching. Time 
teaching has numerous authors; muscular 
movement originators are found every- 
where; teaching letters in the order of 
their simplicity ; teaching synthetically and 
then analytically ; teaching imitatively with- 
out observing the use of principal or gov- 
erning forms which show in what respect 
letters are alike and by what modifications 
they differ from each other, has some zeal- 
ous adherents. Others bank their systems 
mainly upon the use of either a fine, medium, 
coarse or broad pointed pen. A few of the 
doctors of chirography in this nineteenth 
century are exceedingly aggressive and un- 
charitable towards their oontemporaries, 
and claim that the fact of placing copies in 
a book and giving rules for thc-ir use is an 
unpardonable fraud, and should be inter- 
dicted by Congressional legislation. The 
systeinizers who wield the chalk on the 
blackboard as the exclusive and only true 
way of guiding the pen of learners evidently 
shoulder less responsibility as to the num- 
ber of months and years it requires lo secure 
a plain handwriting than any other class of 
chirographers. It is to be hoped that from 
the chaos of controversy some great good 
wUl yet come forth. The hand of time 
moves on, and the families oi the earth con- 
tinue to make record of their affairs, obliv- 
ious of the dissensions, bickerings and 
turmoil which of late have been character- 
istic of a few of the many learned doctors 
of chirography in this country. 

The importation of a handwriting from 
Eugland to he exclusively written by women 
of wealth and fashion was made coincident 
with the debut iu this country of Oscar 
Wilde and the sunflower craze. It is 
learned imitatively. No rules appertain to 
its acquirement or use. It is strictly an un- 
principled system of ivriting, and the possi- 
bility of its taking ten hours to decipher a 
manuscript which was written in ten min- 
utes, does notseem to detract from ita popu- 
larity in select circles where wealth and 
leisure are happily blended. Un-Amerioan 
speaking and writing should find but little 
fiivor with our loyal people. 

Responsibility for Mail. 

The risk of sending properiy directed mat- 
ter by mail is very slight; and in all cases 
where the remitter will hand the same to 
the postmaster for examination, and seal 
in his presence, wo will be responsible for 
losses; and on the statement of the post- 
master that he saw the money inclosed and 
duly mailed, we will consider it the same 
as received by us. Persons directing hooks 
and packages to he sent by mail may have 
tho same registered by simply remitting 
leu cents extra. Alt such packages are 
sent at the risk of the person who ordera. 

The New Teacher. 

A VuroRY Scored v 


Willow and the Gun with thk 

"Automatic Dingus." 

" Wo had about as onery and triflin' a 
crop of kids iu Calaveras county, thirty 
yoara ago, as you could gatlier in with a 
fine touthoomb and a brass band in four- 
teen States. For ways that was kitteo- 
soiiie they was moderately active and ab- 
normally protuberant. That was the pro- 
vailing stylo of Calaveras kids, when Mr. 
George W. Mulqueen come there and want- 
ed to engage the ecliool at the old camp, 
where I hung up in the days when the 
coimlry was new and the murmur of the 
six-shooter was in the laud. 

"George W. Muhiueen was a slender 
young party irom the effete Kasl, with con- 
scientious scruples and a hectic flush. Both 
of these was agin him for a promoter of 
school discipline and square root. He had 
a heap of ioforiuation and sorrowful eyes. 

" So fur as I was concerced, I diiiu't feel 
like swearing around George or using any 
language that would sound irrevelant in a 
Indies boodore; but as for tlie kids of the 
school, they didn't care a blamed cent. 
They just hollered and whooped like a 
passle of Sioux. 

" They didn't seem to respect literary at- 
tainments or expensive knowledge. They 
just simply seemed to respect the genius 
that eome to that country to win their 
young love with a long-haudle shovel and 
a bloodshot tone of voice. That's what 
seemed to catch the Calaveras kids in the 
early days. 

"George had weak lungs, and they kept 
to work at him till they drove liim into a 
mountain fever, and finally into a metallic 

" Along about the holidays the sun went 
down on George W. Mulqueen's life just as 
the eternal sunlight lit up the dewy eyes. 
You will pardon my manner, Nye, but it 
seemed to me just as if George had climbed 
up to the top of Mount Calvary, or where- 
ever it was, with that whole school on his 
back, and had to give up at last. 

"It seemed kind of tough to me, and I 
couldn't help blnmio* it onto the scliool 
some, for there was half-a-dozen big 
snoozers that didn't go to school to learn, 
but just to raise Ned and turn up Jack. 

" Well, they killed him anyhow, and 
that settled it. 

" The school run kind of wild till Feb- 
oowary, and then a husky young tender- 
foot, with a fist like a mule's foot in full 
bloom, made an application for the place, 
and allowed he thought he cuuld maintain 
discipline if they'd give huti a chance. 
Well, they ast him when he wanted to 
take his place as tutor, and he rekoned he 
could begin to tute about Monday morning. 

"Sunday afternoon he went up to the 
schoolhouse to look over the ground and 
to arrange a plan for an active Injin cam- 
paigD agin the hostile hoodlums of Cala- 

" Monday he sailed in about i) a. m. with 
his gripsack and begun the discharge of his 

"He brought in a bunch of mountain 
willers, and after driving a big railroad 
spike into the door-casing over the latch, 
he said the senate and house would sit with 
closed doors during the morniug session. 
Several large, white- eyed holy terrors gazed 
at him in a kind of dumb, inquiring tone of 
voice J but ho didn't say much He seemed 
considerably reserved as to the plan of the 
campaign. The new teacher then un- 
locked his alligator skin-grip and took out 
a Bible and a new self-cocking weapon 
that had an automatic dingus for throwing 
out the empty shells. It was one of the 
bull-dog varieties and had the laugh of a 
joyous child. 

" He read a short passage from the scrip- 
tures, and then pulled off his coat and hung 
it on a nail. Then he made a few extem- 
poraneous remarks, after which he salivated 
the pa^ of bis rigl^t hand, took the self* 

cocking youngster in his left, and proce 
to wear out the gads over the varioos 
tuberances of h-s pupils. 

" People passing by thought they i 
be beating carpets in the schoolhouse. 
pointed the gun at his charge witli h'n 
and manipulated the gad with liis i 
duke. One large, (tvergrown Missoi 

of the 


barrel of the 

he had looked down tli 

shooter a moment, he cl 

He seemed to realize that it would h 

violation of the rules of the school, bo he 

came back and eat down. 

" After ho wore out the foliage, Bill, he 
pulled the spike out of the door, put on his 
coat and went away. He never was seen 
there again. He didn't ask fi>r any salary, 
but just walked off quietly, and that sum- 
mer we accidentrtlly heard that lie was 
George W. Mulqueen's brother." — Bill 
Nyb iu Puck. 

Business Colleges, and Business 
vs. Ornamental Penmanship. 

( From tht Chxroffraph^T i 

Business Colleges and urnamental pen- 
manship were long ago united in holy mat- 
rimony and have sailed along on the voyage 
of life calmly, joyfully, affectionately. But 
the entire course of true love never runs 
smooth, and at last, the calm sea on which 

George t "—Gror^tf: " Why, I don't know, 
pa, unless it represents Elijah or the Saviour 
ascending to heaven. The snake must be 
Satan, pa ! "—Brown is sweating, and mum- 
bles something to himself about the devil 
being carried up to heaven. 

They go up to the college rooms, are 
ushered into the presence of Prof. Doo- 
tlicker, the principal, who is just putting 
finishing touches on a stag. He calls 
Prof. Whangdoodle, the penman, to show 
these gentlemen the specimens on the wall". 
Brown is sweating more. George is ec- 
static. Birds Hying, eagles soaring, lions 
roaring, stags jumping, horses galloping, 
snakes opitting. Brown is spitting, too, by 
this time, makes a dive for the door, and as 
he walks down the steps he feels for his 
pocket dictionary to see if he can Bud a 
definition for the word " business college," 
and wonders bow long Satan staid in 

In the meantime Prof. Doofiicker has 
finished his new stag, and Prof. Whang- 
doodle is busy sending out free specimens 
to country boys, and so the business college 
prospers without the patronage of John 
Brown the merchant. 

But right here is where the ripple begins. 
John Brown, the merchant, is a strict busi- 
ness man. He instills common sense and 
business principles into his son, George. He 
agitates the subject among bis brother 

The Influence ot Heredity. 

Losses and^Gains nv Evolution, i 

Beecheb's Sermon. 

In Plymouth Church, recently, I 

Beecher said : " All the best qualit 


nal kii 

There : 

ich tha 

ibe eagle's wit 
best elements i 

! cut wag pliatO'Cnqraved from a specimen flourish by C. S. Ckapmo 
penman at Baylies Commercial College, Dtihuqae, Iowa. 

this loving couple bas been sailing, shows a 
ripple. Yea, there are serious indications 
of a storm, and we fear tlie domestic tran- 
quility which has hitherto largely existed 
will be broken. We prophesy more or leas 
divorces and divorce suits during the next 
five or ten years, and we would advise all 
of the penmen throughout the country who 
can neither read, write, nor spell, — and 
judging from our correspondence there are 
nearly a million such —to take down their 
Pen- Art-Hall signs and establish themselves 
as divorce lawyers, probate court judges, 

But why this ripple, why this divorce t 
When man and wife are divorced, they have 
had a row ; ( this is not saying that a divorce 
always takes place after a row ) and this row 
is brought about by disagreement, and this 
dieagreemeut is caused by lack of mutual 
adaptation. A thought : 

Brown the merchant takes his son George 
to a Business College to learn Business. As 
they get to the entrance, the boy shouts, 
" Oh, pa I do you see that there eagle with a 
rattlesnake in its claws, juat soaring up- 
ward f He'saawapper, ain't he t" — Brown: 
"Hug, ahem— yes, what — what does this 
meant" — George: "Why, these are spec- 
imens of penmanship taught here at the 
business college— see, here it says 'executed 
with a pen after three weeks' practice under 
the instruction of Prof. Whangdoodle, Pen- 
man.' I will be as good in throe weeks. 
Wou't I keep your books nice, pa?" — Brown: 
"But what does that picture represent, 

merchants, bankers, and business men. 
George grows up to be a man, his love for 
the beautiful very strong, but a sense of the 
practical and the utilitarian predominating. 
After a while, George, and a few others 
of real good sense and practical ideas, es- 
tablish business colleges. These gentlemen, 
if we understand the drift of their ambition, 
propose to make the business college a 
school of business, and to wrest from the 
public mind the idea so universally prevail- 
ing (and which has some reason to prevail ), 
that a business college is an art school, a 
mere writing school, or a Barnum mena- 
gerie. How well they may succeed iu this is 
question for the future. We do not under- 

meaus hostility toward oruaiuental penuian- 
ship. As long as the youth of the land are 
endowed with aesthetic natures and go wild 
over a piece of flourishing, so long will or- 
nameutal penmanship exist. The question 
is, why should this branch of art be coupled 
with a school of business any more than 
music or painting. 

We hope to see this subject thoroughly 
disousBsd at the Rochester meeting in July. 

Tell your friends, and tell them to tell 
everybody, that if they are in any way in- 
terested in good writing the best investment 
they can make is to send $1 and get the 
Penman's Art Journal one year and a 
splendid "Guide to Self-Instruction in Prac- 
tical and Artistic Penmanship," worth $1 
as a premium, free. 

perishes in the evolu- 
the lion's strenEth nor 
It we gain most of the 
material and bodily or- 
ganisms. What is lost i« a thousand times 
compensated for in the brain and nerve sys- 
tems, lifting us incomparably above all the 
inferior animals. With knowledge comes 
responsibility and connection with the in- 
finite scheme of law ; call it by what dif- 
ferent name you will. Every law gives 
strength to lueu, but it is not an armor of 
incumbrance, or a harness of limitation and 
restraint. Law in not a bond to hold back 
from weakness, but meu are to become 
strong and large by knowledge and obe- 
dience. There is responsibility for obe- 
dience to the laws of nature, but society is 
a part of nature, and its laws are to be 
obeyed the same. In the former, in the 
field, in the church, the contest has gone on 
between individuality and the organized 
forces of human society. But a man is 
composed of many diverse forces. Men 
are born histories, unopened and unreada- 
ble. They get much from fathers and 
mothers, and they in turn from their ances- 
tors. Meu are born connected by subtle 
filaments with their forefathers in all re- 
spects. I wasn't asked^ by what door I 
would come into life. If I had had the 
choice of all creation I should have said by 
my mother. But I wasn't asked, nor were 
you, any more than you were asked what 
color of hair you would have — red, brown, 
black or auburn. You came by the laws 
of nature, and you were what you were by 
God, and by the influences of a thousand 
generations of men contributing to your 
make-up. You are what you are by the 
graces of your home, wrought in the warp 
and woof of your life. Then the inttuence 
of your age aud time. Most men know 
what is generally believed, and that is all 
they seek in the philosopliy of the times, 
and are pledged to public sentiment. No 
man bas any choice as to wheu or where he 
will be born. Iu that he has no more in- 
dependency than the leaf in the tree. If he 
is born in Germany he speaks German, not 
half as good a language as English, and he 
bas to accept Emperor, King, and Bismarck 
to boot. He can't help himself. But with 
all his limitations and responsibilities, every 
man has individual liberty and must an- 
swer for himself before God.'" 

The Point of Honor. — It is e 
refreshing to notice the fine sense of honor 
possessed by some of the rising generation 
in Virginia City. Recently, two youths, 
each aged about fourteen, met on C St., 
when the following dialogue took place : 

" I say, Bill,' you got my kite." 

"No, I ain't." 

"'Pon yer wordt" 

"'Pon me word." 

"'Pon yer soul!" 

" Hope if you may die if you havet" 

" Hope I may die if I have." 

" You ain't got my kuife?" 

" I ain't got your knife." 

The querist seemed to be still incredulous, 
but was on the point of giving it up in de- 
spair when a bright idea occurred to him, 
and he returned to the attack with, " Pon 
yer honor t " 

"Oh," said the other, "now you touch 
me honor, take your danged old knife," and 
he handed the article over. 

"Well done, Bill." said his chum, "I 
alius knowed you was a honorable chap." 

A wild Western paper ia calling loud for 
the coinage of half cents. It is a mistake 
of judgment. What we really need is more 
of the ordinary c 

Ana I tAOHiihS' (iUIOE. 

Pobliahed Monthly at »1 per Ye 


^^tc^^^-(-^^. C[y'...-Ayt.e^n..^l,4^^_^A,fz^-^ 

. I30D0 165,00 1120.00 |IT5.0 


i« Cpntennlal Piotoro of Progrew. . 


'! «'2 "• ""I •"'1 " ~P}; 

Educators Appreciating the 

Below we give place tu a letter from Mr. 
Brown, Jacksonville ( III. ) Business Col- 
lege, respecting the Journal and ils dis- 
cuBsioua regarding practical writing. In 
reply wo say, since there is a standing 
invitation to all penmen for discussion 
through the columns of the Journal, we 
trust Bro. Brown will have no hesitancy, 
and that he will ere long find the opportun- 
ity for such a discussion as hn mentious. 
III., June.'ilh. lS(i4. 

J Ame 




New York. Ji;ne 

The Convention. 

We agsiu call attention to the Sixth An- 
nual Meeting of the Business Educators 
and Penmen, at Eoche-iter N. Y,, on the 
I7ih of July next. Vigorous efforts are 
being made to render this the most numer- 
ously attended, enthusiastic and prolilahle 
convention yet held, and, as far as wo are 
able to judge, with good prospects of suc- 
re>s. W e are certain that no one engaged 
in leaching any of the commercial branches 
or in any department of penmanship, can af- 
ford to be among the absent ones. The iu- 
tiuence for good of such a coming together 
upon ill who attend is beyond estimate. 
The comparison of experiences and the ac- 
luaintances thus formed and cultivated tend 
not only to strengthen the individual teach- 
ers, but to engender a mutual respect and 
CO - operation, which, nnfortunately, in 
times past has not existed in any supera- 
bundance among rival business colleges or 

We hope to see an attendance which shall 
not only exceed that of any previous con 
vention, hut the most sanguine expectations 
of lU managers. Communications may be 
addressed to L. L. WUliame, chairman of 
the Executive Committee, Rochester, N. Y 

Please (ind $1 iucIoBed for renewal of my 
Bubnoription to the Art,, and permit 
me to congratulate you most heartily upon the 
success with which your paper is meeting. I 
enjoy the business writing discussion which 
the Art Journal ia conducting, and wish to 
express gratification at the fiiend y spirit and 
evideul fairness at all limes exhibited by it. I 
am not at all accustomed to writing for the 
press, though I have been repeatedly solicited 
to do so by the new papers which are spring- 
ing up OB every band. I find ihat the extra 
work which I am obliged to d 

with the Business E.luoators' . ...._ 

year all that I can possibly do outside of my 
regular school-work. If I should conclude to 
enter upon the discussion of the writing ques- 
tion I should much prefer lo do it through the 
columns of the AltT JOURNAL I have bad it 
in mind once or twice during ibe last year to 
suggest the matter for your cousideraliou. I 
am satisfied that the time is near at band for 
the readjustment of the penmanship question 
as a branch of practical education. By read- 
justment I not only mean the thing to be 
taught, but also the method of teaching it. Of 

me that that opinion is gaining ground very 
rapidly among teachers, both in and out of 
business colleges. 

The prospects of the Rochester meeting seem 
to be very good, so far as I am able to judge, 
and other members of the Executive Commit- 
tee think we shall have both a large and a 
profitable meeting. I have heard nothing so 
far from the Executive Committee of tb.- Pen- 
men's Division, but hope they are hestiring 
themselves to secure a large attendanc. 

While in Chicago, a few days ago, 1 suc- 
ceeded in securing reduced K. R. rates, from 
Chicago and other points to Rochester and re- 
turn, from Michigan Central and the Lake 
Shore Roads. | 

Will you please give the inclosed card r« 
spectirig Ibis mailer space in your June issue 
as your paper will be undoubtedly seen am 
read by more of our members than any olhe 
or all other papers combined f I am. 
Very truly yours, 

G. W. BrtowN. 

The card referred to above reads ai 

the 14th, 15th, and 16lh of July, and will be 
good to, and including, July S.'jth. 

All persons who expect to attend the 
Rochester Convention should immediately 
advise G. W. Brown, of Jaelisonville, 111,, 
accordingly, who will furnish certificates to 
all who are entitled to these rates. The 
railroads will sell these tickets to only those 
who are supplied with certificates from Mr. 

Howard V. Whittier, a specimen of 
whose penmanship is shown in the above 
cut, is sixteen years of age, and the son of 
a Methodist minister. He is a native of 
Maine, though several years of his boyhood 
were spent in South Carolina. Nearly five 
years ago he was placed in the State Re- 
form School near Portland, Me., where he 
has been ever since. At the time he en- 
tered that institution he could scarcely write 

He is now studying shorthand and pen- 
manship under the instruction of Mr. E. P. 
Wentworth, the assistant superintendent of 
the school. He is a subscriber to the Pen- 
man's Art Journal, and attributes much 
of his improvement to his dilligent study of 
that paper and of the Spencer Brothers' 
Practical Penmanship. 

It is gratifying to note the degree of ex- 
cellence in penmanehp which may be at- 
tained by hoys, even under what at first 
appear to he very adverse circumstances. 
The introduction, into schools, of such 
papers as the Penman's Art Journal is 
always followed by good results. The fine 
specimens of business and ornamental writ- 
ing by the " great masters .>f penmanship" 
create in the student a love for the useful 
and beautiful in pen-art; they educate the 
eye to a nicer appreciation of the minor 
points of excellence; and they stimulate 
him to do his best to reach that high de- 
gree of skill that others have attained. 
The student who has his ambition aroused 
and who energetically and faithfully follows 
the instructions given in the Journal by 
those who have made the teaching of pen- 
manship a life-work, will be sure to achieve 

Fine vs. Coarse Pens. 

The glory of a writing- master and the 
tormeui of a business wrfor is an exqui- 
sitely fine-pointed pen. This is equally 
true respecting either the use of the pen 
or the writing executed. To the eye of the 
writing-master that writing only is beauti- 
ful which has accuracy of form and delicacy 
of hair liuc and shade; while to the prac- 
tical man of affairs such writing is an 
abomination. Its extreme delicacy and 
sharp contrasts between hair-line and 
shade call for closer attention while read- 
ing than does the less accurate but stronger 
writing of his business associates. Of 
course, fu- professional writing fine pens 
are desirable ; hut for all business purposes 
a pen of medium coarseness is much the 
best, and also in the class-room n pen not 
finer than the "Penman's Favorite," or 
"Spencerian No. 1," is preferable to " Gil- 
lott's 30.3 " Not only are pens of medium 
much easier to write with, but 
durable, and hence more economical. 


It is desirable and quite necessary that 
we at Bomo lime secure a little relaxation 
from our overburdening duties, and that we 
may do so, in July we shall make the 
Journal eight pages. In view of the fact 
that the Journal has been increased from 
eight to sixteen pages without a change of 
price, we trust its readers will pardon its 
reduced size for a single month. The Au- 
gust number will be full size and up to the 
highest standard. 



The Michigan Central Railroad proposes to 
Bell round-trip lickelB to all who attend the 
BuBiuesB Educators' AaBociation, from Chicago 
to Kocbester for $-21.50. Tickel. will be sold 
on the 14lb, 151h, and llilh of July, and will 
be good to. and including, July 25lh. 

The Lake Shore and Michigan Southern 
Railroad will sell round-trip tickets from 
Chicago and other poiute on Ibeir road to Buf- 
falo at one and one-lhird fares. Tickets on 
this line, il will ihu. be Been, may be purchsBed 

Toledo. Cleveland, or any other station, as 

dl a. Chicago. The.e lickel. will b. sold on 

The King Club 

For the past month numbers twenty 
and was sent by S. Van Orden, PitiBhi 
Pa. The Queen Club numbers twmiy- 
it was sent from Duff's Mercantile Col 
Pittsburgh, Pa., by W. J. White, 
third club in size numbers /ourtecn, ai 
also from Piilsburgh, Pa; it was sen 
W. D. Rowan. Evidently a healthy i 
enoe prevails in Pittsburgh respecting , 
penmanship. Thanks to Bro. Duff. 

The Double Penholder, 
the office of the Journal, at 
dozen, can bo used oblique or 
the writer may prefer. 


j No More Specimen-copies Free. 

For years after its publication it was our 
custom to mail a sample-copy of the Jour- 
nal free to all applicants, and while we 
might willingly continue l.i do so to all 
who apply with the inlenlion of auhaoiib- 
ing, it is quite impossible that we should do 
so to the thousands who apply simply to 
gratify at our expense their curiosity or de- 
sire to get a thing of value for noihiug. 

Since the Journal has become so widely 
known and popular, postal-card requests 
for specimen-copies have so multiplied that 
to comply with them all would be little 
short of ruinous to any publisher. And, 
besides, each number of the Journal is 
worth its price, and we know of no reason 
why persons wishing one for any purpose 
should not remit ten cents, which certainly 
is a trifie to them, but no small sum when 
aggregated as it has been at this oflice. 

Remember, you cau gel the Journal 
no year, and a 75-ceut hook free, lor $1 ; 
r a $1 book and the Journal for *l.25. 
)o your hionda a favor by leUlug theiu. 

If you want a good and durable pen of 
medium fineness, send thirty cents for one- 
fourth gross of " Ames's Penman's Favor- 
ite," No. 1. 

How to Remit Money. 

The best aud safest way is by Post-olEoe 
Order, or a bank draft, on New York ; next, 
by registered letter. For fractional parta of 
a dollar, send postage-stamps. Do not send 
personal checks, especially for small sums, 
nor Canadian pustage-atampa. 

[ Under tliia head answers will be given to 
all questione— the repliea to which will bu ol 
value or general interest to readers. Questions 
which are personal, or to which answers would 
be without gvneral interest, will receive no at- 
Tliis will explain to many who pro- 

pound questions why i 

Inquiry is frequently made if we will 
exchaoge buolta and premiumB which have 
been Bent according to request. The ox- 
chauge we should be willing tu make, but 
should persona making aiich requests retiect 
for a monient, they would perceive that any 
book or print having been twice through 
the mail could, at best, be disposed of by 
08 only as a damaged or second-hand pub- 
lication. Consequently we must positively 
decline to consider any proposition for such 

J. A. D., Ni., Va — I am wishing to 
purchase some book that will aid me in all 
kinds of penmanship, aud am unable to 
decide what to get. Would you please 
explain about your Compendium f I Bee 
that you ask $5, while several others are 
ad7erlised for $1. What is the difference 
between them f 

Atts.—Tbe difference is: First, in the 
size aud extent of the works. Our Com- 
pendium consists of seventy 11x14 inch 
plates, handsomely and substantially bound, 
and treiilB of plain writing, flourishing, let- 
tering, desiguiug, and engrossing, giving 
namerous examples for each. It weighs 
seventy six ounces, and requires thirty-eight 
cents postage. The $1 Compendiums con 
Biat of less than twenty slips aud a small 
book nf instruction, chiefly of plain writing, 
about :Jx9 inches in size, all inclosed in an 
envelope, and weigh about three ounces, 
requiriug two cents postage. Were the 
price of our Compendium the same in pro- 
portion to its size and extent as are the $1 
Compendiums, it would be about $30 in- 
stead I'f $5; and as for comparison, the 
difference in plan and extent scarcely admits 

W. H. G., Danville, Ind — Will you 
please answer, through the Journal, the 
following question ? What reason have we 
for sUutiijg our writing upon an angle of 

We are not informed that there is any 
ppecifie reason, beyond the fact that that 
slant has been found to be the beet, consid- 
ering its ease and the appearance of writinff 
having that slant. It will be found, by 
personal experiment, that a forward slant 
is easier and more in accord with the natu- 
ral uioti.-n of the hand than either the up- 
light or back slant, which fact undoubtedly 
led to its first adnptiim ; and by the com- 
mon assent oi authors and instrufitors in 
America at least, 52 degrees has come to 
be the recognized standard of slant. Our 
correspondent says that it is claimed that 
were any other slant, even a perpendicular, 
uniformly taught and practiced, it would be 
equally practical. We think not. First, 
from our own observation ; and, secondly, 
any usage adopted through common expe- 
rience is likely to be better and safer than 
any individual whim. AH the civilized 
world unite in according the preference to 
the forward slant for writing. " Vox pop- 
uii, vox Dei." Can any of our authors or 
great lights in ohirograpiiic science illu- 
minate 1 

J. H. W., MorriBville, N. Y., asks for 
advice through the Jouknal respecting 
the best style of frame, etc., etc., for the 
Family Record, Marriage Certificate, aud 
other Journal preaiimns. As this may 
interest many others, wo will endeavor to 
comply, although with little hope of being 
able to offer advice that will apply to all 
cases. Ou general principles we always 
select a gilt, oak, or some light ctdored 
frame for pictQres having a dark ground, 
like an oil painting, a dark steel engraving, 
etc., aud the reverse fur light grounds, like 

' which black or 
ilt inside, will do 
gilt frame may be used, with 
smne color like blue or purple velvet in- 
sid.>, with good effect. Whether a deep or 
ilat frame, ia a mere matter of taste. Pen- 
piotureB or prints should be so framed as to 
show a liberal margin, the width of which 
will, of course, vary according to size of 
picture. For pictures 12 x 15, 1 i to 2 
inches; 18x22, 2 to 3 inches; larger pic- 
tures, somewhat wider. Where mats are 
used, sharp contrasts should be avoided ; 
fur dark grounds, mats of gray or gilt are 
in taste ; for pfen-work or light grounds, a 
Bhade of white slightly at variance with 
that of the picture will give the best effect, 
Mats having sharp contrasts diminiBh the 
apparent size, and hence the effect, of the 
picture. Frames hung with top pitching a 
little forward have the best effect, as the 
pitch tends to bring the picture more to a 
right angle with the vision. The degree 
of slant should vary according to height at 
which th« frame is hung, and if not above 
the average bight of the eye, no slant 
should be given. 

Books and Periodicals. 

Shaw's -'New His'ory of English and 
American Literature." Revised and greatly 
improved edition With the American 
literature entirely re -written, re-arranged 
and simplified, and the English literature 
revised and brought down to date; by 
Truman J. Backus, LL.D , president of 
Packer Collegiate Institute, Brooklyn, 
N. Y. Sheldon & Co., 8 Murray Street, 
New York, publishers. This is a most 
excellent work, and should, at least, be 
examiued by every teacher of English and 
American literature. One volume, I2mo, 
480 pages, half leather binding. Introduc- 
tory price, $1.25; exchange price, 75 cents 
A sample copy will be sent {where it is 
desired for exauiiuatiou with a view to in- 
truducti u ) on receipt of 50 cents, if or- 
dered auy time boforo October Ist, 1884 

" Hill's Science of Khetoric," 207 12 mo. 
pages, by Sheldon & Co., 8 Murray Street, 
New York. This is a comprehensive and 
philosophical text-bo-k. It is clear and 
simple in style; apt in its illustrations, 
and pre-eminently modern. Well adapted 
for awakening an interest in the learner. 
Introductory price, $1 ; exchange price, 60 

'■The Catholic Seiies of Readers," pre- 
pared by the Right Rev. Richard Gilmour, 
D.D , Bishop of Cleveland, published by 
Benziger Bros., New York, Cincinnati, and 
St. Louis, are models of typography. The 
illustrations are excellent in every respect. 
An attractive feature of the books is the 
interspersing of numerous sections of script, 
the plates for which were prepared at the 
oflice of the Journal. 

"Right and Wrong Contrasted," by 
Thomas E. Hill, author of "Hill's Man- 
ual." "Hill's Album of Biography and 
Art," etc. This is a little pamphlet of 
sixty-eight bi-autifully illustrated pages, 
which should be read by every boy and 
girl in the land Its lessons of irnthful- 
ness, lionesty, industry, deportment and 
general morality are admirable ; and, from 
the telling manner in which they are pre- 
sented, both in words and illustrations, are 
well calculated to interest and instruct the 
reader. We have never examined another 
book of this character and cheapness that 
eives us 60 much satisfaction, and which 
wo can so heartily commend as this one. 
We certainly advise every reader of the 
Journal to send for a copy ; mailed, iu 
paper covers, for 25 cents; in cloth, 75 
cents; by Hill Standard Book Company, 
103 State Street, Chicago, 111. 

Exchange Items 

The Penman and Artist, No. 1, Vol. I., 

bran new, promised bi-monthly by Mr. and i 

Mre. C. N. Crandlo, BushoeU, 111., 8 pages | 

for $1.00 a year. " The first bom " is vig- 
orous and promising, but we suspect that 
Brother an.l Sister Crandle will booh real- 
ize more forcibly than ever before that oven 
a bi month is not a very extended period 
of time. We certainty wish Ibis new born 
a vigorous youth aud prosperous old age. 

The School Supplement for Juno, by 
Eaton & Gibson, Toronto, Canada, is fully 
up to the high standard of former numbers, 
which is as high as the best of our ex- 
changes, both as regards the matter it con- 
tains and its elegant typography. It is an 
eight-page monthly for SI per year. 

The Chirographer for May is spicy and 
interesting. Truly Brother Isaacs's bump 
of editorialativcnesg appears to have been 
Wonderfully developed, since he seems, as it 
were, to have bounded at once into editorial 
fame and success, Iu the vigor of his youth- 
ful visions, it is, perhaps, U'lt a matter lor 
surprise that lie should imagine the Jour- 
nal to be in the decline of age, and iu his 
fancy-dreams see its mantle falling upon 
the Chirographer. It is true that there is 
a venerableness about the Journal that 
attaches to none of ita predecessors or con- 
temporaries, but there is also a correspond- 
ing dignity and solidity of success, and we 
trust that for prudential reasons Brother 
Isaacs will not so far dote on the dotage of 
the Journal as to relax auy personal effort 
on his part t.i boom the Chirographer. 

The Western Penman is now published 
by Messrs. Worthington & Palmer, at 


, III , for 


June issue is a quarto of 10 pages. It is 
well edited, and contains much matter of 
general interest to penmen. The mechan- 
ical execution is not such as to redound 
specially to the glory of its printer, but 
tliis its level-headed editor will doubtless 
see corrected in the future. It is a good 
investment at 60 cents to any one inter- 
ested in penmanship. 

The atirographic Quarterly, by H. W. 
Kibbe, Utica, N. Y., for 25 cents per year, 
is one of the mobt tasty and solid of the 
penmen's papers, it is certainly a credit 
to its publisher aud the profession. To 
any one in any manner interested in pen- 
manship, there is no way for investing the 
small sum of 25 cents to better advautage 

than for Mr Kihbc 

1 pa. I 

Enormous Saving. 

Uuder the above heading D. 1'. Lindsley, 
editor of the the lakigraphcr, and the au- 
thor of "Takigraphy," Plainfield, N J., 
goes into a startling calculation respecting 
tlie saving that might be made by the writ- 
ers of This country if they would use Taki- 
graphy in place of long-hand. He says: 

The labor of writing exceeds in the ag- 
gregate, for all classes, that of any other 
kind of mechanical work ; for three-fourths, 
at least, of oar entire population write, while 
only a small fraction of them perform any 
other one kind of labor. Hence, if we re- 
duce the labor of writing materially, we do 
more to ailvance our civilization than any 
other mechanical invention can do. Besides, 
the pen, dealing in the commers of thaut 
and moral forces, touches our civilization 
more closely than auy other instrument. 

Let us estimate tbe labor involved in 
long-hand writing: 

A rapid i)enman can write thirty words 
in a minute. To do this he must draw his 
pen thru the space of a rod; and iu five 
hours and twenty minils his pen travels a 

We make, on an average, sixteen strokes 
or turns I'f the pen in writing each word. 
Writing thirty words a miuit, we must 
make 460 strokes to each minit; iu au 
hnur. 28,000; in a day of only five hours 
1 1 4,000, and in a year of 300 such days, 43, 
200,000. The man, therefore, who made 
1,000,000 strokes with his pen iu oue month 
was not at all remarkable. Many men — 
newspaper writers, for instance— make 4,- 
000,000. Here we bav, in the aggregate, 
300 miles of ink lines to be traced on paper 
by a single writer iu a year. 

What, then, may we estimate the labor of 
writing by our entire people,— the editors 
of our 11,000 periodicals— aud the authors 
of the thousands of volumes that come from 
ot.r teeming presses f — the hundreds of 

thousands of our busines and professional 
men, with their army of clerks and awiat- 
antst 1,000,000 of these make 300,000,000 
of miles of inky lines in a year, and strokes 
innumerable.— 300.000,000 Miles of Pen 

In Takigrafy we save five sixths to nine 
tenths of this labor both in the number of 
Btrokes emplojd and in the distana traversl 
by the pen— that is to say we save 38,880,- 
000 strokes of the pen in one man's work ; 
and 270 miles of pen travel; and in the 
writing of 1 ,000,000 of people 38 millions of 
millions of strokes, and 270 millions of Jiiiles 
of ink lines. All this saved in one year, 
Hud by one million of writers ! What, then, 
i-hal we say of the labor of a century — the 
many millions tbat now write, and the iin- 
ciiunted millions that shall bet And what 
hinders us from effecting this saving! Noth- 
ing ! Absolutely nothing ! 

We do not claim perfection for Taki- 
grafy, but it is certain that it can be easily 
adapted to every use now made of long-hand 
writing. Is it practicable for all clases of 
people. If taut in our ecools by competent 
teachers, it wil take the place of long-hand 
iu one generation ; and the 20th cpnlury of 
our Era wil dawn upon a world whose in- 
creast means for the exchange nf thaut wil 
be the one great wonder— all other triumfe 
ranking far below it. 

And School Items. 

I^. G. Evans, who has fur soniK lime imst 
been connected wiih the Utica ( N. Y.) Busi- 
uesB College, hae lately purcliaaed, and will, 
nil July Ist, HBsume. the roanugi'ment of the 
Qufeii City Commercial College, Hurlingion. 

H. W. Bearce, who for sever. 1 yt-ars past 
has been a special teacher of peionunship, was 
among the recent graduates of ihf Lung Ib- 
laiid Colle-e Hospital, Brooklyn, N. Y. We 
wiab him nuccess in hie new pri f'^tiion. 

The Spencerian Bueiness Collt-gf-, Washing- 
Ion. D. C, held ite Eighteenth Aui.ual Gradu- 
ating Exerciees on May 23d. Tbe graduates 
numbered eixty-iwo. The iiiviuii..u9 were 
masterpieces of design and ill*- enj^ravm-'s 
an — for oue of which Mr. Spencci- has our 

We return our thanks to Pr.-f. Geo. SoulC, 
of Soulfe's Commercial College ami Litfrary 
luBlimie, New Orleans, La., for his eompli- 
meutary invitation to be present at the Twenty- 
Eighth Anniversary of that institution, which 
occurs on June 28th, aud our rfgiets fur not 
being able to be present. 

[ Persons sending specimens for notice in 
Ibis column ehould see tbat the pnckageB con- 
taining th« same are postage paid in full at 
Utter rates. A large proporliou of lliese pack- 
ages come short paid, for sums ranging from 
three cents upward, which, of coinee, we are 
obliged to pay. This is scarcely a desirable 

J. M. Davis, Fairfax, Mo , a letter and cards. 
He says : " I have now read the Journal for 
two years, aud find it the greatest aid of auy 
educational paper I have ever taken." 

S. M. Gibson, Greensboro, Ala., a letter and 
a set of very gracefully executed eapitale. 

L, M. Loomie, Williamatowu, Ivy., a letter 
and copy-slips. He says; "My style ia due 
to the Journal and the ' Standard Practical." " 

D. H. Farley, principal of cummereial de- 
partment of the Slate Female Normal College, 
Trenton. N. J., a letter. 

A. W. Dakin, Tully. N. V., a letter am 
carda. Mr. Dukin's specimens deserve mon 
than « eimpie mention. Hia geuei-al writing ii 
a model of ease aud grace, while his cards an 
rarely excelled. 

, CoIIeg*. . 

Mies Bertha Warr«o, Santa Clara, Cal. 

J. E. GiistUB, Randolph, Ky., a letter, 
eaye: "I tliink the Journal is the bright 
alar iq the professioD." 

C. P. nooHen, Central Teni 
letter, io which be gaya: ' 
nhiL-h I have derived from the Journal and 
'Guide' ifl worth more than ten times their 

C. H. Peiroe, Peirce'a Bueineaa College, 
Ki-okuk, Iowa, a apecimea aatograph. " Im- 

W. C. Walton, Portemoiith, N. H., a letter 
and peD-ekelch of lighthouse in that harbor. 

H. C. ClKrk, Erie ( Pa.) Commercial Col- 
lege, a letter. 

M. C. Gilbert, of the Oswego ( N. Y.) Writ- 
ing and Book-keeping Academy, a photograph 
of a B6t of reeol tiona lalely engroaeed in cred- 
itable style for the fire department of that city. 

E. L. Burnett, Elmira, N. Y., photographfl 
of several creditable apecimena of pen-work, 
including a Bet of reaolutiona engroBsed for a 
Manouic lodge. 

C. B. McClure, MuoBonTille, N. H., 
and cardB. 

J. A. Hope, Pocahontas. Me., 
birds, aleo several card epecimens. 

W. P. Spensley, Dubuque, Iowa, a letter. 

G. W. Allison, Newark, Ohio, a letter and 

J. H. W. York, Woodstock ( Ont.) Business 
College, a letter and set of capitals. 

C. H. Ubrig, Cambridgeport, MaBS., a letter. 

F. W. H. Wieaehahn. St. Louia, Mo., as 
elegantly written letter. 

Arthur D. Skeele, Ann Arbor, Mich., a letter, 
io which he says : " I consider the Journal 
superior to any olher penmaii'B paper. I have 
taught penmanship in the public schools for 
the past three years, and words cannot express 
my appreciation of the merits of the J( 

Autograph Exchangers. 

Notice.— After August this column i 
bo discontioued. 

iii»blp,"bj' tbe Spt-DC 

iuggestiuD la a 
nug-Qam«d per- 


) fiourished 

Id accordance with a 
previous nuinbtr, tbe folio' 
Boua have signified thei 
desire to exchange autographs, upon the 
Peircerian plan, as set forth in the August 
number of the Journal : 

L. H Shaver, Care Hprion, Vi 

, Pitt^iirgh. 

C. W. Robbins, of the Sedalia (Mo.) Busi- 
neBs College, a letter and two flourished bird 

F. Powell, Washington, Kas., a letter. 

D. M. Wingate, Scranton, Pa., a letter. 
J. J. Graham, Queensville, Ont., a letter. 
W. S. Beardsley, special teacher of writing 

in the publio schools, Council Bluffs, Iowa, a 

R. H. Maring, Land, lad., a letter. Mr. 
Maring Las lately taken, as a partner of his 
joys and sorrows, Miss Lona Shumeman. May 
the partnership be blessed with much jiy and 

A. N. Palmer, Lakeside Business College, 
Chicago, m., a letter. 

S. C. Maloi 


Md., a photo- 
engraved card announcing tbe execution ol 
all kinds of arlistie pen-work. The card is a 
very creditable specimen of pen-work. 

An Bloquent Appeal. 

The National View of June 7th, in an 
editorial says : 

Hon. H. A^ Spencer's speech, at Indian- 
apolis, nominaling David Davis for the 
Presidency, was the most .eloquent of any 
presenting the name of a standard-bearer 

Delegates offered to cast their votes for 
Mr. Davis if Mr. Spencer would assure 
them that a nomination would be accepted 
by that lUui^trious statesman. Could any 
promise have been given by Mr. Spencer or 
any other responsible leader in the National 
party that Judge David Davis would ac- 
cept a nomination for the Presidency, he 
would have undoubtedly received the nomi- 
nation of the National Convention instead 
of General B. F. Butler. 

While we congratulate Bro. Spencer on 
his eloquence, we would also console him 
with the assurance that, whether Judge 
11 the same, and mat- 
^ ^ "Plumed Knight of 

the East," and the dashing soldier of the 
West, are leaden, to victory in November 

Davie or Buth 
ters little sin 

S«npk copiM of tbe Johbmal, 10 cents. 

Several parties have complained that 
many of the autographs received in ex- 
change have not been in compliance with 
the programme; i. e., they have not been 
upon the stipulated size and quality of 
paper, or were sent folded, so that they 
were useless for binding. Such things 
should not be. 

PitEsiDKNT's Office, 
Business Educators' Association 

3G East Fourteenth Street, 

New York, June 10th, 1884. 
Principals and Teochers of Business Col- 
leges, Penmen, and Others who are 
Interested in Business Education, 
Greeting : 
The Sixth Annual Meeting of the above- 
named organization will conveLe in the city 
on the 17th of July 

}f Rochei 

tween the otficers and tbe fraternity at large 
shows fully the increasing interest mani- 
fested in the purposes of the Association, 
and leads to the belief that the coming 
meeting will bo the largest it has yet held, 
and it is reasonable to infer that it will bo 
the most interesting. There will be many 
new faces to greet us, a broader range of 
topics to canvass than on any former occa- 
sion, and more lime in which to do it— the 
Convention sitting tUl the 23d inst. Spe- 
cial arrangemeufs have been made for 
board, by Mr. L. L. Williams, of Roches- 
ter, Chairman of the Executive Committee, 
and reduced railroad fares have been se- 
cured from the West— the nature of which 
rtained by addressing Mr. G. W. 

f J-ckb.. 

ilie, 111. Til. 

ixom tbe £«at and South c&n benefit b; tbe 

rates offered by all the leading 

The holding of the Convention through 
a part of two weeks is agreeable to resolu- 
tion passed at the last annual meeting, and 
is for the purpose of giving the much- 
needed recess of Saturday and Sunday. 
Heretofore it has been found necessary to 
crowd a great doal of work into three or 
four days' session, making the sittings long 
and tiresome. This objectionable feature 
of our meetings will no longer prevail. Tbe 
holiday will afford ample time for a visit to 
Niagara Falls, or to such other point as in- 
clination may dictate. 
Teachers of the business branches need 
lees than instructors in the 
matics, and tbe classics, and 
prominent men in our profession heartily 
indorse the Business Educators' Associa- 
tion, the only organization which is con- 
ducted by teachers of the business branches. 
They believe that it fully repays for the 
effort made to attend the annual conven- 
tions, and assume that the meetings should 
have sufficient drawing-power to enlist all 
thoughtful teachers of similar subjects. 
This organization has been a potent influ- 
ence in the advancement of our specialty, 
and its power and influence may be in- 
creased greatly to the interest of business 
schools and teachers by enlarging its mem- 
bership and by increasing the att<indance at 

To this end, instructors in any of the 
branches of business education are cordially 
welcomed to seats in its councils, and to the 
benefits of membership in its body. 
Very respeotfally, 

C. E. Cady, President. 

Revelations of a Prool-reader. 

The Copt Furnished bv Senators, 
Representatives, AND Presidents. 
One of tbe chief proof-readers of the 

ivho has Io. 

tbe copy of the great men of the past de- 
cade and more, gives me the following in- 
teresting facts about their handwriting and 
the publication of their speeches: "Most 

very particu- 

lar as to how their speeches are printed in 
the Congressional Record. Tbey must have 
a proof sent them, and they often change 
words and ideas so that the matter which 
appears in tbe Record is entirely different 
from the words they uttered on the floors of 
Congress. Most of the long speeches, how- 
ever, are written out before they are deliv- 
ered, and this copy is handed over for 
publication. Some men, like Bayard and 
Edmunds, make their speeches off-band and 
don't trouble themselves about them after 
they are once delivered. I don't think 
Conkling ever wrote a speech. At least we 
handwriting. Senator 
e of his speeches very 

tated his speeches to his private secretary, 
but his copy was not good. It was interlined 
and reinterlined. Sherman is very particu- 
lar about his expression, and ant about tbe 
comfort of the printer. Senator Anthony 
furnishes much better copy, and ha^ his 
pages always of the same size. 

"Senator Ha wley trusts a good deal to 
the printer. He said once, 'The printer is 
bound to have his own way about the 
punctuation, and there is no use in Htihiiug 
agaiust him.' Senator Lamar is of a differ- 
ent mak«. He is very painstaking with his 
speeches before tbey go into print, When 
he has a speech to be published he briogs a 
secretary to the Governmeut Priuiiug Of- 
fice, and the two stay there correciing and 
recorrectiug till they get the speech to 

" When Senator Jones, of Nevada, de- 
livered his big silver speech," the proof- 
reader laughed as he spoke, " he brought 
his secretary to tbe office with hitn. It was 
a long ppeech and it took, I think, 150 pages 
o( the Congressional Record. During the 
reading the secretary ventured to advise 
some change, when Jones turned to him 
and said: 'Who in the d—1 is making this 
speech; you or mef Jones, they say, 
turned his whole salary over to his private 
secretary. He did not do it to have him 
write his speeches, I know." 

" How about tbe members of the House t " 
"Sam Cox prepares poorer copy than 
any other Congressman. He writes on 
pieces of paper torn from envelopes, news- 
paper wrappers and scraps of all shapes and 
sizes. He pins these scraps together and 
thus sends them in to the printer. His hand 
is bard to read, and be corrects, interwrites, 
and recorrects, so that his proof takes more 
time than the first manuscript. 

"Sam Randall used to i 
graphs very frequently wh 
chair. Tom Reed never bothers the print- 
ers, hut the average Congressman makes 
trouble. The worst men are those who don't 
know what they want to say lill they <iee it 
in print, and some of them furnish terrible 
copy. I remember a roai 
from New York, who wai 
think. His writing was \ 
ley's. Tbe copy looked ; 
been written with a rake, 
cipher a dozen words in it, and one of the 
hoys took it to Brooks to ask its translation. 
Brooks said, 'I should think you could 
make it out by tbe sense.' The printer re- 
plied : ' We don't see a darned bit of sense 

named Brooks, 
here in 18G8, I 
.rse tlmn Gree- 
though it had 

igressmen are very 
'applause' 80 often 
well buy rubber stamps 


Blaine prepared so 
carefully, and they 
I remember, he brought the manuscripl 
the office, and, finding that the foreman ■ 
not present, be cut it into ' 'takes" himself 
distributed it among the printers. On 
foreman coming in he said : 'I know w 
I am about; I am an old i)rint6i 



on very large sheets of prii 
of the same size and neatly cut. He has 
used the same paper ever since be came to 
Congress, and his writing is not bad. Sen- 
ator Call also uses printing-paper, but his 
hand is terrible to read. He writes two or 
three letters of a word ami ends in a scrawl 
so that half of his words look alike, and 
none of them are legible. Senator Beck gives 
the printers a good deal of trouble, but he 
is a favorite because his matter is largely 
made up of statistics and consequently 'fat.' 

"Senator Logan writes a decent hand, but 
it is said his wife has a good deal to do 
with his speeches. She often came in times 
past to look over the proofs. She knew as 
well as he what a good speech should be, 
and would correct to suit herself. 

"£}enatar ShenuaD almoit always die- 

"Some of tbe 
particular. Som< 
*hat they might . 
with the word ma 
One member of the Forty-fifth Congress 
made only one speech during a session, and 
that speech was a remark of two lines. He 
came to the Government Printing office in 
a carriage with a secretary to correct it, 
and at the close looked proudly amund and 
said: "Well, I guess that will do, won't 

"What kind of copy do the Presidents 

"Much of the manuscript that comes 
from the White Hoqse is written by secre- 
taries. Arthur writes his messages on paper 
fourteen by seventeen inches, large foolscap, 
like some they use in the State Depart- 
ment. It is very plainly written. I set up 
some of Andy Johnson's messages. They 
were written plain and clear, hut I think he 
dictated them. Hayes's hand was rather 
pinched and cramped, Garfield's was good, 
and, as to Grant, he usually wrote most of 
his matter on manifold, and did not call to 
correct it after he had it onco prepared." 

The Writing-Ruler has become a stand- 
ard article with those who profess to have a 
Buitalile outfit for practical writing. It is 
to the writer what the chart and compass is 
to the mariner. The Writing-Ruler is a re 
liable penmanship chart and compass, sent 
by the Joobnai- on receipt of 30 cento. 






The above titU aU <md ipeciment of writing are from a set of copUi lately gotten up at tk4 oQice of the " Journal," for the Argoty Publishing Company^ 

81 Warren Street, New York. TAii firm hat publitked a large edition, wkiek is now ready for the public. The price of the loori: w ^1, and 

we consider it superior to any compendium, of penmanship on the market. It w better arranged, more elaborate, arid has the 

original and valuahte feature of containing the instructions to learners upon each copy - slip ; these capita being 

gra/Ud and numbered form a perfect system for self-inatniotion. 

How Fortune Comes. 

Years will fifien elapse before a doctor 
gets any return Tor Ihe money which his 
friends inveetrd m obtainiog his dipl 
On the other hand, a single fortunate 
may bring pat'eals by the ecore. About 
twenty yearn ago a young doctor who had 
been esrablifbfd three years in Lcmdoi' 
without making hd iucoiiie, lost heart, aD< 
determined to emigrate to Australia. Hf 
sold his small lionse and furniture, paid hif 
passage money, and a week before his ship 
was to sail, went into the country to say 
good-by to his parents. Having tu cbang'- 
trains at a junction, he was waiting on the 
platform, when a groom in a smart livery 
galloped up to tlie stalion, ard. ralliiig ex- 
citedly to a porier, handed him a tele- 
graphic message f'T trausmission. From 
£ome remarks excliangrd between the two 
men, the young doctor understoori that the 

Duke of , a member of the Cabinet, bad 

fallen dHngerously ill, and that an ominent 
pbysician in London was being telegraphed 
for. The groom added that he had ridden 
to the houses of three local doctors, who 
had all been abaenl, and that " her Grace 
was in a terrible way." The young doctor 
saw his opportunity, and at ouce seized it. 
" I am a uiedical man," he said to the groom, 
"and I will go to the hall 


lother d^ 


groom was evidently attached to his master, 
for he said: "Jump on wj horse, sir, and 
ride straight down the road for about four 
miles; you can't miss the hall; any one will 
tell you where it is." The doctor went, was 
gratefully received by ihe Duchess, and 
happened to be just in tiuie to ttop a 
mietake in trestmeni of tbo patient, which 
mieht have proved fatal if continued fi>r a 
few hours longer. The duke was s'iffertug 
from typhoid fever; and when the eminent 
physician arrived 'rom town he decl.tred 
that the young doctor's maniigement of the 
case had peen perfect. Thp result of this 
was that the latter was requested to remain 
at the hall to take charge of the patit>nt, 
and his name figured on the bulletins which 
were issued during the next fortnight, and 
were printed in all the daily newspaj-era 
of the kingdom. Such an advertisement is 
always the making of a medical man, espec- 
ially when bis patient recovers, as the Duke 
did. Our penniless friend received a fee of 
five hundred guineas; took a house at 
West End, and from that time to this 
been at the head of one of the largest y 
tices iu London. — Chambers's Journal. 

The longest bridge now in actual use is 
the one that crosses the St. Lawrence River 
at Montreal — a tubular structure resting on 
tuassive stone piers. One opening measures 
iiao feet, and twenty-four others 240 feet 
each. 1(8 total length is 9,437 feet, of wtiich 
the tabular part measures 7,000 feet. The 
grandest suspension bridge in the world is 
the one ^cnss the East River between New 
York and Brooklyn, at the cost of $20,000,- 
(100. his 5,980 feet iu length. Anothersus- 
pension bridge, which will eventually meas- 
ure more than the one just named, is the 
new bridge across the Forth at Queensbury, 
Scotland, to be completed in 1885. The 
Forth is rather more than a mile wide at 
this point, and the necessary approaches 
will make the entire structure about one 
and one-third mile long. A large part of it 
will rest on piers, but it will contain two 
suspension spans, one of which will be the 
same length as the main span of the New 
York and Brooklyn Bridge. There is a 
bridge over the Ohio, at LouisviUe, 5 :j]0 
f. ct in length. There are the Parkersburg 
Bridge, West Virginia, 7,045 (eet; the St 
Charles Bridge over the Missouri, fJ,53(i 
feet; bridge over the Delaware, 4,920 feet, 
bridge over the Rhine at Mayence 3,980; 
bridge over the river Tongabudha, near 
Bombay, India, 3,730 feet; bridge across 
the Missouri, at Omaha, 2,800 feet; bridge 
over the Missiesippi at Quinoy, 3,790 feet, 
and the railway suspeufioo bridge, at Niag- 
ara, 2,;220 ft^t.—Mail and Express. I 

a, Th,lo-,ngrand from «pj, citMd Ij, iV./. H. W. I'ticki^,j,r. .tvtral ,i„„./„r llu " Journal" „„rf , 
.«<( ,,M bt n.» 10 a largi majority of our readers, we reprinl it a, a .pUnJid examph of JlouriehLg. 
Prof. FlicHtigtr u note coniiteliru; a mritiitg academy at PkUadtlphia, Pa. 

Five Cents A Day. 
The cumulative power of mouey is a fact 
very generally appreciated. There are few 
meu living at the age of aevenly-livo, hang- 
ing on to existence by some slender employ- 
ment, or pensioners, it may be, on the 
bounty of kindred or friends, but might, by 
exercising the smallest particle of thrift, 
rigidly adhered to in the past, have set 
aside a respectable sum which would ma- 
terially help them to maintain their inde- 
peudence iu their old age. Let us take the 
small sum of five cents, which «e daily pay 
to have our boots blackened, to ride in a 
oar the distance we are able to walk, or to 
procure a bad cigar we are better without. 


its value 

I the 


by blacking his o\i 
car- fare, or going w 

pose a boy of fifteen, 
boots, or saving his 
itiut his cherished cig- 
ut five cents a d^y; in one 
$18 a."!, which being banked 
at the rate of five per cent, 
annum, compounded bi-yearly. On 
this basis, when our thrifty youth reaches 
the age of eixty-five, having set his five 
cents per day religiously aside during fifty 
years, the result is surprising. He haa ac- 
cumulated no less a sum than $3,89318. 
A scrutiny of the progress of this result is 
interesting. At the age of thirty our hero 
had $395; at forty, $877; at fifty, $l,«li7; 
at sixty, $2,902. After fifteen years' saving, 
his annual interest more than equals his 
original principal ; in twenty-five years it is 
more than double; iu thirty-five years it is 
four limes as much ; in forty-five years it is 
eight times as much, and the last years 
inlersst is $88, or tea and a half times as 
much as the annual amount be puts by. 
The actual cash amount saved iu fifty years 
is $912 50, the ditfercnce between that and 
the grand total of $3,893.17— viz., $2,- 
980,(i7, is accumulated interest. What a 
magnificent premium for the minimum of 
thrift that can be well represented in fig- 

A Life Saved by a Cigar. 

Bob Ingersoll tells— in private, though— 
a good story at his own expense, but one 
which we see no reason should not be en- 
joyed by the world at large. It seems that 
while Ingereoll was in Cleveland, soon after 
his successful legal fight for the Star- 
Ituuters, a sort of anti-tobacco crusade had 
been started iu that city, and a well-known 
Boston scientist was delivering nightly lec- 
tures against the use of the soothing weed. 
This speaker invited others to argue the 
question with him, but although the 
smokers were largely in the majority, the 
Boston man invariably proved too clever for 
the debaters brought against him. 

Availing themselves of " Bob's" presence 
some of his friends begged the great orator 
to take up the cudgels in behall of the to- 

bacco-users ; which he condescended to do, 
more as a joke than for any serioua reason. 
That evening the hall was jammed, and 
when the prohibitionist requested an answer 
to his arguments, Bob solemnly arose and 
said he would reply to the statement of bis 
eloquent friend by the relation of a simple 
incident. He said : 

' I was once attending to a mining case 
in ore of the wildest and most lawless re- 
gions of Utah. A murder had recently 
been committed by a notorious thief, and a 
committee of local vigilantes were watching 
for him at every crossroad. Just after 
nightfall I was riding hack to the town 
from the mine, mounted on a white horse, 
of The vigilantes had received information 
that the desperado in -lueslion would pass 
the very road the same evening also riding 
on a white hoise. The posse had ambushed 
themselves in some chapparal, and as I 
came down tho hridle-path they got ready 
to fire all together — for they waste no time 
on trials in that section. Entirely uncon- 
scious that half a dozen shot-guns were 
sighting my, 1 stopped my horse, 
struck a match, and proceeded to light my 
cigar. Thinking that the light would give 
them a still better mark to shoot at, the 
concealed party held their fire for a second. 
In that second the blaze of the match re- 
fiected on my features, revealing they were 
not those of the man they awaited, and, 
stepping out on the road, they congratu- 
lated me on my narrow escape. And so, 
, ladies and gentlemen, if I hadn't had the 
good fortune to be a smoker I wouldn't be 
here cow." 

"And you call that fortune t " grimly 
asked the anti-tobacco lecturer, after the 
applause had subsided. 

"Wasn't it»" inquired Bob, with a 
plaintive smile. 

I don t see it," thundered his opponent. 
" If it hadn't been for that miserable cigar, 
there would have been one less lawyer in 
the world." 

And amid the roar that followed, Inger- 
soll sat down, completely knocked out in 
one round. 


A building for the promotion of arts and 
manufactures is to be erected in Quebec, on 

"Change u what we need," cries the 
editor of a democratic organ. The proba- 
bility is that, being a newspaper man, he 
had nothing but large bills. 

PofULAR Estimation.— ii"ir«( Errand 
hoy: "Uullo, Bill, he's a hartist, he is." 
Second ditto : " Well, leave him alone, can't 
yer? It ain't his fault, poor feller I "— i?im. 

They were standing at the front gate. 
" Won't you come into the parlor and tit a 
little while, George, dear t" "No, no, I guess 

not," replied George, hesitatingly. "I wish 
you would," the girl went on, "it's awfully 
lonesome. Mother has gone out, and father 
is upstairs groaning with rheumatism in 
his legs.'' "Both legsf" asked George. 
"Yes, both legs." "Then I'U come in a 
little while." 

New York City spends $3,000,000 annu- 
ally on churches and $7,000,000 on amuse- 
ments, which goes to show that she is 
having more lun in this world than she will 
see iu the next. 

Fine writing on glazed paper will give 
one or two fair copies without calling in the 
assistance ..f a press or water if use is made 
of a writing solution of three parts of good 
jet-black ink and one part of gelatine. 

A useful mucilage for labels, etc., can be 
made of two ounces of dextrine dissolved iu 
one ounce of acetic acid and five ounces of 
water, and the aildilion of about au ounce 
of alcohol when the d xtrine is dissolved. 

"How does it happen, doctor," asked 
lawyer Coke, " that so few of your patients 
recover t " " Probably," quickly replied Dr 
Bolus, " for the same reason that so few o: 
your clients recover."— Boston Tranecript. 
A Ntiw View.— "Did not the sons o 
Jacob commit a heinous sin when they soli 
their brother Joseph t" asked a Sunday 
school teacher of the son ol an Austin mer 

"Yes, sir." 

" What sitf was it they committed 1 " 
" They sold him too cheap." 
Lead Pe.n-cil Elirtation. — To weai 
a lead pencil over your ear means " I am s 

To chew the other end of a lead pencil 
means " I am cogitating — don't bother me." 

To wet the p,unt of the pencil on your 
tongue means "This is a bad pencil— or 
will be when I am through with it." 

To borrow a pencil from a friend means 
" Oh ! I forgot and put it in my pocket ; I 
thought it was mine." 

To lend a lead pencil means " No matter; 
I can buy another for a uickol." 

To sharpen a lead pencil with a table- 
knife means " Wasteful extravagance."— 
St. Joseph fominercial Review. 




aol Suppifmfnt. 


•Dk. tor placln 




Mgard the .1 



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Only «1 



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_--^^ >rrO^ ™^ PUBLISHERSJDF^THE _ 
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T™;?': :""" "' ^"'"" '■'■"""""■">•■ "*■"■ ■• --"""^ .«k„„wledged .!, be ,l,e mo'.t oomp"heu,iv. aed practieal guide. L tl^e eZ'^'ge 0^1 

■nh.l, , r" "!" '•°"P'i»l"K a oomplele course of m.iruolioi, In Plain Writing; a full course of Off-hand Flourishing; upward of forty standard and ornate 

I cont.nL m,!?" """•^," "/ " " "T'™'"' '''"*""' '""'™'""' ™"l'"i<>'"'. ">e".eri.l., cerlilicates. title-pages, etc., etc.; in all, SRVKNTV 11x14 inch plat... 

twelve subsciZ. an r.'^^frr"^ specie, of work m the line of „ profeseional pen-arti.t. Price, by tnail. 55; nailed free, a. . preminn,, to the sender ol a club of 

r. wi 1 r f „d ,b I r n" ■"""™*'- , ^' '""■•"y ^«'" *"• "■""I'i ""y »"«. ■»■ "=«iP' "f ll>e b"»K, be diesatisBed with it, they shall be at liberty to return it, and 
WB Will reiiind to Iheni the full amount paid. 

Jlav, -''"y™; r„^' *'h- " ^''"•''"' ,°'-r°"' ■'^'""'■'"Slon Territory, May 0,h, L. D. Bluni.on, Hart.ville, P.,., June .-^^ih. 1*<4. save ; •• The New C.n.pendiu 

'e ra h o erators" memoriMd by every penman, eepeoially by J to any penman. Shall always prize mine above money." 

An English Idea of American 

The intolerable tolerance of A 
TeeliDf; toward speculatioos greatly 
creases the riek ia investiag 
bonds. No Prcaident of a railroad 
puoiehed either for miarepreseDtatiou or for 
committing bis sbarebolderA to the maddest 
enterprisea. If he succeedB he is coosidered 
a great man, and if he fails he is pitied, and 
sometimes presented with great suiub to lire 
oo. Even the President of a bank is not 
held criminally liable lor loans to his own 
relatives without security, if only his friends, 
when he has failed, will pay up hie defaults, 
inager of a deposit bank who 
to buy "blocks" of shares is, if 
the sharos rise, considered clever, and if they 
fall and he fails, is, after the twenty- four 
hours, neither considered nor treated as a 
mere thief. It he is well connected, or 
popular, or sheltered by friends, his 
is regarded as a aufficient penalty, and after 
a year or two of retirement be usually be- 
gins again. The effect of this is, that any 
one who c«n obtaiu the control of large 
funds is tempted to make himself rich 
once, and that the market is always at 1 
mercy of men who are playing a game 
which they etake temporary inc 
and disrepute against fiirtune. ' 
tation is too great for a race ol 
care more to gain money in large 
any people in the world, aii<l at 
time fear poverty less than any i 
pie. Millionaires in America m 
if they had nothing to 1 
i amuse themselves wit 

their sot 

cing" as if it were only f 
Ad Englishman, howe' 
may be, fears poverty excessively, and a 
Frenchman shoots himself to avoid it; but 
an American with a milli.ic will ppenuiale 
to win ten, and if be loses take a clerkship 
without thinking much about it. There i? 
a good side to the " delacliinnnt" mdicea- 
2 all American business men. a freedom 

from sordidi 
but the pecu 
dangerous bu 
You know ii 
that he will 

t fro.i 

-ity makes ihe 

petty grasji 

I the 

ness gamesters in the world. 

dealing with a Frenchman 
lit voluntarily risk pecuniary 
1 American that risk rather 
his pursuit. 


e ; and, in fact, 

adds to the 

What, indeed, is ruin, in t! 

air, with nobody caring. 

States around you offering to the skillful 

3S,O0O ways of making m<inpw f An at. 

tack of dyspepsia is far woi 

when a prominent Americ. 

generally hear that he ia " sick," and that 

his friends upon that account are full of 

anxiety for his future.— 2/(c Spectator. 

The Greatest Ouelisk.— The Wash- 
ington monument is the wonder of Wash- 
ington, and its beauty ihe admiration of 
both Americans and foreigners. Already 
over 350 feet high, it rises from the banks 
of the Potomac, a great white marble shaft 
piercing the clouds and backed against the 
blue of the sky. It is al,eady the grandest 
obelisk the world baa ever seen, and in the 
icons of the future, should the nations of the 
day pass away, leaving no more records of 
their progress tiian the mighty ouea of the 
Egyptian past, it will surpass the Pyramids 
In the wonder of its constructt>>n It is al 
ready higher than the Third Pjramid, aod 
within a hundred feet of the size of the 
•eoond. It is taller than St. Peter's Calhe- 
dral, and wlien finished it will be the high- 
est strncture in the world. To day the 
Cathedral of C.dogne, ,512 feet high, i, the 
tallest work in the world. Next comes the 
Great Pjramid, 483 feet high ; then the 
Strasshurg Cathedral, 473 feet; then the 
Second Pyramid, 453; then St. Peter's 
430; St. Stephen's at Vienna, 443; and 
St. Paul's at London, 384.-?/,. Practical 

Guide" is a book of sixty-four large pages, elegantly printed on Ihe finest quality ol fine plate.paper, and is devoted r„l„siv,ly 
m and copies (or Plain Wriung. Off-hand Flourishing and Lctterine We are ,urp ihii no „,l,., ,„„,i, , , "'""^"y 

no™ belore ,he public iha, wi„ render as emcien, aid ,o eilher feacher or lear'cr.Tn ah pallets lepenl'rr'arli^^hir 
Six'lee„"::/"'r ",\"r'" ''r'"''''"" "" "■>- '- -'-" -''-S. Fonr,ee„ pages >„ ihe principle and' a^ , s or l' h 'ng' 
™ ers r'ci °e ,' r ' """.^^'■'""'""S; '"' '"ono^'^ms. Price, by mail: in paper covers, „ cents ; handsomely bound if iff 
covers $,. Given tree ( in paper), as a premium wi.h .he Journal, one year, for $, ; full bound (in stiff covers) for $, /= Live agents 

With .hem"alms"can' "maire'Z' '" """"" '"^Tl '^'""T" "'" "' ^'""- '^"'^ ""^ ^°"'"""- ""■' *"""' "= """8=^ »■»• ■-!<= everywhere 
wun tnem agents can make more money, with less effort, than with any other publicalion they handle. 

a Self-1 

ilsly.four page*, on floe, beavy a 

Return if not Satisfactory. 

Remember, that if you order either our 
Now Compendium of Practical and Artis- 
c Penmanship," or the "Guide to Self- 
istruction," and they are not satisfactory, 
you may return them, and we will refiind 
the entire amount paid. 

Letters of Oblioation.— The letters 
of R. S. V. P. at the foot of a card of invi- 
tation always command notice. There are 
so many cards of invitation afloat during 
the feslive seasons-some invitations, as to 
church weddings, requiring no answer not 
even to regret that one cannot attend— that 
it is wise, if you wish to know the number 
of guests who will respond to your sum- 
mons, to put the magic letters in one cor- 
ner of the invitation-card. When there ia 
a set preparation, of suhstanlials in food, 
the hostess wishes to know how many 
guests to provide for. At afternoon teas 
this is not necessary, as the supply of hot 
water and biscuits is supposed to be unlim- 
ited. Always reply to an invitation to lun- 
cheon- even if it is what is called a stand- 
ing luncheon, the number of guests makes 
a difiereuoe in the supplies. The same rule 
applies to formal invitations for the evening 
given by societies, associations, or other 
organizations. If the card hears only the 
request to attend, people naturally think it 
means, "Come if you can"; otherwise it 
makes no dillercnce in the preparalions. 
The letters of obligation, R. S. V. P. in 
one corner give notice that a more explicit 
reply than you, attendance is looked for. 
The four letters do not add to the cost of 
the card, and they sim,,lify matters very 
much. Some punctilious people always 
reply to every invitation of whatever sort 
but they arc persons of much leisure. The 
busier folks, however, understand what R. 

A Good Playin' Hand.— "Can you 
write a good plain hand?" asked the 
advertiser of one of his numerous appli- 

" Oh, yes, sir," woa the reply. 

" Well, let's see it," said the merchant. 

The man sat down, and in a few momenta 
handed to the merchant the following : 

" A good playin' hand— the joker, right 
and left bowers, ace and king of trumps." 

That applicant 


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A °r.:' 

A Philosophical Treatise 





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A DVERTISEMENTS ol Uie CaUiffrapher't Quill may 

Antogrraphs — Cai-de. 
Nam* elegantly written, three ditTerem etyl*., SO t-enta. 

J _ A. P. Root, PenmaD, 

KiMman, TrmnbiUI Co., Ohio. 





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90S Bnwdwar, New Turk 


Inventions of a Half Century. 

The Dumber of inventions that have been 
made during the past fifty years ia uuprfce- 
dented in the history of tb© world. Inven- 
tions of benefit to the human race have 
been made in all ages since man was cre- 
ated ; but looking back for half a hundred 
years, hovr many more are crowded into the 
paat fifty than into any other fifty eince re- 
corded history ! The perfection of the lo- 
comotive, and tb© now world-traversing 
steamship, the telegraph, the telephtme, 
the audiphone, the sewing - machine, the 
pbotograph, chromo lithographic printing, 
tlie cylinder printing-press, the elevator for 
hotels and other many-storied buildings, 
the cotton gin and the spinning jenny, lb© 
reaper and mower, the steam thresher, the 
steam Sre- engine, tlie improved process for 
making steel, the application of chloroform 
and ether to destroy sensibility in paioful 
aurgical cases, and so on through a long 
catalogue. Nor are we yet done in the field 
of invention and discovery. The applica- 
tion of coal gas and petroleum to heating 
and cooking operations is only trembling on 
the verge of succeisful experiment ; the in- 
troduction of steam from a great central 
reservoir to general use for heating and 
cooking is foreshadowed aa among tbe 
coming events; the artificial production of 
butter has already created a consternation 
among dairymen ; tbe navigation of the air 
by some device akin to our present balbmu 
would also seem to he prefigured, and tbe 
propulsion of machinery by electricity is 
even now clearly indicated by the march of 
experiment. There are some problems we 
have hitherto deemed impossible, but are 
the mysteries of even the most improbable 
of them more subtle to grasp than that of 
the ncpao cable ■>t that of the photograph 
or telephone? We talk by cable with an 
ocean rolling between ; we speak in our 
voices to friends a hundred miles 
from whfT© we articulate before tbe micro- 
phone. Under the blazing sun of July we 
produce ice by chemical means, rivaling 
the mo?t folid and crystalline production of 
nature. Our surgeons graft the skin from 
one person's arm to the f^ce of another, 
and it adbeies and becomes an interoal 
portion of the body. We make a mile of 
white printing-paper and send t on a spool 
that a perfecting printing - press unwinds 
and prints, and delivers to you, fold 'id and 
counted, many thousands per hour. Of a 
Terily this is tbe age of invention ; nor has 
the world reached a stopping- place yet. 

Length op Life. — The physical fortune 
of any million of people is thus tracfd : 
The number is made up of 5U,7?2 boys 
and 488,225 girls. Before the age of five 
years is reached 141,387 boys and 12l,7!).'i 
girls will die. The next five years will be 
less fatal, and from the age of ten to fifteen 
years is the most healthy period of life. 
There will be some advance in deaths in 
tbe next five years, and still more in the five 
which follow ; hut 034,045 will enter upon 
their tweuty-sixth year. During the next 
ten years twc-thirds of tbe women will have 
married. Tbe deaths during that period 
will be 02,052, and of these 27,134 will be 
caused by consumption. Between twenty- 
five anJ forty-five the deaths will be 
greater, and only 502,012 will enter on 
their forty-sixth year. Each succeeding 
decade up to seventy-five will become 
fatal; and at seventy-five only 161,114 will 
remain. Of these 122,520 will have per- 
ished by the eighty-fifth year. Of the 38,- 
565 that remain but 2,153 will struggle on 
to be ninety-five, and 223 to be one hun- 
dred years old. Finally, in the one hundred 
and eighth year, the last solitary life will 
flicker out. Sucb is tbe average lot of a 
million men and women. 

There are 124,000 miles of railroad in 
tbe United States, or seven times as many 
miles aa there are in tbe United Kingdom 
of Great Britain. 





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Price-list of SPENCERIAI^ SPECIALTIES sent on application. 

Ivison, Blakemaii, Tayloi- & Co., 

3-5 753 and 755 BROADWAY. NEW YORK. 

Place to secure a Buaineas Education, or prepare 
to teach Spencerian Penmanebip. is at the Spen- 
cerian Bueinta College, Cleveland, Ohio. Over 
eoy BtiidenlB during the past year, 500 in daily 



Adapted for Dse with or without Text-Book, 

and the ouly set recommended to 



Bryant & Stratton 
Counting- House-Bookkeeping." 





and Pobllo 


'oil-paid OD reoftlpl of 25 o«Dt«. 


JTO 121 WiLUAM Street, New York. 

Students entered i 
Course during the 

19.000 1 

> orgaoizatioD : 


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We call special altenlion to our Short Business and WritiuB 
!end alamp for catalogue and circulars. 

SPENCER. FELT ON & LOOM IS, Proprietors. 236 Superior St 

paleot rulinK and UnlinK T •qnarB lo «'^«Ty posaibU Mt 
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Penmen's and Artists' Supplies. 


a in a wotideriul variety of auiugraphio ilesigru anij 
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; It having been my good lorlune lo iee inatiy gp" 
are^avorably wiib Ihoge of ibe be?t llTa^arturg of' 

wing, b«ah from the pen, lent poit-paid: 

□Dsarpaued beauty of 

he world. Cordially y 
Platt U. Spbncrr, 
o( the Spencerian Syete 

Card*, plain while, good quality 

.^"m"' ^m'^' 

: .S ;S 

flimen of WriliS'* f"' ^^^^^''''''S '"'•'y »i <Vim 

-■-":^::::;:: ;» 

AddrcM^ W.ji/. BENNETT. Spencerian Business College, CLEVELAND. 0. ci,. 

The Packard Commercial Arithmetics. 


pa 8 a euiatical DepartmeDt of Packaid't BuaiDsu CoUe^. 

ompiola Eililion ( W.tu and willioiit aoaw.n ), 328 pp., Ocla.o. School Edilioa, 2TS pp., Duodoc. 

These 1,00k. have marked characteristics which have won for them ,h, unvarying contmen. 
dation of practical teachers. Ist. They are contple.e ..positor. of practical ari.hLtfcTaving 
grown out of the wantB of a coBmoDoIitan innrirnti/it. „^a i, • T ■ . "aving 

the leading teacher, of practical arith^ tic ihis country M ""» ""-""""'^ •«'1 -y 

Ben meiruciion, 4th. 1 bey are very cheap. ^ 

The School Edition (an abridcment of th* nnn,ni„..= j-.* % i_ 
and has not heen apee.a..^, '>^oughtt?hrau:lrr'Z et^^l ran'lZZe^ 'tT^'t' 

tij auh,e:rrthe LTtizra w'i\x;\r "' ^'^ '"^^^ '''-'" --' '- ^^ '-' ^^ ^" '"« -«- 

diBco^nLTscCr' ^'^ '''""^^^ ^"^""^'^ '' ^'■'' ' «^ ''' «"^-' ^•^'tioo. ?z. Liberal 



olioii iub»criptionii to the Pexmam'b Aht Jourmal 
to seU popular pablloationj npon praolloal and artiaao 

Amef'i Compendiam of Practical and Ornamental 

Peomanahip 15 00 

New Spencerian Compeodiam in p«L^'(e'"p'^ 

wiitiams'and Paokwd-JchiM;!;;;;;;";;;:"" 50^ 

Standard Practical Penmanriip. by the Spencer 

Amea'g Copy-sLlpg, per gbeet of 40 exeraiM* 10 

PanUly Record, 181^2 i no 

Marriage Certiaeate, 18x82 i no 

11x14 .,'. 50 

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Lord'! Prayer '■ .."!!!.".'.".'!.'.'.'.' "^ 50 

Bounding Stag, a(i32 gX 

Flonriihed Eagle, 24x33 50 

Centennial Piotnreof PTograu.^SxSh." '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 50 

Ornamental and Flooriiihed Carda. 12 dwi^'. new. 

original and artiitio, per pach of 50 .TO 

100. by mail ;_"; jq 

1000 ■' $4 50 ; by express ..., i 00 

»criber« tor the JoltiSal, and aelllag tbe aboTe workA 
Send for oar Special Ilatea to Agenta, 

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Shorthand Writing 


tySeod atamp lor B|>ecimen of writing and c 
W. M. HUtTON, St«nogTapher, 


Important Announcement. 

ingle copy of either edition will 
1 a view to introduction, 01 
The Key to the Complete Edition is 
coat lo a!l achoolB using the book as e 

The Packard Arithmi 
leadiag Commercial Schools and Buaim 

eeut to any actual teacher or achooi officer f 
■eceipl of oue-half retail price. 
JW ready— a single copy of which will be sent 
ext-book. Additional copies will coat $1 each 

have recently been adopted, and are highly commended, 1 
Colleges of 

,„ ^nI^M.1 '^L''^' Bloom! ugion, 

S. S. PACKARD, Publisher. 806 Broadway, New York. 


The Western Penman is now pulHiabed. monlhly. at 

Worthington & Palmer, 




a atamp for prioe-Ual, with sample of ii 



AT 205 BrOADWAT. tor tl PER YEAR 1 ll/\L^rllllXO ^^ U I U C. . 


Entered at the Post-Oefick of 
York, N. Y., ah Sbconi>-Cla6B Mattbr. 

b: f! JeTl'ev";':;.:!';!'^'' new york, july, i884. 

Vol. VIII.— No. 7. 

Careless 'Wnting. 

A Lesson from Wall-street. 

While it 18 a lameutable fact that many 
persons are bad writers from the lack of 
skill and a knowledge of what constitutes 
good writing, it is also true that a very 
large proportion of all the annoyance and 
injury, resulting from illegible and bad 
writiug, is due to sheer carelessaess and 
nouseusical personal ecceDtricity. In the 
haste of buMness, letters are often so crude- 
ly made as to be of a very doubtful char- 
acter, and fretjuently, apart from the con- 
text, are without intelligible form. 

A serious example of careless and doubt- 
ful writiug occurred lately in the vicinity of 
Wnll-strnet. The firm of Andrew V. Stout 
& Co., having occasion to dispose of 300 
shares of the N. Y. Central stock, sent 
written directions (of which the following 
19 a facsimile) to C. I. Hudson &. Co., 
members of tlie Stock Exchange, to sell the 

ination of the entire note, it is very 
apparent that its doubtful character is due 
to the hurry and personal eccentricity of the 
writer rather than to a want of skill. It is 
suchnoMiJi^sasare employed for the q, and 
the abseuce of the proper cross to the t, 
that are constantly causing trouble and au- 
nctyance to readers of manuscript, to say 
nothing of litigations and other fiiiaucial 
loss. Most of these doubtful forms, with a 
little thought and care, can and should be 

Some two years since wo devoted con- 
siderable time «ud research, by consulting 
records and parlies haring charge of pur- 
suits employing numerous writers, respect- 
ing the most conspicuous faults in writing 
from which resulted mistakes and annoy- 
ances. It was the universal testimony, and 
that which accorded with our own observa- 
tion and belief, that to downright careless- 
ness is due niue-tentbs of all the difficulty 
ia reading writing. It was a matter of ob- 

Rule Second. — No capital letters or words 
should be joined together, ss: 

Rule Three. — The capital T should nevrr 
bo looped at the top, as : 



^'^w^ /yi 


By Stout 8rCo, 

No.25BroafI Street. 



The writer of the above note intended to 
say " Please sell quietli/ 300 N. Y. Central," 
but Mr. Hudeon read the same, " Please 
eel! quickly," etc., and, accordingly, be 
quickly sold the stock. As a con3e(iuence 
of so largo and sudden a sale, the stock 
weat down sufiiciently to cause a consider- 
abte loss. In view of so unexpected, aiid 
to them unauihorixed, a sale, Stout & Co , 
vvhose estimated resources are over a mil- 
lion of dollars, at once suspended busioees. 

On examination of the doubtful and mis- 
chievous word, it will be observed t! at 
what is inteuded for the first letter, q, is a 
nondescript rluiracter, which, apart from the 
context, could by uo pussibility be taken 
for any letter of the alphabet, while the e 
at the top is accidentally closed by a slight 
overHow of ink, which imparts to it at a 
hurried glance a c-like appearance; but tho 
fatal mistake will be seen in the writer's 
habit of frefjuently malting the ( of a pe- 
culiar form to avoid a separate and formal 
cross. Yet had Mr. Hudson, while reading 
the note, glanced at the t's in the word 
"statement," on the Hoe below, he would 
have perceived tlie writer's peculiar habit 
respecting them, and wimld in all probability 
have read the doubtful word, as inteudcd by 
Its author, "quietly." Prom an exam- 

servation, that the writing of really skilled 
masters of the pen was oltou the most 
illegible and perplexing through its care- 
less and doubtful forms. During our re- 
search we made notes of, and copied \u fac- 
simile, many of tho peculiar combinatioos 
from which trouble, and in some instances 
litigation, had arisen. These notes and 
sketches we embodird in an illustrated 
article for these columns, and also formu* 
lated a series of rules to aid in avoiding the 
more conspicuous of these faults, a portion 
of which we here reproduce. 

Rule Ftrsi.— All uuneceseary, superflu- 
ous, or flourished lines must be omitted, as: 

ChyClMO /or ^JfMi/ 

lh>t4^ forCyatcAy 

Several expensive litigations have grown 
out of the delivery of messages having the 
latter combination, as Seventy when it was 
written for Twenty, or vice versa. Suppose 
tho error to have been in orders to buy 
twenty thousand bushels of grain, shares of 
stock, or other thing of similar value, the 
consequences might have been serious. 

Rule Four.— A capital H should never 
be so made as to be mistaken for an A or 
other combination, as : 

Rule Five. — Cross all t's with a single 
horizontal line at the top: 

A telegrai'hio message signed as above 
was taken down and sent to Ha-Hi-E, who 
vva^ not known at the street and number to 
which it was directed, and it was conse- 
quently returned ; and when the error was 
discovered, and traced to the operator who 
made it, he was asked bow he came to 
make such a mistake, and whom he sup- 
posed Ha-Hi-E to be T The operator re- 
plied "Some Indian chief, or Ch^'jnese"— 
a very uatural supposition in such a city of 
all peoples as is New York. 

RuU Sfe.— The capital / should always 
he made above the line, while the / should 
extend below. Otherwise, when used as 
initials or in cipher-writing, they cannot be 
distinguished with certainty. 

Rule Seven. — The small s should never 
be made with the loop below the line, as it 
is liable to be mistaken for ap or/, as: 



Rule Eight. — No letter should have & 
doubtful form, such as may be mistaken for 
one of several letters, as : 

Rule Nine. — Letters should be connected 
in their parts, and with other letters, by 
tho proper and characteristic curved or 
straight linos. It is a very common and 
grievous fault in writing that a straight 
line or the wrong curve is employed in the 
construction and connection of letters, thus 
leaviug them without distinctive character, 
or imparting one which is false and mislead- 
ing, as, for instance, a form made thus 
^..^^ may be taken for an ^^/ a 

.^.'^^^ and possibly for a /^ .•Incases 
where the context does not determine its . 
identity, it becomes a mere matter of guess, 

r-TTTJTiTZnf ^ 



^x ^/ ^y -^> yy ^^^ ^^1 



f/y y/y^ym^ 

fy yf'r/y y-y/yyf/- y/^/y^yyyi ■ ^P 



-/y /// yy. . /, y/yy/ Ty 


and when extended thuB, y^'-ppp^ its aigniS- 
cAQce, as will be scon, is still morevagueand 
uncertain, as it might be intended for either 
of the following seven combinations : 


With a properly trained hand no more time 
or effort is required to impart the true anif 
unmistakable characteristics to each letter 
than to make forms whose identies are 
open to doubt and conjecture. 

BMle Ten. — All eccentric forms and con- 
spicuous personal oddities which bo often 
render writing, and especially autographs, 
illegible, should be avoided, as ' 


^^^ The latter example 
Cy as an initial letter in a commu- 
nication recently received at tbia office. In 
addressing the author we coald only do aa 
we are often obliged to do with doubtful 
initials— make a/ac-sjmtte and leave it to 
the postmaster to decipher at the office of 
delivery. We add four spccimeti autographs, 
aa nuts for some of our geniuses on hand- 
writing to crack: 

Such outlandish and meaniaglf 
are simply a nuisance and are discreditable 
to their authors, who, however, often aeem 
to be under a delusion that their idiocy ia a 
mark of genius. 

Mule Twelve. — Adopt as a standard one 
I)lam, simple form for rach letter of the al- 
phabet, email and capitals, and persistently 
make that form and no other. 

It is an obvious fact that moat, and espe- 
cially young, writers vacillate between from 
two to six different forma of the capitals, and 
as many as are possible in the small letters, 
apparently in the belief that variety is the 
chief element of good writing, which is a 
double mistake, aa it detracts from the good 
appearance of the writing at the same time 
that it enhancea the difficulty of learning 
and of executing it. 

For example, we have known writers 
who, in executing a short piece of writing, 
would, for many of the letters, make uae of 
forms as varied and 

./FJ^^ *D<i iJse more or less variety in all 
/^M^j of the letters, thus re<iuiring study 
^^^^ and practice upon about one hun- 
dred ditl'erent and unnecessarily complicated 
forms for the alphabet in place of twenty- 
air. Thua the labor and uncertainty of be- 
coming a skillful writer is magnified fourfold. 
Between many systems and multitudinous 
forms of letters a writer must fail of be- 
coming expert and skillful. He has too 
much to learn to learn it well, and, like a 
"jack of many trades," must fail. 

The ease and rapidity with which writing 
can be executed depends largely upon the 
simplicity of the forms of letters used and 
the size of the writing. A medium or small 
hand ia written with much more ease and 

We give above the entire alphabet of ] 
capitals and email letters suoh as we would I 
recommend for all business purposes, as | 
combining simplicity of form and ease of , 

It is a somewhat prevalent idea that good 
writing ia a "special gift"; tjiia idea is not 
onlyfallacioua, butis exceedingly pernicious, 
iuasuiuch as it tends to discourage bad 
writers by leading them to believe that not 
having " the gift" they are debarred from 
becoming good writers. Good writing is 

bets. This style is adapted to being made 
with either brush or broad -nibbed pen. 
For practice, use paper and materials as per 
former lesson. Practice first 
id base guide line ruled with 
Evith base line only, and lastly 
The size which letters should 
be made will depend upon the magnitude of 
package or the extent of space which may 
be occupied with the marking. It should 
be practiced by learners, both with a brush 
and a broad -nibbed pen. With a brush, 

I pencil, then 

Marking ^Ijjhabet. 



ahcc/efg/i ij/c^mnopgrsl 
urwxi/z. /23456/'890 

rapidity than a large band, froui the fact 
that the pen can be carried over short spaces 
in less time and with greater ease than over 
long ones, and can execute eiuipi« forms 
m'ire easily and rapidly than complicated 
ones. -To illustrate : Suppose one writer 
were to habitually make the capital Rthus: 
/pfyi which requires eleven motions 

Z^")^ *'f tbe hand to execute ; and that 
(h;:X (^ aoother were to uniformly make it 
thus : 

/Or requiring only four motloHS of 

/y^ the hand. It ia apparent that the 
^-^ ^ difference of time required to make 
each cannot be less than the proportion of 
eleven to four. That ia nut all. The com- 
plicated form consists of many lines, all of 
which are made with reference to balancing 
or harmonizing with some other line, and 
requires to be made with much greater care 
and skill than the more simple form, go 
that the disadvantage is even greater than 
indicated by the simple proportion between 
eleven and four. 

no more a gift than good reading, spelling, 
grammai-, or any other attainment, and in the 
same way, it is, and can be, acquired, uiV., 
by patient and studious effort. Writing is no 
leas a subject for study and thought than 
any other branch of education. The cor- 
rect form and construction of writing must 
be learued by study, while practice must 
give the manual dexterity for its Ciiay and 
graceful execution. The hand can never 
excel the conception of the mind that edu- 
cates and directs its action. 

Box and Package Marking. 

Lksson No. ir. 
By D. T. Ames. 
In our former lesson we presented the 
back slantrKoman alphabets as'being most 
generally used for marking purposes, and in 
our judgment the best! Yet many skilled